This is the period of time where the world had gone into an ice age. This being said, the bering sea had completely frozen, therefor humans were able to cross the water from Russia to Alaska. This is said to be the way the first people arrived and eventually habited America.
Oct 2, 1501
Iroquois and Algonquins
Iroquois: farmers, great fighters, live in the south, long houses, semi-sedentary Algonquins: Canadian Shield & Appalachian Mountains (north), nomadic, tipis, hunters & gatherers
Sep 1, 1534
Jacque Cartier's first voyage
This was the discovery of what was soon to be New France. Jacques Cartier was sent by the king to find a route to Asia, bring back gold and other riches, and also claim land for France. His discovery of America was not intentional, as he was in search for Asia, therefor the king was not very interested in New France at the moment being, but he did claim thee land.
Oct 2, 1534
Jacque Cartier's 1st exploration
His first exploration of the North American region was him exploring and mapping the gulf of Saint-Lawrence. He reported to the king that he had found gold, but in reality, it was just lots of fish, fur and timber.
Oct 2, 1535
Jacque Cartier's secoond voyage
His second mission was considered a success, because he sailed all the way up the river to Stadacona. Here, he met the Amerindiens who taught him and his crew how to survive the harsh American winters, along with how to survive Scurvy. This was a sickness caused by the lack of vitamin c, of which they did not have on the boat.
Oct 2, 1541
Jacque Cartiers final voyage
His final voyage was a one-way trip, meaning he died in New France. He attempted to start a colony, and to evangelise the Amerindiens. However, this was unsuccesful, which resulted in France losing interest in the colony for the next 60 years.
This was the attempted first settlement in New France by Samuel de Champlain. It was located in Nova Scotia, but it was not successful due to it's inconvinient location. This was because it was so far from the Amerindiens territory, therefor they did not want to travel the distance to do trade.
First permanent settlement in New France
Samuel de Champlain, french explorer, founded Québec, which would be the first permanent settlement in New France. He founded this settlement to facilitate fur trade with the Amerindiens. At first, he tried to make this settlement in Nova Scotia, but it was very unsuccesful due to the fact that it was so far away from where the natives lived.
The Company of One Hundred Associates
The King of France mandated the Company of One Hundred Associates to populate the colony (New France) with approximately 4000, in exchange for the fur trade. The company only attracted a few hundreds colonists however, and most of these were men who came to trade fur and battle against the Iroquois, and not actually settle. This being said, the project was not a success, mainly because they took more than they gave.
Second permanent settlement of New France: Trois-Rivières
Samuel de Champlain put Sieur de Laviolette in charge of founding another settlement where the St. Maurice and St.Lawrence rivers meet. He chose this site, Trois-Rivières, because the rivers allowed the furriers to communicate with one another more easily, and they could prevent the Iroquois from intercepting their trades.
Third permanent settlement of New France: Ville-Marie
Paul Chomedy and Sieur de Maisonneuve founded Ville-Marie, now known as Montreal, in 1642. The main purpose of this establishement was evangelise the Amerindiens, but it soon became a major trading post because of its convenient location in the heart of the Amerindien territoy.
The land was very narrow and divided in rectangular shape, to allow more people to be on the water. The King sold or gave the land to the rich french men who would be the seigneurs, who then gave the land to the peasants. They had certain dues to the seigneur.
Jean Talon's Politics of Immigration
The King of France decided that he wanted to develop New France, so he made Jean Talon the first intendant. Being an intendant of a colony meant you were in charge of sttlement and planning the territory. Jean Talon imposed different measures to increase the population including the offering of free land to soldiers, bringing in the filles du roy, paying couples who married young, and also fining fathers of daughters who were unmarried. Lastly, minor criminals could also come to New France.
The Great Peace of Montreal
The Great peace of Montreal was signed in 1701, to mark the ending of the war between the Iroquois and the Freanch. They were at war because the French had made alliances with the Innu, Algonquains, Hurons, and Abenakis since they traded fur with them. These nations were already at war with the Iroquois, so their alliance forced the French to also be at war with the Iroquois.
The British regime commensed after them winning the Conquest. The left the french population at 99% and the british at only 1%.
Immigration of Buisness men from England
In 1763, the British start to immigrate from England. The first people to come are rich businessmen looking to take over the fur trading business from wealthy French businessmen, who left when the British regime began.
Arrival of Loyalists in Quebec
This was the second wave of immigration. The Loyalists came to Quebec because the United States, previously known as the 13 colonies, had become independant and they were against this. They wanted to remain in a british colony, therefor they moved to Quebec.
The Irish were faced with the potato famine, therefor large amounts of them left Ireland and came to Quebec. This is the third wave of immigration.
1st Phase of Industrialisation
Factories were being made in the city where they would produced finished goods, as oppose to them being shipped here. This created many job oppurtunitys which payed extremely los and had bad conditions.
Immigration to the US and Western Canada
Due to the lack of employement in the agricultural sector, many people immigrated to either the west of Canada or the United States, where there were many more job oppurtunities for the more skilled workers who did not want to work in factories. This is also a result of brain drain, which is when countries with more employement (US) steal smartest workers from poor or foreign countries.
Ministry of Immigration
The ministry of immigration established centers and changed their mind set about who to let into the province, or Canada in general. They stopped looking at their nationality and more at what they could bring to our country.