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The Rise and Fall of New France

  • Aug 13, 1574

    Samuel de Champlain

    Samuel de Champlain
    Samuel de Champlain was born August 13, 1574 in France. He is often referred to as the founder of New France. He established a permanent European settlement in North America and changed France's role in Canada's beginning.
  • Champlain's Second Trip to the New Land

    Champlain's Second Trip to the New Land
    In 1608, Samuel de Champlain returned to North America but this time, he brought with him 28 French settlers. He wanted them to stay and establish a permanent settlement in this new land. During this time, he founded Quebec with the intention of making the settlement a part of the French empire. His goal was to create a colony worthy of carrying the title "New France".
  • Voyage to Huron Country

    Voyage to Huron Country
    Champlain set out on a long voyage to visit the Huron people sometime in July, 1615. The Huron people later became a close ally of New France. A positive relationship was formed and new trading opportunities opened up for the French settlers.
  • Establishing Montreal

    Establishing Montreal
    On May 17, 1642 a group of colonists founded Ville-Marie on the southern shore of Montreal Island. Although Ville-Marie faced many difficult challenges, it eventually grew into a prosperous city.
  • Collapse of the Huron Nation

    Collapse of the Huron Nation
    In 1649, the Iroquois invaded the Huron country and the Huron nation collapsed. The Iroquois were lifelong rivals of the Huron nation and the Huron people had gotten weak due to illness. Once the Huron country was destroyed, the Iroquois began attacking New France.
  • France Comes to the Rescue

    France Comes to the Rescue
    King Louis XIV of France was not going to leave New France to fend off the Iroquois alone. He sent a governor general and soldiers to New France to fight the Iroquois. The Iroquois agreed to make peace once they realized the power New France now had.
  • The Beginning of the Seven Years War

    The Beginning of the Seven Years War
    In 1756, the Seven Years War began. It was fought between France and Austria against Britain and Prussia. The empires of Europe struggled to maintain colonial territory, economic wealth and power. This only increased tensions between Britain and France as they both had colonies in North America.
  • William Pitt

    William Pitt
    In 1757, William Pitt became the British prime minister. His goal was to defeat France in North America which sparked the ongoing rivalry in the new colonies. It also meant that Britain would begin their conquest of eliminating New France.
  • British Conquer Louisbourg

    British Conquer Louisbourg
    On July 26, 1758, Louisbourg was surrendered to the British. It was the key for Britain's conquest because all French supply ships had to pass by the fort on their way to Quebec and Montreal. The British wanted to block French supplies and starve them into surrender. Jeffrey Amherst and James Wolfe led the British attack. The battle lasted seven weeks before Augustin de Drucour, the governor of Louisbourg, surrendered.
  • France Abandons New France

    France Abandons New France
    After the defeat of Louisbourg, New France was desperate for new supplies. Somehow, they were able to receive supplies from France but it was not what they expected. France sent 400 bad soldiers instead of the 4000 good ones that Montcalm requested. Supply ships from France arrived but they only carried one-third of what was requested by the people. France had abandoned it’s colony.
  • British Attack Quebec

    British Attack Quebec
    On July 12, 1759, General James Wolfe landed 3000 soldiers at Pointe-Lévis which is across the river from Quebec. The British bombarded the city and the siege dragged on for the rest of the summer. However, in the end, the British were ultimately defeated in this battle.
  • Marie de la Visitation

    Marie de la Visitation
    Priests and nuns opened their doors to the people fleeing the farms. The convent was filled to the brim with people staying there since it was beyond the range of the enemy artillery. Marie understood that people believed that the priests and nuns would help them so she did. Despite the chaos going on outside, the church was still willing to comfort the people in their time of need.
  • The Battle of the Plains of Abraham

    The Battle of the Plains of Abraham
    On September 13, 1759, General James Wolfe ordered his men to climb onto the Plains of Abraham during the night. By luck, the British troops weren't spotted by the French until they were on the plains. General Montcalm of France marched his men onto the field but were quickly overthrown by the British army. The battle only lasted 15 minutes. The British were victorious and French control in North America had come to an end.
  • Quebec in Ruins

    Quebec in Ruins
    For the first time in Canada, at the top of Mountain Street inside the walls of Quebec, the British flag was raised as a symbol of their victory against France. After the bombardment from the British in July, Quebec was left in ruins.
  • The Articles of Capitulation

    The Articles of Capitulation
    On September 8, 1760, the terms of surrender were completed. Governor Vaudreuil signed the Articles of Capitulation. However, he did win three rights for the Canadiens : the right to speak the french language, the right to keep their land, and the right to practice their Catholic faith. Now that the Articles of Capitulation were signed, King George II of Britain now controlled most of North America.
  • The Treaty of Paris

    The Treaty of Paris
    The Treaty of Paris was finally signed in 1763. France decided to willingly let Britain maintain control of Canada and in turn, Britain let France keep control of Guadeloupe. This treaty completely changed North America because of the influence it gave Britain over Canada.