Canadian History Timeline

  • Oct 7, 1534

    Jacques Cartier's First Voyage to North America (Population)

    Jacques Cartier's First Voyage to North America (Population)
    Jacques Cartier's first voyage to North America was a vital component in the creation of Canada. It was the first of three trips. Even though the voyage was to find a route to India, he instead found what is now Canada and reported back that there was lots of timber, fish, furs and what he thought was gold.
  • Oct 12, 1534

    Possession of Gaspe (Power)

    Possession of Gaspe (Power)
    As soon as Jacques Cartier set foot on the Gaspe Peninsula, he planted a cross to symbolize that he was claiming the land in the name of the King of France. While looking for a route to Asia, riches and land, he found the Gaspe region. The explorers usually claimed all the unclaimed land they found in the name of their mother countries because at that time, a Kings' power was measured by the amount of land he possessed.
  • Foundation of Quebec (Population)

    Foundation of Quebec (Population)
    Champlain established Quebec in 1608. He chose the area because of its strategic location. The word Quebec in Amerindian literally means "where the river narrows". It was the first permanent settlement that appeared in New France. Initially, it was a trading post to get furs from the Amerindians. Later on, Ville-Marie appeared on the scene as well and became an even bigger trading post than Quebec.
  • Company of the 100 Associates (Economy)

    Company of the 100 Associates (Economy)
    The King grants complete control over the fur trade to the Company of 100 Associates and in return, they agree to populate the colony. In terms of population, no one really settled there so the Company of 100 Associates didn't hold up their end of the bargain. However, this sparked the fur trade, which would become the main source of income from the colony for the mother country, France.
  • Foundation of Ville-Marie (Population)

    Foundation of Ville-Marie (Population)
    Paul Chomedy, Sieur de Maisonneuve, establishes Montreal in 1642 as a place to convert the natives to Catholocism. Because of its strategic location between the Amerindian general areas, it later becomes the main fur trade post in New France. Its original name is Ville-Marie but the natives call it Hochelaga.
  • Destruction of Huronia (Economy)

    Destruction of Huronia (Economy)
    In 1649, the Hurons, who were the main trading partners of the fur traders in New France, had all their villages destroyed by enemy tribes. This forced fur traders to go deep into Amerindian territory to get furs. They always had people come to them with the furs but suddenly they had to go out and get them themselves. The destruction of Huronia led to new alliances with different tribes in order to get their much needed supply of furs.
  • Monseigneur Francois of Laval (Culture)

    Monseigneur Francois of Laval (Culture)
    The pope sent Francois of Laval to direct the Canadian Church. As the first bishop of the colony, he put pressure on France to ban the traffic of eau de vie from the fur trade. Conflicts arose with the merchants and he tried to impose his authority on the rulers but couldn’t because of the current thought of Gallicanism. He established around 20 parishes. In 1663, he founded the Grand Seminaire de Quebec to train future priests.
  • Royal Government (Power)

    Royal Government (Power)
    The political power in New France was under the Royal Government which was inspired by Frances' provincial administrative system and was part of the French regimes' absolute monarchy. The two main administrators of the colony were the governor and the intendant. The hierarchy went as follows: King of France --> Minister of Marine --> Sovereign Council --> Captain of Militia --> Citizens.
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    Filles du Roy (Population)

    Jean-Talon was the first intendant and he implemented various measures to ensure that the population in New France increased. He definitely wanted more women to settle in the colony so he created the Filles du Roy system. These girls were often orphans who were chosen by the King to come live in New France, marry and start a family. They would be granted many privileges to do so such as a dowry of fifty livres.
  • Catechism of the Quebec Diocese (Culture)

    Catechism of the Quebec Diocese (Culture)
    The clergy had a Catechism printed in order to set the dogma of the Catholic Church in writing. The Catechism included the religions' practices and the Catholic faith. It was first printed in France and then in New France. It was presented in the form of questions and answers because it was designed for children and new converts. The Catechism of the Quebec Diocese was published in 1702 by Monseigneur St. Vallier, Bishop of Quebec.
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    Royal Proclamation (Power)

    The Royal Proclamation is the colonys' constitution from 1763-1774 and it established a new political regime. There were British and Protestant institutions that were put into place which worried the French Canadians and the Catholic clergy. A British Governor directed the colony. The hierarchy went as follows: King and Parliament of Great Britain --> Governor General --> Council --> Population.
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    Act of Quebec (Power)

    The Quebec Act re-established French civil law. It also allowed Catholics to hold public office and the clergy to collect tithes. Guy Carleton who replaced James Murray, the first Governor, was very intelligent. He knew that the 13 colonies were mad that they did not get the Ohio Valley even though they participated in the war and were starting to rebel. Carleton figured that if he was nice to the French Canadians and gave them back some rights, they wouldn’t want to fight with the Americans.
  • English Loyalists Arrive in Canada (Population)

    English Loyalists Arrive in Canada (Population)
    During the American Revolution, tens of thousands of Loyalists left the United States where they were treated with hostility, to settle in a British territory. Among them, two thousand chose Quebec. Most were farmers. Many of them cleared lands south of the St. Lawrence River and subdivided these lands into townships, based on the British model. As a result, they established the Eastern Townships.
  • Treaty of Versailles (Power)

    Treaty of Versailles (Power)
    The treaty of Versailles was a peace treaty signed to finalize the independence of the 13 colonies that are now called the United States. The British no longer retained any power over this territory and it was no longer considered a British colony. The American Revolution began in 1776 and ended with this treaty.