• Feb 13, 1071

    Byzantine army is destroyed by Turks

  • Feb 13, 1072

    Mercenary Seljuk Turks conquer Syria and Palestine. The City of Jerusalem is taken from the more civilised Saracen caliphs

  • Feb 13, 1085

    3000 Christian Pilgrims were massacred in Jerusalem and the Christian churches were destroyed or used as stables

  • Feb 13, 1096

    The People's Crusade - Freeing the Holy Lands. 1st Crusade led by Count Raymond IV of Toulouse and proclaimed by many wandering preachers, notably Peter the Hermit

  • Feb 13, 1096

    Armed forces gathered at Constantinople to embark on the First Crusade

  • Feb 13, 1096

    Emperor Alexius I shipped the Peoples Crusade over the Bosphorus

  • Feb 13, 1097

    The Siege of Antioch

  • Feb 13, 1099

    The soldiers of the First Crusade successfully scale the walls of Jerusalem and take the Holy city

  • Feb 13, 1144

    Second Crusade- Crusaders prepared to attack Damascus. 2nd crusade led by Holy Roman Emperor Conrad III and by King Louis VII of France

  • Feb 13, 1155

    End of the Second Crusade

    Although the Second Crusade ended inthe defeat of Crusader forces at Damascus in 1148, it did have a notablesuccess, this being the capture of Lisbon from Muslim forces by EnglishCrusaders in 1147. The Second Crusade also saw the beginning of campaignsinto The Baltic States and Northeastern Europe to conquer and convertpagans.
  • Feb 13, 1187

    Beginning of the Third Crusade

    3rd Crusade led by Richard theLionheart of England, Philip II of France, and Holy Roman EmperorFrederick I. Richard I made a truce with Saladin
  • Feb 13, 1192

    End of the Third Crusade

    Led by Richard theLionheart of England, Philip II of France, and Holy Roman EmperorFrederick I. Richard I made a truce with Saladin. Although Christianforces won several victories, the Third Crusade failed to captureJerusalem. The city remained in Muslim hands, however, Saladin struck andagreement with Richard I allowing Christians to make pilgrimages toJerusalem. The Third Crusade ended in 1192.
  • Feb 13, 1202

    Beginning of the Fourth Crusade

    Led by Fulk of Neuil French/Flemish advanced on Constantinople
  • Feb 13, 1204

    End of the Fourth Crusade

    Called by Pope Innocent III in 1202 to re-capture Jerusalem from the Muslims via an assault on Egypt, the Fourth Crusade instead turned into an attack on Constantinople, the seat
    of the Byzantine Empire, and a Christian kingdom. The defenses of Constantinople overcome in 1204, the Crusader army mercilessly sacked the city for three days. The destruction of Constantinople and slaughter of its citizens is considered one of the greatest atrocities of the Medieval period
  • Feb 13, 1212

    The Childrens Crusade

    The Children's Crusade led by a French peasant boy, Stephen of Cloyes
  • Feb 13, 1217

    Beginning of the Fifth Crusade

    The 5th Crusade led by King Andrew II of Hungary, Duke Leopold VI of Austria, John of Brienne
  • Feb 13, 1221

    End of the Fifth Crusade

    This Crusade also did not meet its stated goal. The Crusader army got bogged down in a long siege of Damietta in Egypt. Damietta was eventually captured, but no further campaign was undertaken afterward.
  • Feb 13, 1228

    Sixth Crusade

    The 6th Crusade led by Holy Roman Emperor
    Frederick II
  • Feb 13, 1229

    End of the Sixth Crusade

    Ironically, Frederick also succeeded
    despite being excommunicated by Honorius II due to a political conflict
    between the two men. Frederick's success was based on taking dvantage of conflicts between local Muslim rulers. This led him to seal a truce with the Egyptian Sultan al-Kamil in 1229. This truce included handing control of Jerusalem to the Crusaders in return for their support against
    al-Kamil's enemies.
  • Feb 13, 1254

    Seventh Crusade

    The 7th Crusade led by Louis IX of France
  • Feb 13, 1254

    End of the Seventh Crusade

    The Seventh Crusade is notable for being the first in which the Mongols played a role as a third power to be contended with in the Middle East. Both the Crusaders and Muslim sultans would attempt to ally themselves with the Mongols against one another. The result would be the rise of Mongol influence at the expense of both.
  • Feb 13, 1270

    Eigth Crusade

    The 8th Crusade led by Louis IX. Louis set out from Sicily in summer 1270, headed to Tunis in North Africa, where he
    hoped to establish a base for operations against Egypt. Landing in Tunis
  • Feb 13, 1271

    Ninth Crusade

    The 9th Crusade led by Prince Edward
  • Feb 13, 1272

    End of the Ninth Crusade

    Edward arrived in time to see successive Christian defeats at the hands of the Turks in Antioch and Tripoli. Facing insurmountable odds, Edward returned home to England in 1271. Acre fell to Islam twenty years later in 1291, removing the final Crusader stronghold in the region.