Economy and Development

  • 1500

    Amerindien trading system

    The trading happened between the Iroquois and the Algonquians. The Iroquois would give supplies like corn, beans, squash, tobacco, etc and the Algonquians would give supplies like fur and dry meat. The Huron-Wendat were the middle man and did a lot of the trading between the two nations. They bartered for resources they couldn't find on land near them or they couldn't make the item. The trade system was all around North America. The system helped form alliances between different nations.
  • Period: 1500 to

    Economy and Development

  • Fur trade

    Fur trade
    The Amerindians gave up fur to the Europeans and they would give the Amerindians iron tools. They attempted to install a trading post in Tadoussac in 1600 but failed in 1601. They created alliances with the Ameridians.
  • European Fishing grounds

    European Fishing grounds
    The Europeans lives were controlled by the church. The church didn't like the population eating red meat every day, so they went to the Maritimes and fished a lot. The fish was easy to catch and there was plenty of it. This made the Amerindians unhappy as it was part of their food supply.
  • Company of One Hundred Associates

    Company of One Hundred Associates
    It was founded by Cardinal de Richelieu in 1627. Around one hundred people financed the company, of this one hundred Samuel de Champlain was one of them. In 1628, one of the convoys was attacked by the British and they also attacked Quebec in 1629. The company might've succeeded in rebuilding the Quebec trading post but the finances never recovered from the attack.
  • The Compagnie des Habitants

    The Compagnie des Habitants
    Created by a bunch of merchants, who settled in New France, and took over the monopoly of the Company of One Hundred Associates from 1645-1663. The company did not have a lot of experience in its administration and it was attacked by Iroquois, so they encountered many difficulties.
  • Economy of New France (Before 1663)

    Economy of New France (Before 1663)
    The mother country and the trading companies of New France believed that New France was to be used as a place to enrich and help grow the mother country. The settlers and religious communities wanted the mother country to make New France a real colony. Samuel de Champlain created a document for the King of France. The document contains all the resources and money they would get from Canada. Fur trade was the main concentration until 1663
  • The French West India Company

    The French West India Company
    The company was founded by Jean-Baptiste Colbert. He was a minister for Louis XIV and in 1664 his company took over the trade monopoly and beaver pelt exports. In 1674 the company the company faded because the Dutch were too big of a competition. The company also suffered from poor management. No other company took over the fur trade and exports after.
  • Mercantilism

    Mercantilism
    Mercantilism is a financial system where you export more than you import therefore making more gold and money. They would sell finished good for more than they needed it to be. Every European country and King wanted to possess as much gold as possible.
  • Diversify the Economy (Jean Talon)

    Diversify the Economy (Jean Talon)
    Jean Talon tried to diversify the economy. He attempted to make the colony economically independent through self-production. Jean Talon brought over cows, horses and sheep from France and gave them to settlers to help breed animals. Wheat cultivation helped diversify the economy. They also cultivated cereals like barley, rye, oats, corn and flax. They cultivated vegetables as well such as carrots, onions, cabbage, beans, lettuce, rutabaga and peas. He supported little shops that people opened.
  • Hudson's Bay Company

    Hudson's Bay Company
    Pierre-Esprit Radisson and Médard Chouart Des Groseilliers explored Hudson Bay, where they attempted to establish a fur trade there. France gave them no support so the two men looked toward Great Britain who helped them found Hudson's Bay Company in 1670. They built trading post throughout the entire area so people would start trading fur.
  • The Currency

    The Currency
    The currency used in New France was called the sols and deniers. One pound divided into 20 sols and 240 deniers. When they had no money they would use other objects like animal pelts or wheat. Intendant Jacques de Neulles and his successors also issued card currency. It was like playing cards and you would put a value on and they would exchange it for cash. Certificates, other scripts or exchange letters were also other forms of paper money.
  • Beaver Crisis

    Beaver Crisis
    In 1690 the beaver economy was in trouble. Many people didn't want fur anymore and the need for beaver pelts decreased however they were all piled up in warehouses in France. King made the merchants slow down the trade and eventually it regained its strength in 1715 because the fur was ruined by rodents and insects.
  • Expansion of the territory

    Expansion of the territory
    Fur was becoming more and more popular therefore they needed more of it. The need of fur led to the expansion of the territory and continent of North America. They explored the Great Lakes, the Prairies to the Rocky Mountains, Hudson Bay, the Ohio Valley and the Mississippi River to Lousiana. The territory was often going back and forth between French and British.
  • Triangular trade

    Triangular trade
    The triangular trade was the trade between New France, France, and the French Weast Indies. New France and the West Indies usually sent material which was found. France would then manufacture and make objects and send it back to New France and the West Indies. In 1713, the triangular trade reached a new stage in its growth as the founding of the Louisbourg port was created for commercial ships who were importing and exporting material.
  • Blockade by Napoleon

    Blockade by Napoleon
    Great Britain always got its wood from Norther Europe (Russia, Prussia and Norway). In 1806 French Emperor Napoleon I wanted to conquer all of Europe. He set a continental blockade therefore Great Britain had to go to Canada for its timer supply. This marks the beginning of the Canadian timber industry.
  • Reciprocity treaty

    Reciprocity treaty
    The Reciprocity Treaty was signed in 1854 because New France neede a new person to trade with. They looked to the South and signed a treaty to allow trade between the two countries. In 1864 the treaty ended and Canada had to look again for a new trade partner. Instead, they created the Dominion of Canada in 1867.
  • Macdonald's National Policy

    Macdonald's National Policy
    Macdonald's Notional Policy helped develop Canada. It encouraged emigration to Ontario and Western Canada. We needed to populate Western Canada because at that time the USA had a bigger population and Canada didn't want to invaded or lose territory.
  • First phase of industrialization

    First phase of industrialization
    The first phase was powered mainly by coal. A railway was created to allow transportation. It allowed the manufacturing industry to grow quite a bit. Everyone had one job and did that job for hours. Work conditions were terrible, and salaries were very low. Urbanization happened because of the phase of industrialization. The cities of Trois-Rivieres, Montreal and Quebec started to grow.
  • Second phase of industrialization

    Second phase of industrialization
    Hydroelectricity was the main source of energy. The also started mining metals. Metals allowed them to create canals, train and many new products were invented. Living and work conditions got a bit better. They also started to import and export new material and better material.
  • Great depression

    Great depression
    Many people started putting money in banks which was good. Eventually people were asking for money and were taking out loans however it was fake money and belonged to other people. People were using the loans to invest in the stock market. However what happened was that people wanted their money back but people couldn't give it back because they lost it in the stock market. The economy decreased and the whole world was affected by crash of the stock market.
  • WW2

    WW2
    World War 2 was the worst war in the history of the world. Many people lost their lives for the freedom of their countries. However, if you look at it from an economic point of view it also helped the economy in the world. The world was affected by the Great Depression, but with the WW2 people got jobs and people started working which allowed money to flow around everywhere.
  • Ways to Help the Great Depression

    Ways to Help the Great Depression
    Farming was encouraged since it would give a food source to the farmers family and if many people did it, the price would go down allowing people to be able to buy food. The government tried to make men make buildings to give them pay. However, in this whole mess what really helped the Great Depression was WW2 because it allowed people to work and create clothes.
  • Quiet Revolution

    Quiet Revolution
    Started in Quebec after the defeat of the Union Nationale by Jean Lesage and his Liberal Party. The Quiet Revolution brought big changes to Quebec. For example, Duplessis made agriculture the number 1 important and the main economic activity. This allowed farmers to make more money.
  • Oil crisis

    Oil crisis
    Many countries who were exporting oil decided to raise oil prices which caused the whole North American continent to be affected by this as it caused an economic slowdown. It caused an econmic recussion.
  • NAFTA

    NAFTA
    NAFTA or the North American Free Trade Agreement was a treaty signed by the Canada, the US, and Mexico which allowed free trade throughout the 3 countries. It increased the economy of the countries.