Aug 30, 1500
Land BridgeConnection between Asia and north america
The animals crossed it, and our ancestors followed to get to North America
-There was a natural increase in the population.
-There was clearly no immigration until the Europeans arrived.
-The number of natives in Quebec before the Europeans arrived: 300, 000 natives
-Number of Natives today:
-There was a lot more landmass that existed 20, 000 years ago, then today.
Period: Aug 30, 1500 to
Sep 1, 1534
Jacques CartierJacques Cartier came to America to search for 3 specific things:
-To find a route to Asia
(Because Ottoman turks have locked the routes)
-To bring back gold and other riches
-To claim land for the king of France Jacques Cartier went on three separate voyages. One in 1534, 1535, and 1541.
Sep 1, 1534
Voyage #1 Jacques CartierJacques Cartier first voyage was in 1534:
1534: Explored and mapped the Gulf of St-Lawrence, reported what he thought was gold but lots of fish, timber, and fur.
Fish (To bring back they either dried it out with salt or the sunlight)
Sep 1, 1535
Voyage #2 Jacques CartierDuring his second voyage: Sailed up the St-Lawrence, reached Stadacona (Quebec).
Nice natives showed Europeans how to survive winter and scurvy (Lack of vitamin C)
They return with native captives (incl. Chief Donacona)
Sep 2, 1541
Voyage #3 Jacques CartierDuring Jacques Cartier second voyage which took place in 1541: Attempted to set up a colony, which was not so successful. Missionaries went over to try and convert the natives. France lost interest in New France for the next 60 years.
Samuel de ChamplainThe king first sent a voyage in 1605 to establish a settlement in Nova Scotia called Port Royal. which it was too far to get to.
Samuel de Champlain was part of the Port Royal. Port Royal failed because of its possition. Samuel de Champlain returned in 1608-1609 to establish a trading post near Stadacona(Quebec at the time) a point where the river is very narrow. Which would be soon called New France. Champlain did 23 trips between Quebec and France.
Seigneurial RegimeThe seigneurial regime was the first incentive to get people to live in New France.
In order to cultivate the bad land of this new colony, a method of land division was needed. That would be called the seigneurial system.
What they did to grow food, is for example like potatoes. They cut down trees, and drilled into the remaining stumps. Then they put salt and potatoes seeds to grow more potatoes.
Seigneurial Regime Part 2The king would grant pieces of land to rich French men who would be called the Seigneurs or the Lords.
Which they would have to develop and receive rent from the peasants who were called to censitaires, who lived on it.
Both the Seigneur and the Censitaire had responsibilities to each other.
Britans colonie was growing. They were using beavers furs to make hats. They were trying to get people to live in New France.
Seigneurial Regime Part 3In short the purpose of this new system was to entice new settlers to come to New France and keep them organized…but it wouldn’t be enough to catch the 13 Colonies who were growing much faster. The Cencitaires had to give percentage of crops, fish, had to use his windmill, he had to had a windmill of the lord, and they had to be part of the militia
Jean TalonAs previously stated New France was not developing, it was comprised mostly of people working for the fur trade.
Once the king took power he wanted to encourage people to come live there. He put an Intendant in charge by the name of Jean Talon. Talon wanted just about anybody to come to New France, except the French protestants, which are called the Huguenots.
Jean Talon Part 2Soldiers were offered free land if they agreed to stay to live in New France after their service was done. Minor criminals were also allowed to go to New France to start their new lives, or they can stay in the jails in France. The Orphan Girls from the streets of France where also sent to live in New France, which they were quickly married. Payments were given to couples who married young. Fathers of the unmarried girls older than 17 were forced to pay fines, and men over 21 also paid fines.
The increase and decrease of the population in New France.in 1663 the population of New France was 3, 000 people. In 1760 the population grew to 70, 000 people. While the population of the 13 Colonies were 2 million in 1760.
Most of the population of New France consisted of mostly men, who were middle age, and not many women or children.
Relations with the Native people between the EuropeansThe impact of the the arrival of the French on the native aboriginal population and their occupation of territory was very bad. Alliances were formed over trade.
Aboriginal population decimated because of diseases and wars.
The natives have lived in America for thousands of years.
The europeans had diseases which wear deadly to the natives. These were the first examples of chemical warfare, for example the aboriginals got sick from alcohol.
British RegimeIf you remember that when the British took control of New France, only the very wealthy French people would be allowed to leave New France. Therefore the population was 99% French people and 1% English people, however they are all now considered British Subjects.
British Regime Part 2 1763, 1791, 1812, 1840From 1763, British immigration begins, first to come will be the wealthy business men looking to take over.
From 1791, measures to encourage immigration like giving land to shipping and railroad companies, and immigration agents coming to the aid of immigrants in 1828.
1812: there were laws made discouraging American immigration in Upper Canada.
1840: There wereColonial Land and Emigration Commission and permanent immigration office were created in London.
British ImmigrationThere was an impact on New France because of the arrival of the British immigrants.
Between 1763-1783 the British merchants arrived in cities, but it wasn't enough to change the composition of the population
In 1800, the Loyalistes and Americains came to canada. Around 36,000 went to the Maritimes, and around 6,000 went to Quebec. Cause of that the english population of Quebec grew from 1% to 10%.
Emigration to the United States and the west (BRITISH REGIME)There was an overpopulation in the seigneuries. they led to:
Emigration to the forest regions of Quebec: Outaouais, Temiscamingue, and Western Canada.
Emigration to the United States from about 1840 was high since there simply existed more opportunity to live in the USA.
Emigration to the United States and the west (CONTEMPORARY PERIOD)There was The impact of emigration towards the United States and the West from the formation of the population. It all happened because there was a lack of employment in the agricultural sector around the end of the 19th century/ the beginning of the 20th century. Around the same time Industrialization also happened. There was soemthing called a "Brain drain", which is when the most educated and skilled workers left to seek better opportunities in the 1990's