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The European Reformation

By Chokdup
  • Period: 1510 to 1547

    Henry VIII

  • 1534

    Act of supremacy

    Act of supremacy
    This act starts the Anglican Church and makes Henry VIII the supreme head of the Church of England.
  • 1536

    Pilgrimage of Grace

    Pilgrimage of Grace
    By the decision of Henry VIII to separate the Kingdom of England from the Catholic Roman Church, the dissolution of monasteries, and the Reformation started. They were called "the Pilgrimage of Grace" and it lasted 6 months.
  • Period: 1536 to 1537

    The interruption of rebellions in Yorkshire and Lincolnshire

    The dissolution process was interrupted by rebellions in Yorkshire and Lincolnshire.
    • These were the greatest rebellions ever faced by a Tudor
    monarch. They lasted 6 months and were called the “Pilgrimage of Grace.
  • 1537

    The bible was officially in english

    The 1537 folio edition carried the royal licence and was therefore the first officially approved bible translation in english.
  • 1547

    End of the reign henry VIII

    End of the reign henry VIII
    The death of henry VIII and the the begging of Edwards VI reign.
  • Period: 1547 to 1553

    Reign of Edward VI

    During his reign a series of measures pushed England towards Protestantism.
  • 1549

    Publication of the book of Common Prayer

    Publication of the book of Common Prayer
    Revision of the mass-book, led to the publication of the Book of Common Prayer. Which was written by Thomas Cranmer.
  • Period: 1553 to 1558

    Reign of Mary I

    First Queen of England. She restored Catholicism.
  • Period: 1555 to 1558

    Bloody Mary.

    Protestantism was confined to secrecy as heretics were burned.
    200 protestants were burnt alive.
    which earned her the surname Bloody Mary.
  • Period: 1558 to

    Reign of Elizabeth I

    Elizabeth I was a sincere protestant who followed her fathers and brothers path by restoring Protestantism. But her being also a pacifist, led her to make compromises between Catholicism and Protestantism (a sort of Middle way).
  • 1559

    2nd act of supremacy

    2nd act of supremacy
    Elizabeth abolished the authority of the Pope and restored her authority over the Church. Which make her the “supreme governor of the Church of England”
  • 1559

    Act of uniformity

    Act of uniformity
    Every parish had to use the Book of Common Prayer. people who did not attend an Anglican service were fined.
  • Period: 1563 to 1571

    The 39 articles of faith

    Those articles stated the doctrine of the Church.
    It made 3 important changes: a new ecclesiology, a new doctrine of Salvation, a new definition of sacraments, and of the mass.
    Which is still in use today,
  • 1569

    The Northern rebellion

    The Northern rebellion
    Rebellion against religious reforms and an attempt to replace queen Elizabeth by Mary, queen of Scots.
    The revolt was leaded by the Earls of Westmorland and Northumberland. But its was unsuccessful.
  • 1570

    The pope excommunicate Elizabeth I

    The pope excommunicate Elizabeth I
    Elizabeth I was excommunicated by Pope Sixtus V because she was seen as an enemy to the Roman Catholic Church.
  • 1571

    The Treason act

    The Treason act
    The treason act 1571 was an act of the parliament of England during the region of queen Elizebeth I which superseded the treason act 1534 passed by parlement during the reign of her father.
    The law make it punishable by death any acts of treason, including harming the royal family, waging war against the state or speaking maliciously of the queen.
  • 1580

    1st english settlement in North America

    1st english settlement in North America
    Walter Raleigh set up the first two colonies
    in America in Virginia in the 1580s .
    Area named after the Virgin Queen.
    But it failed because of the voyage and the climate etc.
    But in 1607 Virginia successfully became the 1st permanent
    English settlement in North America.
  • 1581

    The 1581 act

    The 1581 act
    This act provided for the death penalty for any person converting, or already converted to Catholicism.
    It was forbidden to participate or celebrate the Catholic Mass and
    Anglican services were compulsory.
    (£20 per month fine) for Catholics who refuses to attend the anglican services.
  • Execution of Mary queen of Scots

    Execution of Mary queen of Scots
    Mary Queen of Scots was sentenced to death because of complotting with a group of young Catholics against Queen Elizabeth. They planned to kill the Queen so Mary could take her throne, but Francis Walsingham discovered it by deciphering a coded letter between Marie Stuart and this group.
    She was executed in Fotheringham Castle, wearing a bright red dress, the colour of Catholic martyrs.
  • The deafeat of the Spanish Armada

    The deafeat of the Spanish Armada
    Philip II, the Catholic King of Spain supported several plots against Elizabeth and In retaliation, and to support the cause of
    Protestantism. the King of Spain attempted to invade England.
    Which lead to complete defeat of Sapin and England was victorious. Which proof the extraordinary qualities of Elizabeth.
  • The death of Elizabeth I

    The death of Elizabeth I
    She had secured the position of England in the world and she had imposed Protestantism
  • Period: to

    Reign of James I

    The successor of Elizabeth I. He was the son of Mary Stuarts, so Catholics placed high hopes for him, but he continued Elizabeth's harsh repressive laws.
  • Gun powder plot

    Gun powder plot
    A conspiracy devised by a small group of Catholics to blow up Parliament and kill James I
  • Establishment of Jamestown in Virginia

    Establishment of Jamestown in Virginia
  • Period: to

    Reign of Charles I

    Charles faces the Parliament for he is a strong-willed man. This personality of his will causes a lot of problems during his Reign.
  • Petition of Rights

    Petition of Rights
    Because of the stubbornness of the king, who refused to respect the laws, a petition was created to ask him to recognize the illegality of his acts. The King signed the petition but was furious about it, which led to breaking even more the trust between the Parliament and the King.
  • Three resolution

    Three resolution
    The three resolutions declared that whoever tried to bring in “Popery or Arminianism”, or to alter the protestant forms of the Church of England was an enemy of the Kingdom. As well as anyone advising the King to collect customs duties without Parliament’s consent.
  • Period: to

    The personal rule

    Following the three resolutions, Charles I declared the end of the Parliament. During those eleven years, the King ruled without calling the Parliament.Or also known as “The Eleven Years Tyranny”.
  • Period: to

    The Scottish crises

    The end of the Personal Rule and the outbreak of the Civil war were caused by crises not just in England but in Scotland and Ireland. It started because some bishops were against Charle's religious policy. That opposition led to the creation of an army( The Bishop's War.)
  • The short parliament.

    The short parliament.
    In 1640, needing money to fight the Scots, Charles called a parliament for the first time in 11 years. Which only last about 2 months
  • Period: to

    The long parliament

    Charles was forced to pay the cost of the Scots’ army, so he signed a Peace Treaty (Treaty of Ripon, Oct 1640).
    They passed two acts ensuring that: Parliament should meet at least every 3 years and the dissolution of Parliament required its consent.
  • The Irish Rebellion

    The Irish Rebellion
    This revolt broke out because of the domination of Great Britain over the Kingdom of Ireland. (The English and Scottish protestants were sent to Ireland, taking the lands of Irish Catholics.)
  • The Grand Remonstrance

    The Grand Remonstrance
    An important document voted by Parliament that demands:
    the right of the House of commons to choose the King’s ministers, the right for Parliament to control any army sent to Ireland, and the right for Parliament to reform the Church.
  • Period: to

    Civil wars

    They started because of religious divisions, financial problems, relations between King and Parliament and the fact of governing three kingdoms at once (for the first time).
  • Charles I marches into the House of Commons

    Charles I marches into the House of Commons
    Following the grand Remonstrance, the King marched into the House of Commons with troops and attempted to arrest 5 Members of Parliament. This act showed the end of respect and tolerance between the King and the Parliament.
  • Charles I declares war on Parliament

    Charles I declares war on Parliament
    Final cause : Parliament presented the 19 Propositions to the King (extreme: Charles as a constitutional monarch).
  • Period: to

    The first civil war

    This war opposed the Royalists and Parliamentarians ( key commanding officers: Sir Thomas Fairfax and Oliver Cromwell) and cost the lives of 190 000 Englishmen. In June 1645, during the Battle of Naseby, the Royalist forces weakened. In May 1646, the Royalists and the Kind surrendered (victory of Parliament.)
  • Period: to

    The second civil war

    The King escaped from army custody and allied himself with the Scots in November 1648. He promised to introduce Presbyterianism into England: in return, the Scottish army would invade England and restore him to power. This led to a second Civil War. The Parliamentarians were for the second time victorious.
  • Period: to

    The common wealth

  • Charles I is executed

    Charles I is executed
  • England is declared a commonwealth

    A law abolished monarchy (described as “unnecessary, burdensome and dangerous”), the House of Lords was abolished, and the House of Commons had supreme authority.
  • Period: to

    The Crowellian Protectorate

    The Protectorate was a military dictatorship. Cromwell had the executive power, controlled the military and diplomacy, but ruled with the help of the legislative power.
  • Death of Lord Protector Cromwell

    Death of Lord Protector Cromwell
    Following his father's death, Richard Cromwell became Lord Protector in turn but resigned after 6 months.
  • Declaration of Breda (issued by Charles II)

    Declaration of Breda (issued by Charles II)
    Charles II was the son of Charles I. The declaration he made promised: a general amnesty, to continue religious toleration, and to share power with Parliament in return for the restoration of the monarchy.
  • Period: to

    'Reign'' of Charles II, helped by the Parliament

  • Period: to

    The early restoration

  • The popish plot

    The popish plot
    Rumour of a plot organised by the french to murder Charles II and replace him by his catholic brother James II.
  • Death of Charles II

    Death of Charles II
    Charles was succeeded by his brother James II.
  • Period: to

    Reign'' of James II, helped by the Parliament

  • The Glorious Revolution

    The Glorious Revolution
    As James II (Catholic) was getting older and didn't have a male heir, her protestant daughter was supposed to succeed him. But, belatedly, the second wife of James II gave birth to a son. This birth was a menace to Protestantism, so the Parliament invited William of Orange (who was married to Mary, the supposed heir of James II) to invade England. The invasion was a success since William met no resistance. He then became King William III, and the constitutional Monarchy started.
  • Period: to

    Consitutional Monarchy led by William III and Mary II

  • The bill of rights

    The bill of rights
    A text that: demands fixed limitations on the sovereign’s powers, the setting out of the rights of the Parliament and of basic civil rights.
  • The act of settlement

    As King William III and Mary II had no surviving children and all the potential Stuart successors were Catholic, the Act of Settlement passed. This Act settled the order of succession and ensured a Protestant succession, ignoring dozens of Catholic heirs. Thanks to this Act, William III and Mary II put an end to the quarrel between King and Parliament.
  • Period: to

    Reign of Anne Stuart

  • Act of Union between England and Scotland

    Act of Union between England and Scotland
    creation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain.