Aug 30, 1500
Land BridgeThe land bridge is theory of how the first humans came to North America.
The land bridge existed during the ice age and it's a bridge from Asia to modern day Alaska.
The first humans followed their food (animals) across the land bridge.
When the ice age ended and the land bridge melted the humans who crossed the land bridge were stuck in North America.
Period: Aug 30, 1500 to
Sep 2, 1500
Relations with the nativesThe effects on the natives from the arrival of the Europeans:
Aboriginal population decreased(diseases and wars).
Crossbreeding between the Europeans and the natives.
The natives had to move their location because the Europeans took some of their land.
French allied with Algonquins.
English allied with Iroquois.
Sep 2, 1500
Reciprocal influences between the natives and the EuropeansWhat the Europeans learned from the natives:
How to survive winter
Native clothing (warmer)
How travel the land
How to eat: Corn, Pumpkins and maple syrup
What the Natives learned from the Europeans:
They learned about their advanced weapons,
Their iron tools
Their Foods like salt, bread
They suffered because the Europeans showed them alcohol and they got addicted and the Europeans had unknown diseases.
Aug 30, 1534
Jacques Cartier's 3 voyagesJacques Cartier went on his first voyage with three goals: to find a new route to Asia, bring back gold and other riches and to claim land for the king of France.
Jacques Cartier's first voyage he explored and mapped the Gulf of the St-Lawrence, he found a lot of fish, timber and furs.
Jacques Cartier's second voyage he sailed up the St-Lawrence to Stadacona. Some natives showed Europeans how to survive winter and scurvy.
Jaques Cartier tried to set up a colony. France lost interest for 60 yrs.
Samuel de ChamplainSamuel de Champlain was part of the Port Royal a settlement built by a voyage that the king sent. This failed because of its position. Champlain returned to establish a trading post near Stadacona (Quebec). Which would be called New France
Seigneurial RegimeThis was the first method to bring people to New France.
This is a system that divides the land equally.
The king gave pieces of land to rich French men(Seigneurs).Which they would have to develop and receive rent from the peasants (censitaire) who lived on it.
Both the censitaire and the seigneurs had responsibilities to each.
This system was created to gain a larger population but it wasn't enough to catch up to the 13 colonies.
Seigneurs and Censitaires' responsabilitiesSeigneurs' responsibilities:
He had to build a manor on his seigneury and live there.
The seigneur had to build a mill on his land because the peasants needed a mill to grind their wheat in.
The seigneur also had to build a church. Censitaires' responsibilities:
The censitaire had to pay rent. If he didn't pay his rent, the seigneur could take back the land after a few years.
Whenever a censitaire ground his wheat at the mill, he had to give some of it to the seigneur.
Jean TalonJean Talon was sent to New France to help rise the population.
He wanted almost everybody to come except the French protestants.
He offered veteran soldiers free land if they agreed to stay in New France after their service was done.
He offered minor criminals from France who were going to prison to come to New France and live freely.
He brought the Filles de roi (orphan girls found on the street) to New France.
He created a reward system so couples who were married young received a payment.
Jean Talon 2Jean Talon had system of punishments so fathers of unmarried girls had to pay fines along with bachelors 21 years and older.
With the arrival of Jean Talon the population did increase between the years 1663-1760 from 3,000 to 70,000.
The 13 colonies still had a larger population in the year 1760 with 2 million people living there.
Composition of the population (french regime)The population was composed of Europeans, Aboriginals, Métis, and Slaves.
There were 3 social classes: Nobility/Elite (Governor), Middle Class/Bourgeoisie (Seignuers) and Peasants/Habitant (censitaries).
The population was mostly men because they were needed in the fur trade.
Immigration policiesAfter the British take control only the wealthy French would leave New France to go back to France.
The population of New France was 99% French and 1% English, however they are all now British Subjects.
The British people who went back to New France were the wealthy business men.
The measures taken to encourage immigration were granting land to shipping and railroad companies, and immigration agents coming to the aid of immigrants in 1828.
laws discouraging American immigration in Upper Canada.
Effects of the loyalist36,000 loyalists came to Canada.
6000 loyalists came to Quebec.
The English population of Quebec increased from 1% to 10%.
They settled according to the Township system.
Immigration of the IrishWaves of Irish came to Canada because of the potato famine.
During the trip here disease spread on the boat.
There was a cholera epidemic and they were all quarantined on Grosse-Ile.
Emigration to the United States and the WestOverpopulation of the seigneuries leads to:
Emigration to the forest regions of Quebec mostly Outaouais, Témiscamingue and Western Canada.
Emigration to the United States because there were more opportunities over there.
Colonization of new regionsOverpopulation and exploitation of forests leads to the opening up of new areas: Saguenay, Laurentides, Abitibi-Témiscamingue, Mauricie and Outaouais.
They were encouraged by the church, they were not always successful unless some natural resources were present.
Composition of the population english regimeFrench-Canadian remains the majority due to their high birth rate.
English-speaking minority is growing in response to various waves of immigration
Territorial groupment of different ethnic groups in cities.
Different policies to promote immigrationSharing federal-provincial powers with regard to immigration matters under the BNA (British North America Act).
Immigrant recruitment to populate the Canadian and land grants and handing over of land to rail companies to settle the west.
Waves of immigration following international évents (economic crises, wars, etc).
Discriminatory immigration policies until the end of the Second World War.
Relations with the Natives during the Contemporary periodIndian act was put in place, placing all natives on reserves.
Aboriginal claims related to the exploitation of natural resources by the government.
In the summer of 1990 Mohawk established road blocks on the borders to their reserves in Oka just outside Montreal, when a golf course wanted to expand its 9 holes onto native land. The natives militarily organized themselves and the Canadian Forces were called. After 78 days, the stand-off finally came to an end, however the issues remained.
Increase of the urban population and colonization of new regionsRural exodus because there were few to no jobs available.
Urban population surpass the rural population.
Overpopulation due to immigration causes the colonization of new regions.
Bad working conditions and few jobs forces some people to move to the United States.
Composition of the population during the contemporary periodThe french canadians remain the majority.
In the 20th century , la pluriculturality increases in the big cities.
Diversification of the population since 1945.