Early European Explorers and The First Peoples of Canada

  • Period: 550 to

    Early European Explorers and First Peoples of Canada

    Samuel HearneJohn CabotThe Norse in the North AtlanticThis is a timeline about the History of the European Explorers and The First Peoples of Canada. You will be learning about The Norse, John Cabot, Jacques Cartier, Samuel de Champlain, Samuel Hearne, and Henry Hudson. It will take you back to hundreds and thousands of years ago. The history is so amazing, and such a great adventure! You don't want to miss it! So, let the wonderful adventure begin!
  • Jan 1, 1100

    The Norse (Vikings)

    The Norse (Vikings)
    The Norse around the year 1100 appeared on the Beothuk's shores. They used longships which are very fast to travel from Greenland to Newfoundland. Later, when they got use to Newfoundland, they built a settlement at L'Anse aux Meadows which was located on the northernmost tip of the island of Newfoundland.
    Research Source: Nelson Literacy
    Map Link :
  • Jan 31, 1100

    The Norse (Vikings) continued

    The Norse (Vikings) continued
    Research ResourcesIt was great that the Norse appearance here was the final step in a relatively peaceful expansion of livestock farmers across the North Atlantic, taking in parts of the British Isles, Iceland, Greenland, and finally Vinland.Though,there are some negatives like the Norse and the Beothuk traded peacefully at first, but then, they were battling over a Viking cow.The Norse abandoned their settlement and left Newfoundland.
  • Jan 1, 1497

    Cabot Lands on North America

    Cabot Lands on North America
    In 1497, John Cabot landed on the North America coast.He was sent by the English king to explore the land on the other side of the Atlantic.It wasn't clear whether Cabot reached the shores of Newfoundland and Labrador,or Cape Breton Island. While he was there,he didn't make contact with the First Nations,but he claim their land in the name of the King of England.He returned to England and reported that there were so many fish that they could be caught by lowering a bucket into the water.
  • Jan 1, 1498

    Cabot Lands on North America continued

    Cabot Lands on North America continued
    John Cabot returned to North America in 1498. However, his ship was lost and he was never heard from again. It was positive that Cabot reported that there were so many fish, Cabot taught his crew a simple way to catch fish. However, he did not make contact with the First Nations People.
    Research Source: Nelson Literacy
  • Jan 1, 1534

    Cartier Explores Eastern Canada

    Cartier Explores Eastern Canada
    In 1534, Jacques Cartier set out to find a water route across North America to the Pacific Ocean.On the first trip, Cartier explored the Gulf of St.Lawrence.(Link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gulf_of_Saint_Lawrence) He did make contact with two First Nation groups,which are Mi'kmaq and the Iroquios.These groups traded their furs for European knives and iron goods.Cartier put up a large cross to claim the land for France because he realized that the land was rich in natural resources.
  • Mar 31, 1534

    Cartier Explores Eastern Canada

    Cartier Explores Eastern Canada
    The Iroquoian chief,Donnacona, realized what he was doing and became angry. Cartier convinced them that the cross was just a marker to help him find his way.
    Research Resources: Nelson Literacy
  • Jan 1, 1535

    Cartier returns

    Cartier returns
    Cartier returned and took two of Chief Donnacona's sons back to france with him to tell their stories about the riches of Canada. When the king heard them, he allowed Cartier to return the next year.In 1535, Cartier sailed up the St.Lawrence river to Stadacona,which is now called Quebec City.He reached to a village called Hochelaga with is now called Montreal.
    Research Source: Nelson Literacy
  • Dec 31, 1536

    Jacques Cartier (The next year)

    Jacques Cartier (The next year)
    In 1536, Cartier forced chief Donnacon and nine others to return to france with him and they died while they were in France. It was positive that he found a faster route for trading ships to reach Asia. Although, he realized that the land was rich in natural resources and put up a large cross to claim the land for France and Donnacona was angry.
    Research Source: Nelson Literacy
  • Champlain Brings French Settlers

    Champlain Brings French Settlers
    In 1603, Champlain, the French Explorer sailed to North America and travelled up to St. Lawrance River. He wasn't able to find a route to Asia, so he returned to France.
    Research Resource: Nelson Literacy
  • Champlain Returns with French Settlers

    Champlain Returns with French Settlers
    Champlain returned the following year with 80 French settlers, and spent the winter on a small island named Ste.Croix. The settlers were not prepared for the harsh winter weather, and almost half of them died.
    Research Resource: Nelson Literacy
  • Samuel de Champlain (Continued)

    Samuel de Champlain (Continued)
    In the spring of 1605, Champlain found Port Royal which is now called Nova Scotia. Port Royal was the first permanent French settlement in Canada. The french settlers traded metal goods with the Mi'kmaq for beaver furs.The French people sell furs for a high price because beaver fur were very popular in Europe.
    Research Sources: Nelson Literacy
  • The Wonderful Champlain Fort

    The Wonderful Champlain Fort
    In 1608, Samuel de Champlain built a fort in a province which is now called Quebec.
    A Link about Samuel de Champlain's fort:
  • Hudson Arrives

    Hudson Arrives
    Research ResourceIn 1609, he moved to Holland and sailed for a Dutch trading company on the ship named Half Moon. The conditions were so bad that his crew of about 20 men threatened to mutiny. Hudson turned the ship around and headed south down the east coast of Canada.
    MapLink :
  • Hudson Returns

    Hudson Returns
    Research ResourceOn his final journey from England in 1610, he again headed northwest towards Canada, this time on the ship Discovery. In August, Hudson found a body of water which at first he thought was the Pacific Ocean. The body of water was a large bay, which eventually was named the Hudson Bay.
  • Henry Hudson

    Henry Hudson
    Research ResourceIt's positive that he explored many places such as a bay which is now called Hudson Bay. Although that the conditions in the ship were so bad that Hudson's crew of about 20 men threatened to strike.
  • Samuel Hearne

    Samuel Hearne
    <ahref='http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/articles/samuel-hearne' >Research Resources</a>In 1766,Samuel Hearne went to work for Hudson's Bay as part of a ship's crew. He spent the winters at the trading post Fort Prince of Wales on Hudson Bay. There,he received his training.In 1768,Hearne was put in charge an expedition to Coppermine River . During the journey, his guides leaved him. He was left alone and was hungry. After this, Matonabbee served as his guide and friend for many years.
  • Samuel Hearne Arrived

    Samuel Hearne Arrived
    In 1771 he set off to Coppermine river again with Matonabbee. They were searching for copper and other minerals. Along the way, they met other Chipewyans. The Chipewyans ambushed some sleeping Inuit and massacred them at what would later be called Bloody Falls.
    Map Link :
  • Samuel Hearne Continued

    Samuel Hearne Continued
    [Research Resources](<a href='http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_Hearne)' >Samuel Hearne</a>In 1774, Samuel Hearne opened Cumberland House. This was Hudson's Bay Company's first central trading post, which meant it was not directly on the shores of Hudson Bay. In 1787, he retired and returned to England. It's positive that Hearne opened a Cumberland House which was Hudson's Bay Comapany's first trading post. Although, He retired and returned to England.