Aug 28, 1500
Algonquins and IroquoisThey exchanged between each other
Algonquins lived in the Canadian Shield
Algonquins lived in tipi's (nomad)
Iroquois lived in the south
Iroquois were fighters
Iroquois are sedentary
Iroquois homes were in groups (not tipis)
Aug 28, 1534
Jacques Cartier First voyage
Sep 28, 1535
Jacque Cartier 2nd voyagein 1535 Jacque Cartier Sailed up the St. Lawrence And discovered Quebec
Sep 28, 1541
Jacque Cartier's third voyageIn 1541 he attempted to set up a colony but it ultimately failed.it was for missionaries to convert Amerindians
Port royalThe first attempted at a colony called port royal
Failed due to position (Nova Scotia) therefore the Indians didn't want to travel that far
French regimeHere arrives the French to New France which occurred 60 years after they discovered it.
France decided to exploit the colony of its riches
Champlain back in QuebecOn this trip he sets up a trading post in Quebec
This post doesn't fail like Port Royal
This point is called New France, located near the narrow standacona
Sieur de Laviolettein 1634, Champlain gave the task to Sieur de Laviolette to find a settlement that confluence the St. Maurice and the St. Lawrence rivers. This task ended up finding Three Rivers
Ville MariePaul Chomedey and Sieur de Maisonneuve founded Ville Marie originally as an area for evangelism. They later realized that it's in a perfect location (heart of Amerindian territory) for a trading post
Population increaseIn 1663 the population was 3000 that by 1760 turned into 70000.
This was considered the first wave of immigration (Europeans)
Jean talon was the mind behind the immigration his tactics included: taxing non married men/women's fathers, giving money to people who have over 10 children and even 12
British RegimeDuring the war the British beat the French and signed a treaty that gave the English New France. This event would commence the British Regime.
The population would be 99% French and 1% English
Immigration policies• From 1763, British immigration begins, first to come will be the rich business men
• From 1791, measures to encourage immigration like giving land to shipping and railroad companies, immigration agents coming to the aid of immigrants in 1828
• 1812: laws discouraging American immigration in Canada.
• 1840: Colonial Land and Emigration Commission and permanent immigration office in London.
Treaty of Paris1763 after the war between France and England France is forced to give them New France. The treaty is essentially the deed to New France.
Quebec Actto reinsure Quebec's loyalty England made a new constitution which gave Quebec an enormous amount of land. This irritated the 13 colonies which was a factor that led to the war on independence.
wave of English immigrationAfter the 1763 initial wave of wealthy British to New France came the loyalists from the war on Independence. This occurred in 1783-1800 bringing in over 36,000 loyalists and 6000 to Quebec
Irish WaveDue to a potato famine (disease in crops) many Irish lost money and started to starve.
Irish came to Quebec in search of a new life but consdering many of them were sick were sent right away to Ile-Grossse.
Ile grosse is an island where all irish go and if they survive then they can come to Quebec and work.
Although the Irish were catholic like the French, the French didnt like them because they worked the same jobs but cheaper (therefore french lost jobs)
Contemporary Period Immigration• Sharing federal-provincial powers with regard to immigration matters under the BNA
• National Policy = Immigrant recruitment to populate Canada with land grants and handing over of land to rail companies to settle the west.
• Waves of immigration following Great Depression, wars, etc...
• Discriminatory immigration policies end with the Second World War.
UrbanizationFrom 1867 and up, a rural exodus occurred causing:
• a development of working class neighbourhoods.
• Reversal of urban and rural populations.
• Urban sprawl.
Indian Actthe Indian Act is what gives Indians reserves and bands giving them essentially their own territory and country.
Oka crises1990 Mohawk warriors put road blocks on the borders to their reserves in Oka when a golf course wanted to expand on native land. The natives militarily faced themselves against the Canadian Forces. The Oka crisis lasted 78 days, when the stand-off finally came to an end with out armed conflict, however the issues remained.
Brain DrainBrain Drain is when a first world country such as Canada gets a bright person from a third world country and offers them education and basically takes the talent away from the third world country. For example surgeons, scientists etc...