Samuel de Champlain establishes a Colony in New France
From 1603 to his death in 1635 Champlain worked to establish a colony for France in North America.
He also founded the first permament settlement for Europeans in Quebec City, which would become Canada.
During his voage, in 1609, Champlain fought with the Huron against the Iriquois and won the battle.
He is known as the "Father of New France".
The Ursuline Nuns
In 1639, Marie de l'Incarnation and two other nuns arrived in Quebec.
The nuns established schools for girls in New France, as at the time there were only schools for boys.
The schools and convents were open to both daughters of settlers, and First Nations girls. They taught reading, writing, arithmatic, and homemaking.
Francois de Laval arrives in New France
Laval was sent by the Pope to organize the church's work in Quebec.
He was appointed the first Bishop of Quebec in 1674.
Laval accomplished many things for France, including establishing the Seminary of Quebec in 1663. He also had the goal of creating a diocese of Quebecwhich would be an area under the control of the Bishop.
The Filles du Roi were transported to New France
New France needed more women to balance the population, as there were mainly only men who were soldiers, fur traders, or explorers.
They were given free transportation by the king, and he also covered the settlement expenses and gave the women a dowry.
Provided stable famillies to the men of New France.
Caused the colony to expand rapidly.
Jean Talon becomes First Intendant of New France
Jean Talon increased the trading between New France and the French colonies in the Caribbean.
The Filles du roi program was overlooked by him, and he was responsible for it.
Jean Talon increased the population of New France by increasing the immigration from France.
The King orders the Fur Trade to come to an End
The fur trade was a major part of New France's income
The Trade was shut down because of the increased number of coureurs des bois in New France, who could not help in defending New France from the British.
The Great Peace of Montreal
This Treaty was signed to declare peace between the First Nations people and New France, as they were enemies.
1300 representatives of over 40 First Nations Peoples attended, and met the leaders of New France in Montreal.
*They agreed to cooperate with each other in the future.
The War of the Spanish Succession
This war was fought between France and Britain to stop France from taking over Spain and it's colonies.
During the war, the British took control of Acadia and the Islands of Guadeloupe and Martinique.
After the Treaty of Utrecht, France had the option of taking back the Caribbean islands or Acadia. They chose the islands since they grew sugar, and Acadia became a British colony.
The Treaty of Utrecht
This Treaty gave up part of Acadia over to the British Colonies.
The War of the Spanish Succession was lost by the French, causing them to sign the Treaty of Utrecht.
France kept Ile Royal (Cape Brenton Island).
Deportation of the Acadians
Since the Acadians refused to take the oath of allegiance to the British (to take up arms if they were attacked), they were deported to Louisianna.
One third of the people who were deported made it to Louisianna, one third died of small pox, scurvy, or other diseases, and one third were scattered to France, the British Colonies, or the Caribbean.
Many families were separated.
The Seven Years' War
This war was the peak of the fighting between the French and the British.
In 1758, the British destroyed the fortress at Louisbourg, and afterwards the St. Lawrence River was open for the British to invade and attack.
The war ended in 1763 by the Treaty of Paris.
The Capture of Louisbourg
In order for the British to gain control over the entrance to the St. Lawrence River, they needed to capture the fortress at Louisbourg.
The British attacked Louisbourg in June of 1758 with 200 ships.
The British destroyed Louisbourg before the French surrendered, and then moved on to capture more cities.
The Battle on the Plains of Abraham
The French army was led by Marquis de Montcalm, and the British were led by General Wolfe.
Montcalm made the desision to meet the British and fight on the Plains of Abraham, although he could have waited for the British to attack in Quebsc or send word to the rest of the army to attack from behind.
The battle lasted less than an hour and was won by the British. Bothe Montcalm and Wolfe died in Battle.
The Treaty of Paris
This treeaty was signed by both the French and the British
Both sides returned locations which were captured during the war and gave them back to the other side.
New France was not returned back to the French, and remained a British colony.