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The French Revolution

By 213361
  • Assembly of notables

    Assembly of notables
    -group of nobles summoned by King at request of Calonne
    -called for abolition of traditional privileges, esp. exemptions from the taille, a direct tax established in the early Middle Ages
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    First Phase: Causes

  • Great Fear

    Great Fear
    -due to crop failures, there are rumors that landholders and nobles are stocking up grain for themselves or burning it to raise prices. As a result, peasants begin to attack the landholders and nobles, burn records and refuse to pay their dues
  • French Parlement

    French Parlement
    -suspended in 1789 and abolished in 1790
    -13 courts total
    -most important was Parlement of Paris
    -was a law court of nobles that were responsible for registering edicts and laws and could refuse to register a King's edicts
  • Period: to

    Constituent Assembly

  • Meeting of Estates-General

    Meeting of Estates-General
    -meeting of the three estates to discuss current issues
    -first meeting since 1614
    -met due to financial problems
    -3rd estate wanted to abolish old order
    -cahiers de doleances
    -shunned the 3rd estate and kicked them out so 3rd estate made their own assembly
  • Formation of National Assembly

    Formation of National Assembly
    -formed by 3rd estate after being kicked out of the Estates-General
    -ended feudalism and introduced a representative gov with three separate branches
    -econ reforms
    -making of laws through bills
  • Tennis Court Oath

    Tennis Court Oath
    -after the National Assembly was blocked from their usual meeting place, they met at a tennis court where they took the TCO to continue meeting until a constitution was written
  • Fall of the Bastille

    Fall of the Bastille
    -attack in a state prison named Bastille
    -the prison was a symbol of the king's dictatorial rule and the oppressive monarchy as the king would imprison those who opposed him
    -signifies the start of the revolution and signaled the end of the monarchy
  • Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen

    Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
    -adopted by the National Assembly
    -new constitution of France
    -rights include: freedom of religion, speech, assembly and the idea of separation of powers
  • Women's March to Versailles; king's return to Paris

    Women's March to Versailles; king's return to Paris
    -women and some men marched from Paris to Versaille to protest the rising price of food and the lack of food, esp. bread
    -after meeting with the women, the King distributed flour and bread to the crowds and promised to reform
    -the King was forced to accept the August Decrees and the Dec. of Rights of Man and Citizen
  • Assignants

    -an attempt to reform and fix the economy through paper bills used as currency, but because the gov issued so many, this attempt resulted in inflation
  • Period: to

    Second Phase: Liberal Revolution

  • Civil Constitution of the Clergy

    Civil Constitution of the Clergy
    -bishops and priests are now elected and salaried officials
    -lands of the Church confiscated because there was no money and given assignants
    -ended papal authority over Church and weakened convents
    -was opposed by the bishops, priests and the pope
    -imposed to weaken the Church because it became an enemy to the revolution as it served as foundation for the counterrevolution
  • Legislative Assembly

    Legislative Assembly
    -replaced the National assembly
    -formed under the Constitution of 1791- a constitutional monarchy with King as head of state
    -congress with power to create laws, approve declarations
  • Saint Domingue Revolts

    Saint Domingue Revolts
    -Haitian Revolution inspired by the French uprising
    -ended slavery and French control over the colony
  • Declaration of Pillnitz

    Declaration of Pillnitz
    -Austria and Prussia intervene in France
    -promise the protection of the royal family and to preserve the monarchy if other European powers allied with them; declaration of war on France
  • Toussaint L'Ouverture

    Toussaint L'Ouverture
    -son of African slaves in Haiti
    -led a successful slave revolt but then Napoleon imprisoned him and reestablishes slavery in the French colonies. Napoleon's troops were weakened by disease, which allowed the Haitian slaves to lead a successful revolt that led to their freedom.
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    Legislative Assembly

  • Flight of the king

    Flight of the king
    -Flight to Varennes
    -failed attempt of the royal family to Austria in order to start a counterrevolution and avoid the violence of the revolution
    -captured at Varennes
  • Olympe de Gouges- "The Rights of Women"

    Olympe de Gouges- "The Rights of Women"
    -Declaration of the Rights of Women and Female Citizen
    -French Journalist who demanded equal rights for women
  • National Convention

    National Convention
    -split up into factions of the Girondins and the Mountain
    -established after the Legislative Assembly set the Constitution of 1791 aside
    -abolished the monarchy
  • Girondins

    -political party that emerged after the fall of the monarchy after the Jacobins split into factions
    -not as radical
    -faction in the National Assembly and the National Convention; lost the power struggle with the Mountain after Robespierre ordered their execution
  • The Mountain

    The Mountain
    -faction within the National Assembly and in the National Convention
    -radical interests and win the power struggle between them and the Girondins
  • Louis Saint-Just

    Louis Saint-Just
    -joined the National Convention in 1792
    -part of the Mountain club alongside Robespierre
  • Sans-Culottes

    -urban workers with long pants that expressed the revolutionaries pride for not having noble wear
    -revolutionary patriots
    -wanted right to vote and wanted the constitutional monarchy to work
    -they protested because of the high food prices, attacked the Bastille
    -the most radical club
    -led by Georges Danton in the Paris Commune
  • Paris Commune

    Paris Commune
    -gov in Paris who resisted the conservative leaders of France and tried to form their own government
    -lasted from 1792-1795 and was established after the Fall of Bastille
    -led by Danton and made up of the sans-culottes
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    National Convention

  • Period: to

    Third Phase: Radical Revolution

  • France declares war on Austria

    France declares war on Austria
    -revolutionaries wanted war because they wanted to reunify the country
    -desire to spread the ideas of the revolution
    -defend the republic from the Austrians who wanted to restore the monarchy
  • Attack on the royal palace

    Attack on the royal palace
    -The National Guard and mobs attacked the palace
    -the revolutionaries ran through Paris, destroying images and anything that reference the king and monarchy
    -the monarchy's power suspended by the Assembly
  • Abolition of the monarchy

    Abolition of the monarchy
    -the National Convention announced that it abolished the monarchy through the proclamation of the abolition of the monarchy
    -imprisoned the Louis and Marie-Antoinette
  • Louis XVI's Trial

    Louis XVI's Trial
    -Louis was arrested in August for attempting to leave France which made him a traitor
    -his trial ended 6 days later and he was charged with treason
  • Committee of Public Safety

    Committee of Public Safety
    -had dictatorial control during the Terror
    -protection of republic against foreign affairs and rebellion
    -rationed food, set prices, raised armies
    -set up by Jacobins- a radical group in Paris led by Robespierre and Danton who also led this committee
  • Jacobins

    -radical republican group/club led by Robespierre until 1794
    -instituted the Terror also called the Society of Friends
    -spread the ideas of the revolution and encouraged violence to achieve goals of the revolutio
  • Reign of Terror

    Reign of Terror
    -the execution of thousands of people between 1793-1794
    -established by Robespierre in order to achieve compliance with his Republic of Virtue
    -organized and enforced by Committee of Public Safety
  • Law of General Maximum

    Law of General Maximum
    -placement of price controls by the Committee of Public Safety as an attempt to curb the inflation; it didn't really work because the gov couldn't enforce it
  • Vendean Rebellion

    Vendean Rebellion
    -revolt against military drafts
    -counterrevolution that called for the return to the old order and end of anarchy
    -suppressed by revolutionaries through the Reign of Terror
  • New Calendar

    New Calendar
    -an attempt to dechristianize in order to weaken the counterrevolution and establish a republic based on reason
    -Years numbered from September 22 1792, th day of the French Republic
    -12 months based on the weather, each month was three weeks and each week was ten days called decades; having ten days a week eliminated Sundays, the day of worship
    -replaced religious celebrations with revolutionary festivals; at the end of the year, the remaining days are spent celebrating revolutionary virtues
  • Execution of King

    Execution of King
    -king placed on trial and executed on charges of treason
  • Universal mobilization of nation; Total War

    Universal mobilization of nation; Total War
    -the Committee decreed universal mobilization to raise an army to protect the republic from foreign threats
    -raised army to 1,169,000
  • Marie-Antoinette's Execution

    Marie-Antoinette's Execution
    -was placed on trial on the 14th of October 1793 then convicted of treason and guillotined two days later
  • Temple of Reason

    Temple of Reason
    -secular Cathedral of Notre Dame
    -created for a new belief system to replace the Christian faith; the Cult of Reason based on ideals of reason, virtue and liberty
  • Republic of Virtue

    Republic of Virtue
    -political philosophy set by Robespierre
    -France should be a Republic of Virtue
    -democracy and virtue equated and the justification of the use of terror to defend the new government; virtue achieved through terror
  • Execution of Danton and Girondists

    Execution of Danton and Girondists
    -Robespierre became paranoid and killed the Girondists because they didn't agree with his growing radicalism and the Reign of Terror
    -Danton was a revolutionary leader of the Jacobins club alongside Robespierre and stormed the Bastille
    -led the sans-culottes in the Paris Commune
  • Thermidorian Reaction

    Thermidorian Reaction
    -parliamentary revolt on Thermidor 9 Year II
    -resulted in the fall of Robespierre from power and end of the Reign of Terror
  • Slavery in Colonies

    Slavery in Colonies
    -slavery in French colonies was abolished by a decree of the National Convention
    -this move was promoted by the Society of the Friends of Blacks
  • Execution of Robespierre

    Execution of Robespierre
    -leader of the French Revolution
    -established the Reign of Terror in order to achieve the Republic of Virtue, was a member of the Mountain and led the Jacobins
    -became corrupt and paranoid and was overthrown by the National Convention for his growing radicalism and the continuation of the Terror
  • Directory

    -composed of five men who were the executive power according to the constitution of year III
    -replaced the Committee of Public Safety
    -end of economy control; laissez faire
    -suppress the sans-culottes
    -restore the Catholic Church
    -not popular because it people perceived that they wanted to end the revolution
  • Council of 500

    Council of 500
    -chosen by electors who must hold property or be renters of property
    -proposed laws to the Council of Elders
    -legislative body established by the Constitution of Year III
  • Council of Elders

    Council of Elders
    -house of legislature under Constitution of Year III during the directory
    -have the power to accept of reject the proposed laws of the Council of 500
    -elected from the Council of 500 by the Directory
    -chosen by electors who must hold property or be renters of property
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  • Period: to

    Fourth Phase: Reaction to Revoltution

  • Constitution of 1795

    Constitution of 1795
    -established during the Thermidorian Reaction
    -a liberal republic based on taxes
    -five man directory; bicameral legislature
    -suppressed freedom of press and association
  • Second Coalition

    Second Coalition
    -Britain, Austria, Russia
    -partake in the War of the Second Coalition- the 2nd war against France in order to restore the old order and end the revolution
  • Napoleon Coup d'Etat

    Napoleon Coup d'Etat
    -the forced overthrow of the government by a new leader, Napoleon
    -made him the new ruler of revolutionary France
    -replaced and ended the Directory
    -First Consul of France established and viewed as the end of the French Revolution
    -Napoleon was a military man who was able to achieve his power over France by rising through the ranks of the military. After his supposed success in Egypt and Italy, he became the commander of the French army and became dictator in 1799