Population and Settlement of Canada

  • Jan 1, 1500

    Bering Strait Land Bridge

    Bering Strait Land Bridge
    The most widely accepted theory explaining how People of First Nations reached the Americas; a land bridge that once existed connecting Alaska and Siberia. The natives would have used the bridge to crossover from Asia to their current homeland.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1500 to

    Population and Settlement

  • Oct 1, 1524

    Giovanni da Verrazano's First Voyage

    Giovanni da Verrazano's First Voyage
    The first man hired by the French Royalty to explore the New World (Americas). He explored the northern coast of the eventual United States and what would one day be the Maritime provinces.
  • May 1, 1534

    Jacques Cartier's First Voyage

    Jacques Cartier's First Voyage
    Following Verrazano's voyage, the French King sent Jacques Cartier back to a route to Asia, in hopes of finding spices, expensive minerals and silk. He also sent him along to claim land in his name.
    Cartier explored the Gulf of St.Lawrence. He returned within the same year he left.
  • Sep 1, 1535

    Jacques Carrier's Second Voyage

    Jacques Carrier's Second Voyage
    Though he did not find a route to Asia, the King of France was still pleased and so he financed Cartier's second voyage. This time, Cartier explored the St.Lawrence river, passed by Stadacona (which would on be the site of Quebec City) all the way up to Hochelaga, which he named Mont Royal. Along the way, he interacted with natives, which helped him and his men survive the harsh winter.
  • Aug 1, 1541

    Jacques Carrier's Third Voyage

    Jacques Carrier's Third Voyage
    Finally, Jacques Cartier using tales of treasure told to him by natives, convinced the King of France to establish a permanent colony in the New World. It failed however, due to poor funding and attacks from the natives.
  • Period: to

    French + Algonquians v/s Iroquois' Five Nations

    The French trade furs with the first natives they met; which were the Innu, the Hurons, the Abenakis and the Algonquians. These fur deals entered the French into a conflict alongside these Nations, who fought the Iroquois' Five Nations. This bloodshed only ended in 1701 when both sides signed the Great Peace of Montreal.
  • Establishment of Quebec

    Establishment of Quebec
    After years of ignorance, the French King realized the value that the New World could hold for him. He gave Samuel de Champlain funding for a settlement, and Champlain established the settlement in a tactical location, the bottleneck of the St. Lawrence, the site of Stadacona.
  • Period: to

    French Regime

    The period in which France occupied what would be Quebec, Ontario and multiple Central and Southeast States. It began with the foundation of Quebec, and officially ended with the signature of the Royal Proclamation.
  • The Company of 100 Associates

    The Company of 100 Associates
    To increase the population, the King of France mandated that the Company of 100 Associates increase the amount of inhabitants from one hundred settlers to four thousand. They agreed to this assignment, in exchange for the Monopoly of the Fur Trade, which gave them and only them the rights to hunt for pelts in New France.
    Their ability to populate was limited though, and they only attracted a couple hundred. This was due to the harsh winters and their investing of profits back into the Fur Trade.
  • Establishment of Trois-Rivières

    Establishment of Trois-Rivières
    Soeur de La Violette was put in charge by Champlain to found a second settlement; at the confluence (meeting of) the St.Mauricie and the St.Lawrence rivers. This was done so that the traders would be able to communicate, without risking interception by Natives by traveling by land.
  • Establishment of Ville-Marie

    Establishment of Ville-Marie
    In the goal of converting the nearby population of Hochelaga to Catholicism, Paul Chomedy and Sieur de Maisonneuve settled a city on the island that would one day be called Montreal. It's purpose shifted however, as it soon became a major trading post, due to its location at the centre of Ameridian territory.
  • Jean Talon

    Jean Talon
    After the failure of the Company of 100 Associates, the King of France (King Louis XIV), based on the advice of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, appointed Jean Talon as Intendent, a position responsable for settling and planning of the territory.
  • Jean Talon's Immigration Measures

    Jean Talon's Immigration Measures
    Talon implemented a number of measures to increase the population through immigration: he offered free lands to soldiers and Engages (workers and craftsmen) if they stayed past their service and he payed for the voyage of orphan and poor young women in France to New France.
  • Jean Talon's Natality Measures

    Jean Talon's Natality Measures
    Talon implemented a number of measures to increase the population through Natality: he sent the Filles du Roi in hopes of them having babies with the pre existing single male population, and gave incentives for reproducing, like payments for each baby as well as fines and punishments for those who did not marry.
  • Signature of the Royal Proclamation

    Signature of the Royal Proclamation
    Following the capitulation of Montreal and two years of British occupation, the Royal Proclamation was signed, which officially gave New France to the British. All of the wealthy French returned to France, but the peasants and workers stayed, while the English businesses moved in. French immigration stopped and English began, but at this point, the population was 99% French Catholic, which made it difficult to govern using British Standards and Laws.
  • Period: to

    British Occupation

    The period in which England occupied what would be Quebec, Ontario and several Maritime Provinces. It began with the signature of the Royal Proclamation, and officially ended with the forming of the Canadian Confederation.
  • Signature of the Quebec Act

    Signature of the Quebec Act
    To prevent the French population from joining the American Revolution, the English government decided to cozy up to the French speakers in hopes of keeping them docile. They gave them the Quebec Act, which enlarged their province into the fertile lands below the Great Lakes, allowed them to practice the Catholic faith, French civil laws were left as they were, and the Oath of allegiance no longer mentioned the Protestant faith.
  • American Independence and The Immigration of the Loyalists

    American Independence and The Immigration of the Loyalists
    Following the declaration of independence, many 13 Colonies citizens still felt loyal to the King of England, so they decided to leave their home and land to go live in English owned land. Some moved back to England, while others went North to the Province of Quebec and the Maritime provinces. 36,000 went to Canada, but only 6,000 colonized the mostly French province of Quebec. The 6,000 established mostly West of Montreal, and that brought the English speaking percentage in Quebec up to 10%
  • Signature of the Constitutional Act

    Signature of the Constitutional Act
    In response to the angry English population who were fed up with the French culture, the Constitutional Act was signed, which opened up new lands to be given to Loyalists (who then colonized the Eastern Townships) and divided the territory into two; Upper and Lower Canada. Upper Canada was given to Loyalists and English speakers which used English civil laws, while the latter was given to the French speakers (Canadiens) and used French Civil Laws.
  • Emigration of French Canadians

    Emigration of French Canadians
    During the 1830's and further, rural areas became overpopulated as a result of the Industrial Revolution, which encouraged emigration to cities. However, when these French Canadians arrived, they found that all the jobs were being taken up by European immigrants who'd work for lower wages. This led to new areas being colonized and encouraged by the Church, but also a massive amount of people moving to the USA for better working conditions, larger and more complex railways, and higher salaries.
  • Signature of the Act of Union

    Signature of the Act of Union
    Due to attacks by the rebel group "Les Patriotes", the government passed the Act of Union, which united and redivided the province into Canada West and East. It also made English the only official langage, which forced the French to become a minority.
  • The Great Famine and the consequent emigration from Great Britain

    The Great Famine and the consequent emigration from Great Britain
    As a result of potatoes becoming inedible, a period of Mass Starvation occurred in Great Britain (primarily Ireland) between 1842-1852. This forced a massive emigration to the New World, which included Canada. Most immigrants settled in the St.Lawrence Valley and Upper Canada (cities). The Irish got along quite well with the French Canadians despite their differing languages, as they shared a common religion. The migrants were quarantined on Grosse Ile, to be tested for Cholera.
  • Signature of The British North America Act (BNAA)

    Signature of The British North America Act (BNAA)
    The signature of the The British North America Act (BNAA), which was pushed by the Fathers of Confederation, established Canada as its own partly independent nation, as it was only in control of internal affairs, with several partly independent provinces. This began Contemporary Times in Canada.
  • Period: to

    Contemporary Times

    The period in which Canada is an independent nation formed of multiple provinces and territories. It began with the forming of the Canadian Confederation and continues to this day.
  • National Policy

    National Policy
    To improve immigration, John A. Macdonald, the first and current Prime Minister at the time, implemented his National Policy. It installed several benefits to settle the West to prevent an American's invasion, one of which was to construct a railroad from East to West.
  • The Rise of Immigration

    The Rise of Immigration
    At the turn of the century, laws that encouraged British Citizens to immigrate and discouraged undesirables (not wealthy, and differing culture) from immigrating were created. It didn't work, as many Italians, Germans and Jews before the war. Xenophobia and Anti-Antisemitism were present during the wars, and they got labeled by the masses. The increase in population created an urban sprawl, which developed many working class neighborhoods and encouraged the construction of new suburbs.
  • The Baby Boom

    The Baby Boom
    Following WWII, the return of troops and a period of economic prosperity lead to the growth of the population as marriages and births increased. The mortality rate dropped. It also lead to many changes in society as the average age dropped, which resulted in the State investing in new hospitals, schools and other public institutions to meet the needs of the growing population.
  • Immigration Act of 1952

    Immigration Act of 1952
    Following the mass influx due to WWII, the government put in place an immigration act to prevent such massive populations from coming. It did this by favouring easily assimilated cultures (English, French), and allowing only those with family entry. The rules were bent depending on needs, such as the construction of railroads. In subsequent years, policies that were racially discriminatory were removed, and were replaced by language and skills test, though they completed the same impact.
  • Immigration Act of 1976

    Immigration Act of 1976
    Canada, in response to a multitude of wars abroad, began aiding in the settlement of Refugees in 1969. Then, to improve immigration in all cases, introduced a new immigration act in 1976. This reincarnation had new objectives: encourage population growth, enrich cultural heritage, facilitate family reunions, facilitate the adaptation of new residents into society, and to maintain a humanitarian attitude towards refugees. These objectives clashed with the newly introduced Bill 101 in Quebec.
  • Gen X and Millennials Quebec Birthing Policies following 1980

    Gen X and Millennials Quebec Birthing Policies following 1980
    To maintain birthrates following the Babyboom, the Quebec government introduced several new measures, which included creating the "office de garde à l'enfance" (1980), tax breaks for parents (1986), creating the "Centre de la Petite Enfance" or CPEs (1997), and 5$ a day daycare, which is now 7$ a day (1997).
  • The Aging Population

    The Aging Population
    The massive rise of the birthrate during the Baby Boom has resulted in a large group of old people proportionate to the amount of young and middle aged people. This has resulted in healthcare costs rising, a mandatory age of retirement abolished, worse pension plans and missing workers in the labour force. All of this increased taxes which encouraged even more young, educated, and skilled workers to leave Canada during the 2000s. This effect is called the Brain Drain .