World History Topics

  • Period: 130,000 BCE to 38,000 BCE


  • Period: 40,000 BCE to 8000 BCE


  • Period: 10,000 BCE to 2200 BCE

    Neolithic Period

    the later part of the Stone Age, when ground or polished stone weapons and implements prevailed.
  • Period: 5000 BCE to 3000 BCE

    Iron was developed and used by the Hittites.

  • 3500 BCE

    Sumerians arrive in Mesopotamia

    Sumerians arrive in Mesopotamia
    1. Sumerians developed bronze by adding tin to copper.
    2. They developed the wagon wheel.
    3. They created the sundial to keep time.
  • Period: 3300 BCE to 1200 BCE

    The Bronze Age

  • 3200 BCE

    Embalming created

  • 3100 BCE


  • 3100 BCE

    Cuneiform - earliest writing system

    Cuneiform - earliest writing system
    the wedge-shaped characters used in the ancient writing systems of Mesopotamia, Persia, and Ugarit, surviving mainly impressed on clay tablets.
  • 3000 BCE

    Indo Europeans migrate

    they colonized Europe with wheel vehicles, horse-riding, and chariots, and their language went on to influence many of today's languages including german, greek, english, spanish, etc.
  • Period: 2600 BCE to 2200 BCE

    Worship of Ra

  • Period: 2500 BCE to 1450 BCE

    Minoan Civilization flourished

    The Minoans were an early Greek civilization of the Bronze Age, living on the island of Crete in the Mediterranean Sea until around the 11th century BCE. They were named after the mythical King Minos, a son of Zeus, by British archaeologist Sir Arthur Evans.,British%20archaeologist%20Sir%20Arthur%20Evans.
  • Period: 2500 BCE to 1700 BCE

    Indus River Valley Civilization

  • 2000 BCE

    Fall of Sumerian city-states

  • Period: 2000 BCE to 1000 BCE

    Indo European immigrants overwhelmed Neolithic peoples in Italy.

  • 1750 BCE

    Hammurabi's Law Code

    The Code of Hammurabi is a Babylonian legal text composed during 1755–1750 BC. It is the longest, best-organized, and best-preserved legal text from the ancient Near East. The Code is important because it influenced other rulers like the Roman ruler Justinian. The statutes defined legal obligations and reparations in civil, family, and criminal law. Hammurabi Code examples include statutes that provided severe punishment for criminals, sometimes even death.
  • Period: 1700 BCE to 1000 BCE

    Shang Dynasty in China

  • 1650 BCE

    Hittites built a Kingdom in Anatolia after conquering Asia Minor

  • 1595 BCE

    Hittite conquer the city of Babylon

    Mesopotamia—“the land between two rivers”—gave birth to many of the world’s first great cities. The splendid city of Babylon, located between the waters of the Euphrates and the Tigris some 97 kilometers (60 miles) south of Baghdad, was one of them. Unlike the many towns that fell and disappeared, Babylon was resilient, rising from its own ashes time and again, even as new conquerors invaded and took over.
  • 1200 BCE

    Ten Commandments probably written

  • Period: 1200 BCE to 550 BCE

    The Iron Age

  • 1000 BCE

    Phoenicians develop alphabet

    Phoenicians develop alphabet
  • Period: 1000 BCE to 200 BCE

    Wu Dynasty in China

    Wu killed the Shang king and established a new dynasty because the Shang lacked strong leaders and grew weak.
  • Period: 900 BCE to 500 BCE

    Etruscans, Indo-European immigrants, ruled northern Italy

  • 776 BCE

    First Olympic Games

  • Period: 700 BCE to 336 BCE

    Hellenic Age

    The time period after the dark age in Greece when the Dorians invaded and conquered and many skills were lost and poverty increased.
  • 612 BCE

    Assyrian Empire Falls

    The Chaldeans, who lived in the ancient city of Babylon, formed an alliance with the Medes from the east. The alliance captured Nineveh (the Assyrian capital) and brought down the Assyrian Empire. (World History Topics)
  • 600 BCE

    Coinage began in Lydia

  • 600 BCE

    Israelites follow Monotheism during the time of Moses

  • 600 BCE


    Was the leader of Athens around 600 BC. He had very harsh rules that were written down. People finally knew what the rules were, it wasn't just made up by the Aristocrats, but also since they were so harsh, we now have the current word, Draconian.
  • 594 BCE

    Solon led Athens

    Canceled land debts and freed debtors from slavery
    limits on the amount of land 1 person has.
    Promoted trade, urged farmers to grow cash crops not grain.
    Promoted industry, ordered fathers to teach sons a skill
    extended citizenship to foreigners who were artisans
    political reforms and got Athens to be democratic/aristocratic
    citizens of all classes participate in Assembly and public law courts
    a council was established to draft measures that went to assembly for approval and it had 400 people.
  • Period: 563 BCE to 483 BCE

    Buddha was alive

  • 546 BCE

    Peisitratus led Athens

    Pushed reforms in a radical direction and divided large estates among landless farmers and extended citizenship to men who did not own land and provided poor people with loans and put many of them to work building temples and public works.
    (World History)
  • 539 BCE

    Chaldean Empire is conquered

    The Persians, under Cyrus II, came from the mountains to the northeast and seized Babylon. They then conquered the rest of the Chaldean Empire. (World History Topics)
  • 525 BCE

    Persians take control

    During the 540s BC, Cyrus had developed a strong army, conquered the Medes, and advanced into neighboring lands. He added northern Mesopotamia, Syria, Canaan, and the Phoenician cities to his empire. He also took over the kingdom of Lydia and the Greek city-states in Asia Minor. In 525 BC, Cyrus's son Cambyses conquered Egypt, bringing all of the Middle East under Persian control. (World History Topics)
  • 508 BCE

    Cleisthenes led Athens

    Established democracy with laws. Sought to end local rivalries, break power of aristocracy and recognize structure of Athenian government. Assembly won powers and was the major political body. All citizens could belong to it. they were equal before the law and had freedom of speech. Regular people could be in government. A person could be exiled if he was a political guy and enough people voted him gone. (World History)
  • 470 BCE

    Socrates born

  • 432 BCE

    Parthenon built

    Parthenon built
  • Period: 431 BCE to 404 BCE

    Peleponnesian War

    The war between Sparta + the Anti-Athens alliance and the Athenian empire. Sparta won.
  • 357 BCE

    Phillip II became king of Macedonia

  • 337 BCE

    Philip II conquered all of Greece except Sparta

  • 336 BCE

    Philip II died and his son, Alexander the Great, became king

  • 334 BCE

    Alexander led 30,000 soldiers and 5,000 cavalry into Asia to open his campaign of "West against East"

  • Period: 323 BCE to 31 BCE

    Hellenistic Period

    The three centuries of Greek history between the death of the Macedonian king Alexander the Great in 323 B.C.E. and the rise of Augustus in Rome in 31 B.C.E. are collectively known as the Hellenistic period
  • 300 BCE

    Euclid of Alexandria wrote The Elements of Geometry

  • 300 BCE

    First major Roman road, Appian Way, was constructed

    It connected Rome with southeastern Italy.
  • Period: 264 BCE to 241 BCE

    First Punic War

    War between Carthage and Rome over the strait of Messina, a passage between Sicily and Italy. Rome won
  • 250 BCE

    Archimedes invented the compound pully and cylinder screw

  • 240 BCE

    Eratosthenes estimated earth's circumference to within 1 percent of the correct figure.

  • Period: 219 BCE to 202 BCE

    Second punic war

    Hannibal led the Carthaginians against Scipio and Romans. They fought over land and Rome won.
  • Period: 149 BCE to 146 BCE

    Third Punic War

    Rome decided to force war on Carthage. The Romans burned Carthage and sold its surviving population into slavery. Rome won obviously and had complete control over the western Mediterranean.
  • Period: 73 BCE to 71 BCE

    Spartacus and a slave army revolt

    An army of 70,000 slaves led by the slave Spartacus plundered the Italian countryside in an effort to win freedom. With great difficulty, the Romans finally crushed the uprising and killed about 6,000 of Spartacus's followers. Putting down revolts cost Rome troops and money and placed a strain on its resources.
  • Period: 46 BCE to 44 BCE

    Julius Caesar ruled Rome

    He was one of Rome's greatest generals and political leaders. He carried out social reforms to help the poor. He also brought about the calendar that was used in western Europe until early modern times. He gave citizenship to people outside of Italy in the provinces and helped end the Roman Republic.
  • 27 BCE

    Fall of Roman Republic

    1. The rise of Augustus Caesar as dictator led to the fall of the Roman Republic.
    2. Slaves replacing the workers leading to mass unemployment did too.
  • Period: 27 BCE to 14

    Augustus (Octavian) reigned Rome

    He rebuilt the city of Rome and became a great patron of the arts. he introduced many reforms to the empire
  • Period: 27 BCE to 180

    Pax Romana

    Roman Peace
  • 178

    Marcus Aurelius Died

    Last of the five Good Emperors of Rome
  • Period: 192 to 281

    Army Legions installed 28 Emperors only to kill them off

    Political disorder led to fall of Rome
  • Period: 284 to 305

    Diocletian Ruled Rome

    Helped handle Rome's weakening political and economic state after inflation hit hard.
  • Period: 312 to 334

    Constantine Ruled Rome

    Helped stabilize the roman empire by reinforcing Diocletian's stuff. He also made a bunch of jobs hereditary to keep farmers making food because of the shortage.
  • 330

    Constantine moves capital of Rome to Constantinople

  • 330


    The Roman Emperor, Constantine, build Constantinople in 330. In AD 400, it was the richest part of the Roman Empire
  • Period: 350 to 490

    German barbarian invasions of Rome

    From late 300s to late 400s AD.
  • 393

    Roman Emperor Theodosius made Eastern and Western Rome two empires

    Became byzantine empire in the east and roman empire in the west.
  • 395

    Roman Empire Divided

    Roman Empire Divided
    Roman Empire divided with the eastern half becoming the Byzantine Empire. It's capital was Constantinople.
  • Period: 395 to 453

    Huns invade Rome

    Ended when their leader died.
  • 413

    Romans abandoned Britain

    In AD 410, after centuries of ruling the distant province of Britain, the Roman Empire, burdened by escalating military threats, political instability, and economic challenges, decided to withdraw its forces and administration from the island. By the early 5th century, the Roman Empire could no longer defend itself against either internal rebellion or the external threat of Germanic tribes expanding in Western Europe. Basically when Rome declined, Anglo Saxons took control.
  • 455

    Vandals raided and sacked Rome

  • 476

    Fall of Rome

    Wasn't really when Rome fell, it was gradual. but since Odoacer called himself a king and didn't name a substitute emperor, it is known as the fall of the Roman Empire.
  • Period: 476 to 1448

    Middle Ages

    The Middle Ages led to many developments such as
    1. a rise of a money economy (the idea of banking was developed)
    2. trade expanded and led to a high in Venice, Pisa, and Genoa
    3. a heavier plow was developed which made it faster and easier to plow, and possible to use horses
    4. guilds were created which protected artists and merchants and the quality of their goods
    5. education became more popular, and nuns and monks taught reading, writing, arithmetic, Latin, etc.
  • 527

    Justinian became emperor of Byzantine

  • 527

    Justinian Code, or Corpus of Civil Law

    Justinian had scholars codify their laws and over six years, 10 scholars put them together into the Corpus of Civil law. They threw out outdated laws and simplified many, and what they put together remains a basis for most European legal systems.
  • 570

    Birth of Muhammad

  • 650


    After Muhammad died, Caliphs were the new leaders of the Muslims. They were originally related to Muhammad but that changed later. The first four were known as the "Rightly Guided Caliphs." They wanted to protect and spread Islam. They conquered land and weakened the Persian and Byzantine Empires and eventually the Persian Empire was under Muslim control. These conquests were called jihads, and they were the holy struggle to bring Islam to other lands, which justified it in their eyes.
  • Period: 760 to 820

    Charlemagne and creation of a Christian Roman Empire

  • 800

    Viking Invasions

    Vikings from Scandinavia invaded Carolingian kingdoms (Charlemagnes land in Europe basically just excluding Spain.)
  • 850

    Magyars, fierce nomads, left a trail of destruction

  • Period: 900 to 1050

    Feudalism Spread through western Europe

    The system was based on land being given to nobles by monarchs in exchange for loyalty and military aid. Land came with peasants and power.
  • 962

    Holy Roman Empire

    Holy Roman Empire
  • Period: 962 to

    Holy Roman Empire

    It was one of Europe's largest medieval and early modern states, but its power base was unstable and continually shifting. The Holy Roman Empire was not a unitary state, but a confederation of small and medium-sized political entities.
  • 999

    Seljuk Turks take Jerusalem

    Seljuk Turks, Muslims from central Asia, took Jerusalem. It was a holy land to them because that is where Muhammad ascended to heaven. They took it in the late 1000s and it created chaos in Palestine. They also threatened the Byzantine Empire, especially Constantinople.
  • 1024

    The Church separated into the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church

    Political and geographical and doctrinal differences led to this separation, especially when the pope gave Charlemagne, the Frankish leader, the title of emperor, which he wasn't allowed to do.
  • 1096

    First Crusade

    Pope Urban II asked for a volunteer army to take Palestine and Jerusalem back from the Seljuks, the Muslims of central Asia. Three armies traveled through western Europe and they killed many Jews and met in Constantinople. Jerusalem fell and they massacred most of its Muslim and Jewish inhabitants.
  • 1147

    Second Crusade

    Seljuks conquered part of the Crusader states in Palestine. The monk Bernard of Clairvaux persuaded King Louis VII of France and the Holy Roman Emperor Conrad III to lead armies to Palestine. They were defeated by the Seljuks easily because the two quarreled and were ineffective in military.
  • 1150

    Trojan War

    Mid-1200s B.C.
  • 1189

    Third Crusade

    Saladin united the Muslim forces and captured Jerusalem in 1187. Holy Roman Emperor, King France, King England assembled warriors for the Third Crusade. Failed. Emperor died on the way and his army went home. French King returned to France before his army even met Jerusalem. King Richard of England continued alone. He won several battles but couldn't win completely and instead signed a truce with the Muslim Seljuks and tried to persuade Saladin to return Jerusalem to the Christians. He said no.
  • 1200

    Ghengis Khan invasions

    Ghengis Khan invasions
    Ghengis Khan, a Mongol leader, organized Mongol armies and created a large empire. They took over some steppe peoples, and eventually China. This happened in the early 1200s.
  • 1204

    Fourth Crusade

    Crusaders, instead of going to Jerusalem, attacked the Christian city of Constantinople. They burned and destroyed and stole and left a bitterness between Eastern Orthodox world and Western Europe. Weakened Byzantine Empire severely making the later Muslim advance into eastern Europe possible.
  • 1210

    Crusades helped feudalism break down and increased the authority of kings

  • 1250

    Middle Class emerges in England during the reign of Henry III

  • Period: 1350 to


    A few important ideas:
    1. Intellectual movement of humanism. It included the dignity and worth of the individual, as well as the idea of human improvement through developing skills and talents like politics, sports, and arts. It wasn't religious.
    2. Artists studied and worked with perspective and depth, also learning more about human anatomy and expression. They created realistic paintings on damp plaster, known as as frescoes.
  • 1453

    Slavs take over as leaders of the Eastern Orthodox Religion

    Slavs take over as leaders of the Eastern Orthodox Religion
    This happened as a result of the fall of Constantinople, who had before had the leadership of the Eastern Orthodox religion. These were the Byzantinians.
  • 1500


  • Period: 1517 to


    The Protestant Reformation was a religious reform movement that swept through Europe in the 1500s. It resulted in the creation of a branch of Christianity called Protestantism, a name used collectively to refer to the many religious groups that separated from the Roman Catholic Church due to differences in doctrine. Started with Martin Luther in 1517 and his 95 Theses.
  • 1541

    John Calvin sets up Consistory

    John Calvin, a reformer, set up a church of 12 elders that was given the power to control almost every aspect of people's daily lives.
  • 1558

    Elizabeth the First

    She was Protestant and put this back as the religion of the country, but also included some Catholic ideas. The people were pretty happy with this mix especially after Bloody Mary who was the last queen. The only people who weren't happy were the Puritans who wanted their religion to be pure and not with the new Catholic stuff, so they branched off and became influential in the church and in parliament.
  • Period: to

    Age of Enlightenment

    Europe's new thinkers developed scientific thinking, and challenged the science of the times. Galileo, Bacon, Descartes, Newton, Copernicus, Kepler, and many more were such thinkers.
  • Period: to

    American Revolution

  • Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence

  • British surrender to Americans in Yorktown, Virginia

  • Middle East

    Middle East
  • Fertile Crescent + Mesopotamia

    Fertile Crescent + Mesopotamia
  • Asia Minor

    Asia Minor