Explorers of Canada Who Made It...or Died Trying By McQueen Period: Jan 1, 1490 to Jan 1, 1800 Early Canadian Exploration Oct 12, 1492 Christopher Columbus sails to America Christopher Columbus-Wikipedia Mar 5, 1496 John Cabot is granted permission to sail for England On March 5, 1496 King Henry VII of England granted John Cabot the right to "seek islands and countries of the heathen towards the west, east, and north" sailing under the English flag. May 2, 1497 John Cabot discovers Newfoundland and/or Cape Breton Island John Cabot embarked on his ship, the Matthew, to explore the lands across the Atlantic, hoping to find a north west passage to the Indies and China. John Cabot and his son Sebastian were the first Europenas to discover Canada, landing on the coast of Newfoundland and/or Cape Breton. Jan 1, 1498 John Cabot is lost at sea. Cabot makes his second voyage across the Atlantic to the Maritimes but is lost at sea Jan 1, 1534 Jacques Cartier sails across the Atlantic to discover new lands for France. Jacques Cartier explores the coast of Newfoundland, Prince Edward Island, and New Brunswick. He lands on the Gaspe Peninsula and claims the land for France. Jul 24, 1534 Jacques Cartier, on the Gasped Peninsula, claims the area for France. Jan 1, 1535 Jacques Cartier visits Stadaconna Jacques Cartier journeys up the St. Lawrence to the Native settlements of Stadacona and Hochelaga. He gives Canada its name (from Indian word kanata, meaning village). Jan 1, 1541 Cartier establishes the first French settlement Cartier returns to North America with the Sieur de Roberval to found a settlement. They named it Charlesbourg-Royal and it became the first French settlement in North America. Mar 15, 1603 Samuel de Champlain is comissioned by France to sail to the settlement of Quebec Samuel de Champlain set sail for Quebec from Honfleur, France following in the path of Jacques Cartier to the St Lawrence River and Tadoussac. Jan 1, 1604 Champlain establishes a colony in Nova Scotia Pierre Du Gua de Monts and Samuel Champlain establish a colony in Nova Scotia. Jan 1, 1605 Samuel de Champlain establishes the first successful New France Colony at Port Royal Port Royal is established in Nova Scotia by the French under Samuel de Champlain. Jan 1, 1607 In 1607, the Muscovy Company of the Kingdom of England hired Hudson to find a northerly route to the Pacific coast of Asia. The English were battling the Dutch for northwest routes. It was thought at the time that, because the sun shone for three months in the northern latitudes in the summer, the ice would melt and a ship could make it across the top of the world. Jul 3, 1608 Champlain founds Quebec City Jul 30, 1609 Champlain is the first European to use firearms against Indians (Iroquois). Champlain travels with the Algonquins to Lake Champlain where they attack the Iroquois and the French use firearms against the Iroquois. Jan 1, 1611 Henry Hudson explores Hudson Bay and is set adrift by a mutinous crew and dies. In 1611, after wintering on the shore of James Bay, Hudson wanted to press on to the west, but most of his crew mutinied. The mutineers cast Hudson, his son and 7 others adrift; the Hudsons, and those cast off at their side, were never seen again. Jan 1, 1612 Samuel de Champlain is named the Governor of New France Jan 1, 1615 Champlain discovers the Great Lakes The founder of Quebec City and one of the most charismatic figures in Canadian history, Samuel de Champlain opened up the St Lawrence river and extended French influence throughout the Great Lakes basin. Jan 1, 1616 Champlain continues to explore the New World Champlain completes eight years pf exploring, traveling as far as west Georgia Bay. The French and Huron form an alliance. Dec 25, 1635 Samuel de Champlain dies He administered and continued to explore eastern Canada for the next 20 years and on December 25, 1635 he died after suffering a stroke a month previously. Jan 1, 1769 Samuel Hearne attempts to find a copper mines in the Canadian North. In 1769 Samuel Hearne was chosen to head a land expedition to the north to investigate native reports of a great river and large copper mines. His first two attempts met with failure. Jan 1, 1770 Samuel Heane's successful third voyage discovered norther copper mines and important geological information regarding the North West Passage 1770, guided by a Chipewyan, he set off on the third and successful expedition, which took him across the barren grounds to the Coppermine River and down to its mouth. He came back by Great Slave Lake and arrived at Fort Prince of Wales on June 30, 1772. Although the copper mines proved disappointing, the trip was of great importance. In spite of his inaccurate geographical data, Hearne opened up an unknown territory. He gave an accurate and valuable account of the Chipewyan, and he proved that there was no short Northwest Passage. Jan 1, 1774 Samuel Hearne establishes Fort Cumberland Hearne was sent to Saskatchewan to establish Fort Cumberland, the second inland trading post for the Hudson's Bay Company in 1774. Jan 1, 1778 George Vancouver visits the west coast of Canada with Captain Cook’s third voyage. Bad weather prevents Captain Cook’s ships from getting close to land, and the crew sees very little of the Canadian coast in their search for a Pacific outlet for the Northwest Passage. Jul 14, 1789 Alexander Mackenzie journeys to the Beaufort Sea, following what would later be named the Mackenzie River. On behalf of the North West Company Mackenzie travelled to Lake Athabasca where, in 1788, he was one of the founders of Fort Chipewyan. He learned that the First Nations people understood that the local rivers flowed to the northwest. Acting on this information, he set out by canoe on the river on July 10, 1789 following it to its mouth in the hope of finding the Northwest Passage to the Pacific Ocean. He ended up reaching the Arctic Ocean on July 14. The river was later renamed the Mackenzie River in his honor. Jan 1, 1790 Vancouver is appointed Captain of Discovery for the voyage to the Pacific Northwest. Jan 1, 1791 Vancouver leads the expedition to the Pacific Northwest where he spends three seasons charting Vancouver is more famous for the charts he produced of the Pacific Northwest. These detailed charts were the result of an astonishing survey of much of the 27,000 km of coastline in British Columbia. This coastline is an intricate and complex network of inlets and islets, much of it too dangerous for Vancouver’s large ships. Thus the majority of the survey work was done in small rowboats. The work was long and arduous, taking three years to complete. Jul 20, 1793 Mackenzie reaches the Pacific coast at Bella Coola, British Columbia, on North Bentinck Arm, an inlet of the Pacific Ocean. In 1792, Makenzie set out once again to find a route to the Pacific. Thus, he completed the first recorded transcontinental crossing of North America north of Mexico. Jan 1, 1798 Vancouver publishes charts of the coast of British Columbia through Alaska Vancouver produced the most detailed and comprehensive charts of this coast, charts that were used for over a hundred years. Vancouver’s journals and accompanying atlas went into a second edition printing only three years after publication in 1798. There were also French, German, and Swedish translations by 1801, and a Russian edition in 1827.