Sep 1, 1500
Bering Land Bridge-30,000 years ago, the first occupants came to North America from Asia through the Bering land bridge.
-10 000 years ago they settled in the territory of Quebec.
-They followed the migration of the animals because of their nomadic lifestyle
Period: Sep 1, 1500 to
Apr 2, 1534
Jacques Cartier-Jacques went on three seperate voyages in the years 1534, 1535 and 1541
-He traveled to America for three reasons:
1)to find a route to Asia
2)bring back gold and other riches
3)claim land for the King of France
-He wasn't able to accomplish these goals but he did map out the St. Lawrence river
Port Royal-In 1605 was the first voyage of Samuel de Champlain.
-He was sent by the king of France to establish a settlement in Nova Scotia.
-Port Royal failed because of its position.
-It was to far away from the Amerindians to trade furs with.
Quebec-Samuel de Champlain returned to North America in 1608.
-He established the first permanent settlement called Quebec.
-It was constructed to facilitate fur trade with Amerindians.
-The territory was easy to defend and allowed the French control of the river traffic.
Company of One Hundred Associates-The Company of One Hundred Associates was ordered by the King of France to populate the colony.
-They did not succeed in their goal of having the population at 4000 because their main focus was to collect profit for the King of France
Seigneurial system-The territory around the St, Lawrence river was divided into seigneuries
-Seigneuries are long rectangular plots of land perpendicular to the river
-The Seigneur had to provide a mill and a common land for the censitaires
-the seigneurial system promoted populating the territory but it wasn't enough to catch the 13 colonies who were growing fast
Trois Rivières-Sieur de Lavoiette was put in charge by Samuel de Champlain to establish a second settlement which he named, "Trois Rivières"
-It was located where the St. Maurice and St. Lawrence rivers connected.
-This location allowed easier communication between fur traders and prevented the Iroquois from intercepting their trades.
Ville-Marie-In 1642, Sieur de Maisonneuve founded Ville Marie.
-It became the third permanent settlement in New France.
-It was located in the heart of the Amerindian territory.
-Its original goal was to evangelize the amerindiens but it soon became a major trading post.
-It was later renamed "Montréal"
Jean Talon-Jean Talon was the first intendant of New France
-he was told to build up the population by the king of France.
-He encouraged soldiers, minor criminals, engagés and the Filles du Roy to immigrate.
-He offered freeland and created birth incentives
-the birth rate increased with families having more than 8 children
First census-Jean Talon was mandated by the King of France to take a census of the population of New France
-the census was to help determine how many men could be recruited for military purposes
-There were 3173 people living in the colony
British Conquest-The British took over New France
-The French were now considered British subjects and were given the choice whether to return to France or stay
-Many British and Scottish merchants settled in the Province of Quebec, they took over the fur trade from the french mechants
Treaty of Paris-Officially ends the Seven Year War between France and Great Britain
-New France officially becomes a British colony
-British settlers begin to settle in Quebec
-The merchants came to take over the fur trade and most settle in Montreal
Royal Proclamation-Replaces the Military government with a civil governemnt using British laws
-Transforms New France into the British Province of Quebec
-Quebec now only occupies the St. Lawrence Valley
Loyalist immigration-The loyalist immigration was the second wave of immigration to Canada
-It took place during the years of 1783 to 1800
-The loyalists were people who were loyal to the British Crown during the American Revolution
-36,000 loyalists came to Canada and settled in the Maritime
-6000 loyalists came to Quebec and settled in the West of Montreal
-they increased the english population from 1% to 10%
British Immigration-End of Napoleonic Wars in Europe
-British encourages the unemployed families to emigrate to Canada
-They settle in Quebec City, Montreal, Eastern Townships, Outaouais, Gaspésie and South Shore of Montreal
-British immigration is not regulated by the government
Beginning of the Agricultural crisis in Lower Canada-Not enough land suitable for cultivation due to increase in population
-French Canadiens migrate to Canada West
-From 1840-1870, 200,000 French Canadiens emigrate to the United States to find jobs
Height of Irish immigration-The irish immigration was the third wave of immigration
-90,000 people, mainly Irish, land on Grosse-Ile to escape the potato famine in Ireland
-Immigrants arriving in Canada are put in quarantin to ensure diseases did not spread
-Thousands of immigrants die from cholera epidemics
Industrialisation-First Phase: 1870-1896
-Second Phase: 1896-1929
-Many people move from rural areas to urban areas because of jobs in the cities (urbanization)
-New regions are colonized like Lac St. Jean, Trois Rivieres and Abitibi
Indian Act-The Indian Act was adopted by the federal government without consulting the Natives
-Aboriginal peoples had to live on reserves which were the property of the government
-The Indian Act was an attempt to assimilate the Natives and control most aspects of their life
Beginning of Baby Boom-Soldiers return from World War ll
-Birth rate increases
-Growing population living in suburban areas around large cities
Canada's Immigration Act-Preference given to immigrants from Western European countries (Italy, Greece and Poland) and the US
-Discrimination agaisnt Blacks, Asians and homosexuals
Ministry of Immigration-Quebec wants to play a role in selecting immigrants to ensure survival of the French language
-Quebec gives immigrants who speak French preference
-Integration centers established to integrate new immigrants into Quebec society
Quiet Revolution-Birth rates decreases due to Feminism and availabilty of contraception in Quebec
-Women enter the work force
-There are fewer marriages, more divorce and less religion