Jan 1, 1500
Iroquois Characteristics-matrilineal society (mother to daughter),
-semi sedentary (Stay in one place for a while around 10 years)
-Focus on Agriculture (Farming),
-lived in longhouses and big groups (such as Mohawk, Senesca)
Jan 2, 1500
-lived in tepees lives with small groups mostly family.
Aug 29, 1534
Jacques Cartier's First TripJacques Cartier's first trip to North America
1. to look for new land for the King of France
2. To look for gold and rich materials
3. To find another way to get to Asia
Explored and mapped the Gulf of St-Lawrence, reported what he thought was gold, but instead found lots of fish, timber, and furs.
Sep 4, 1535
Jacques Cartier's Ssecond TripThis is Jacques Cartier's second time to quebec so he could map out the area more.
Sailed up the St-Lawrence, reached Stadacona (Quebec). Nice natives showed Europeans how to survive winter and scurvy. They return with native captives (incl. Chief Donacona)
Sep 4, 1541
Jacques Cartier's Third VoyageThis is Jacques Cartier's third and last voyage to Quebec.
Attemped to set up a colony (not successful). Missionaries attempted to convert natives. France lost interest for 60yrs.
Port RoyalThe King of France sent Samuel de Champlain to Nova Scotia to set up a camp called Port Royal. It did not succeed because of its positioning, it was too far east
Return of ChamplainSamuel de Champlain returned near Stadacona (Quebec city) to establish a trading post, this trading post grew to become New France, Champlain also started exploring around Ottawa valley, Lake du Champlain and more
Map of New FranceNew France has all this land for the Fur Trade
MontrealMaisonneuve was the founder of Montreal in 1642
MontrealPaul Chemdy founded Ville-Marie a place close to the Iroquois village Hochelaga. Hochelaga was eventually renamed Montreal in the 18th century
2. Minister of the marine
5. Souvereign Council
6. Captain of the MIlitia
Jean TalonJean Talon was sent to New France by the King to help populate New France.
He wanted to attract more women and craftsman, merchants, farmers to the region.
New Map of New France and the 13 coloniesBy 1667 The 13 colonies had a part of land on the edge of North America. SPanish were given Florida and a small portion of NEw Frances land.
First Intercolonial WarThe first Intercolonial War ended in 1697 with the Treaty of Ryswick
The Great Peace of MontrealEnding of the war between the 5 nations and The French. They signed the Great Peace of Montreal.
The Second Intercolonial WarEnd of the second Intercolonial War, ended with the Treaty of Utrecht
Third Interclonial WarEnd of the Third Intercolonial War with the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
The Seven Year warWar between France and Britain ended with the signing of the Treaty of Paris in 1763
Fall of LouisbourgThe British attacked and took the fortress of Louisbourg
Seige of QuebecBritish brought 200 boats to New France, attacked Quebec and won.
Battle of The Plains of AbrahamWolf(eng) and Montcalm(French) die in battle, English win french lose. French put down there arms.
PopulationNew France: 70,000 people
13 colonies: 1 5000,000
Article of Capitcualtion-The French Militia could return home, no one would lose their property
-The French Regular military would lay down their arms and leave.
-The people could practice the R.C. religion, but the Bishop would have to leave.
-The people who stayed would become British Subjects.
Treaty of ParisEnded the Seven Year War
Royal ProclamationIt gives the King’s new colony a name, The Province of Quebec
-It decreases the borders to just around the St-Lawrence river valley. (The rest would be known as Indian Territory)
-Put in place a civilian Government to run the new Colony: The King appointed a Governor who then appointed members of an Executive Council to advise him.
-English Criminal and Civil laws were applied.
-Unused land would be divided by the Township System
-No new Bishop would be allowed
-No RC in politics
Events in QuebecAmericans should pay for the costs of the war.
Stamp Act 1765→ Tax only on Americans, on all newspapers, legal docs. Declaratory Act→ King could pass laws on 13 colonies Townshed Act → Duties on glass, paints, paper, and tea (Boston Tea Party)
Quebec Act 1774→ Seen as the last straw
James MurrayMurray was recalled in 1766 because the british didn't like how he was helping the French and giving them "breaks." Guy Carleton was the replacement of Murray and he saw the same things as Murray did
Quebec Act-Guarantees French Canadian loyalty
-Enlarges the area of Quebec
-Denied an elected assembly
-Appointed council (min.17 members)
-French civil laws were instated, tithe and seigniorial system are back
-Test Act Oath→ Test Oath of Allegiance (swear to king you’re loyal, and could hold office)
American RevolutionAmericans were mad at Britain and the King so they wanted to not be apart of the Britain anymore, they wanted to be an independant colony.
Treaty of Versailles-United States became an independent country.
-Quebec had profited from the war by having its farmers feed the army
-The fur trade which had been located largely in south of the Great Lakes had to relocate. Now had to move towards the Northwest this meant much longer journeys for les voyageurs
-Lead to the creation of a fur trading company “North West Company” by men such as McGill, McTavish.
-All the territory south of the Great Lakes was now apart of the USA, and all the people
Constitutional ActSeperated British territory into Upper and Lower Canada
Steam PowerSteam power is invented by James Watt in 1802, and then adapted to ships, and then early trains. This will allow trading to become much easier because men can get to different destinations faster.
TimberThere was no longer the Fur Trade because it was replaced by trading of timber
War of 1812-Britain was fighting France.
-Americans decided to attack canadians which failed.
-The fighting ends in Stalemate (neither side won)
-Boosts the Canadian economy (Britain needed trade)
-Loyalists and Canadians felt safe under British
-People still feared American Expansion
Immigrants Arrive in CanadaMany immigrants were coming from Great Britain especially from Ireland. The reason for this is land was more fertile in Canada and land owners would rent land to peasants allowing the Irish to grow there potatoes. Disaster struck when a bug destroyed all the potatoe crop and millions of Irish were starving. This event is known as the Irish Potato Famine. Also population increased a lot: Lower Canada went from 150,000 to 1 152 000, Upper Canada 10,000 to 1 396 000
Two Groups (Parties)British Party (Chateau Cliques, Tories): Controlled the councils, spent money on public works.Parti Canadian (Parti Patriote): Controlled the assembly, power over taxes. Leader of Patriotes was Louis Joseph Papineau.
92 ResolutionsThese 92 resolutions were written by Papineau and were sent to the King of England. The 92 resolutions stated how parti Patriotes wanted a Responsible Government. The king, around three years later, sent back 10 resolutions that had nothing to do with the 92 resolutions and he did not agree to any of the 92 resolutions that were sent to him. This frustrated the Patriotes and this is what started the Revolution. 3 battles were fought. In the end, 12 Patriotes were hung and 58 sent to Australia.
Canadas Railway SystemCanadas first railway system finally opened in 1836. This will make it much easier to move around Canada
Lord ElginHe was the first governor to not use Veto power and to allow the Prime MInister to have executive power.
Reciprocity TreatyThe United States signed a Reciprocity Treatywith Canada. This allowed trading between the US and Canada for 10 years without taxes. It made trading much easier