The Rise and Fall of the Colony of New France.

Timeline created by Somarie Erasmus
In History
  • 1534

    French Explorer - Jacques Cartier

    French Explorer - Jacques Cartier
    He was a French explorer that led three expeditions to New France and was the first to accurately map the interior of the St. Lawrence river.
  • Samuel de Champlain - "Father of New France"

    Samuel de Champlain - "Father of New France"
    Champlain was sent on a mission to explore New France and its waterways. He left Honfleur and explored part of the Saguenay river and up the St. Lawrence river as far as Hochelaga.(Montreal)
  • The City of Quebec

    The City of Quebec
    Champlain founded Quebec city with 28 men and set out building his Habitation there for the fur trade. He made friends with the Huron, Algonquin and Montagnais people who were at war with the Iroquois.
  • Time spent with the Huron People.

    Time spent with the Huron People.
    Champlain spent the winter of 1615 with the Huron people. He was injured by an arrow while fighting with the Huron against the Iroquois. He learned a lot from them during his stay.
  • The First French Family

    The First French Family
    Champlain brought with him the Hebert family from France. He helped them acquire land and establish a farm and to settle permanently in the colony.
  • Champlain's struggles

    Champlain's struggles
    He returned to France in 1624 but went back to New France in the spring of 1626. The colony struggled due to strained relationships between the French and the aboriginal peoples. Not much progress was made. He enlisted labourers to work on and fortify the habitation. He also acted as peace keeper and mended relationships between the colony and their Aboriginal allies.
    Champlain passed away in 1635.
  • The Destruction of Huronia

    The Destruction of Huronia
    The once strong Huron people had become weaker over time and became a divided nation . Many had succumbed to the diseases brought over by the Europeans. The Huron also had missionaries live with them for the past few years. The fact that some Huron accepted Christianity and changed their beliefs also caused conflict in the tribe. Guns were only given to those that changed their religion. The Iroquois massacred the Huron and killed the missionaries.
  • Period: to

    Louis XIV and the peace with the Iroquois

    Louis XIV wanted to increase the number of settlers. The crown paid for its citizens' passage to New France and Canada was split into 3 districts, Quebec, Montreal and Trios-Rivieres. Women were paid to travel to New France as state sponsored brides. "Filles du roi" .
    In 1665 about 1200 French soldiers were sent as reinforcement.
  • The Beaver Wars

    The Beaver Wars
    The Beaver Wars assisted in establishing New France and French imperialism. European trade of goods and fur intensified the pre-existing conflict between the Indigenous people of the Great Lakes Region. The Iroquois were supported by the English and Dutch and the Algonquin, including the Huron and other nations, allied with the French. In 1701 the French and Iroquois signed a treaty, The Great Peace, marking the end of the conflict between the French and the Iroquois.
  • The Acadians

    The Acadians
    The Acadians refused to swear allegiance to the British crown. The British drove the Acadians, about 13 000 in total, from their homes in the Bay of Fundy separating families. They were forced onto ships and taken far away and spread out far away.
  • The Siege of Louisbourg.

    The Siege of Louisbourg.
    Major-General Jeffery Amherst and a senior officer, Brigadier-General James Wolfe, was in charge of the attack. The French were outnumbered and over powered by the English. The two remaining French warships were attacked and destroyed. The French surrendered.
  • Supply from France

    Supply from France
    The city was crowded with refugees. Montcalm requested 4000 soldiers but received only 400 sick and unruly soldiers from the King. Supplies were low so merchants were charging high prices. The supply ship only brought a third of what they had asked for.
  • General Wolfe to attack Quebec

    General Wolfe to attack Quebec
    King George asked General Wolfe to lead the attack against Quebec. He sailed down the St. Lawrence river with a fleet of almost 200 ships.
  • Siege of Quebec

    Siege of Quebec
    Wolfe landed 3000 soldiers within range of British cannon fire from the city. They bombarded the city. French soldiers fired from above killing a lot of British soldiers. Winter was coming.
  • The Plains of Abraham

    The Plains of Abraham
    Wolfe and his men climbed a steep cliff carrying cannons and weapons with them. They reached the top and gathered in an abandoned field previously owned by Abraham Martin. They caught the French by surprise. Montcalm marched his troops over to the field. They were poorly trained and the battle lasted but 15 minutes. Both Montcalm and Wolfe were killed in battle.
  • The British flag raised in Canada the first time.

    The British flag raised in Canada the first time.
    After the French were defeated at the Plains of Abraham, the British flag was raised for the first time on top of Mountain street, Quebec Canada. Quebec was destroyed. Many seigneurs returned to France not willing to live under British rule.
  • Quebec surrenders

    Quebec surrenders
    The Marquis de Vaudreuil admitted defeat and signed The Articles of Capitulation. He also arranged conditions of Quebec's surrender. He succeeded in retaining the right to speak French, keep their land and keep their Catholic faith. These were three very important rights. The Canadian militia was forced to break up, many seigneurs returned to France. About 500 French soldiers stayed to live with their Canadian wives. The British left about 3000 men to maintain order.
  • The Treaty of Paris

    The Treaty of Paris
    The Seven Years' War from 1756-1763 ended with the signing of The Treaty of Paris. The Duke of Choiseul represented France, William Pitt represented Britain and no one spoke for the First Nations. It took two years for them to come to an agreement. France chose to keep the sugar-rich island of Guadeloupe instead of Canada. They also kept the islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon in the Gulf of St. Lawrence to continue fishing of the Atlantic coast.
  • Proclamation of 1763

    Proclamation of 1763
    King George III issued an order stating that colonist could not settle lands west of the Appalachian mountains. This would belong to the Native aboriginal peoples and all settlers were ordered to leave the area.