Task 2 - the History of Reconciliation

By lukejw
  • Period: 100 to 200

    The Early Church

    There was a distinguished daily sin (now commonly known as venial sin) to more death-dealing sins (mortal sin). The daily sins were forgiven through prayer, almsgiving, fasting, self-denial and the Eucharist.
  • Period: 200 to 300

    3rd Century

    The Church created sacramental rites in order to help sinners repent, convert and be re-admitted to the Eucharist, which meant that the sacrament of Penance was recognised as Reconciliation (being more about restoring the relationship with God, than being punished). This involved the whole community with practices including public confessions, temporary excommunications, fasting etc. This ended when the Bishop decided (as he has the power given by the Church), which restored the sinner’s relatio
  • 300

    Decius (Roman Emperor 249-51)

    Decius (Roman Emperor 249-51)
    During this period, Christians were persecuted by Decius (Roman emperor 249-51). This is a good example of the early stages of reconciliation as those who gave false certification or gave their books away were readmitted after repentance and penance. Whereas those who denied there faith served penance until they died.
    Emperor Decius
  • Period: 300 to 400

    4th Century

    Council of Nicaea (325 AD) - stated the forgiveness of grave sins was under control of the bishops. The view on this punishment was of an opportunity to grow which was still a once in a lifetime opportunity and a community celebrated ritual.
  • Period: 400 to 500

    5th Century

    Christianity popularity increased significantly.
  • 420

    St. Augustine

    St. Augustine
    Augustine (408 AD) - defined types of reconciliation as 1. Washing away of sins (baptism), 2. Daily prayer and fasting, and 3. Formal once-in-a-lifetime remission through public penance.Post 430 (the death of Augustine)- 1. Presbyters given power to forgive sins, 2. Leo the Great (objected to public confession and penance).
    <a href='' >St.Augus
  • Period: 500 to Jan 1, 600

    6th Century

    Irish and Anglo-Saxon monks spread the ‘monastic’ practice of penance - Involving private confession, appropriate penance and private prayer/blessing after penance. The first penitentials were created which were books the listed sins and their appropriate punishment (which differs from ranks of inflicted people). Reconciliation can now be repeated and penance related to Lent and Easter was banned. View towards Sacrament was of “the punishment fitting the crime.”
  • 589

    Third Council of Toledo (589 AD)

    Third Council of Toledo (589 AD)
    Third Council of Toledo (589 AD) - a formal rejection of the monastic practice whilst trying to revive the traditional practice of penance.
    Third Council of Toledo (589 AD)
  • Jan 1, 650

    Council of Chalons-sur-Saône (650 AD)

    Council of Chalons-sur-Saône (650 AD) - approving the Celtic monastic practice and pushing for Episcopal control (embracing the power of Bishops). The severity of Penances meant fewer Christians practiced the Sacrament.
  • Jan 1, 1215

    Fourth Lateran Council (1215 AD)

    Fourth Lateran Council (1215 AD)
    Fourth Lateran Council (1215 AD) - emphasis on a more personal confession, rather than public penance. Also, now, anyone who broke the seal of confession was deposed from priestly office and punished. Repetition of absolution was now accepted in society.
    Fourth Lateran COuncil (1215 AD)
  • Jan 1, 1439

    Council of Florence (1439)

    Council of Florence (1439)
    Council of Florence (1439) - A more structured Sacrament of Penance involving: 1. Contrition (being sorry form the heart), 2. Oral Confession, and 3. Penance and Absolution. Ministered by a priest.
    Council of Florence (1439)
  • Jan 1, 1551

    Council of Trent (1551)

    Council of Trent (1551)
    Council of Trent (1551) - in response to Reformers, a push toward reconciliation with God. Defined two kinds of contrition: 1. ‘Perfect’ or ‘sorrow’ - motivated by love of God, and 2. ‘imperfect’ - motivated by fear of hell and of punishment.
    Council of Trent (1551)
  • World War II

    WWIILasting untill 2nd December 1945.
  • Period: to

    Current Day Practices

    It is believed that we are currently in a transition between social views of the Sacrament of Reconcialiation as the effect of the Second Vatican Council and the statement by Pope VI lags due to donflicting opinions. Current Day Practices:Devotional ConfessionThe traditional version of Confession including no visual between priest and sinner, a repetition of the traditional formulas, recite a short list of sins, a penance (punishment) and then a brief word of encouragement followed by an Act
  • Vatican II (1964)

    Vatican II (1964)
    Vatican II (1964) - Lumen Gentium - emphasised that penitents are reconciled with God and the Church community through the Sacrament of Penance.
    Vatican II (1964)
  • Pope Paul VI (1973)

    Pope Paul VI (1973)
    Pope Paul VI (1973) - Ordo Paenitentiae (Order of Penance) - “God, the Father of mercies, through the death and resurrection of his Son has reconciled the world to himself and sent the Holy Spirit among us for the forgiveness of sins. Through the ministry of the church may God give you pardon and peace, and I absolve you from your sins in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit.”
    Pope Paul VI
  • September 11

  • Kevin Rudd - Apology, Stolen Generations

    Kevin Rudd - Apology, Stolen Generations
    “We the parliament of Australia, respectfully request that this apology be received in the spirit in which it is offered - as part of the healing of the nation.” Kevin Rudd
    Apology - VideoKevin Rudd