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    Turko-Eygptian Rule of Sudan

    The Turko-Egyptian was a combination of Egyp and Turkey. They were lead by Muhammad Ali and conquered Sudan and many Sudanese citizens cultivate cotton, they were also forced to pay the high amount of tax to the Turko-Egyptians. The Sudanese started to regain their control when Arabic replaced the old language, Turkish. In 1855, the end of the Turko-Egyptian rule ended when Muhammad Ahamad bin’ Abdallan captured Khartoum. (ppt)
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    British Colonization of Sudan

    The British came and took control of Sudan, after world war 2, they decided that they would no longer have Sudan as their colony, so they left. But before they left they set up a government system that they were sure will work without them being there to help out and guiding them. (ppt)
  • Britain’s Southern Policy in Sudan

    Britain’s Southern Policy in Sudan
    The Britain came into Sudan and created borders between the north and the south. They also created rules and regulations that isolated the south, causing the South to feel that they needed to stand up and have their own rights, not for Britain to control them and tell them what’s right, what’s wrong, what to do, and what not to do.
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    (Sudan Tribune)
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    1st Civil War in Sudan

    There were many reasons that led to the first civil war. The main ones were the Closed-doors policy of the British and the fact that they were forced to make their official language Arabic. The war lasted from 1955 until 1972. It was stopped by Nimeiri in the year 1972.
  • Sudan’s Independence from Britain

    Sudan’s Independence from Britain
    Finally, the Britain decided that it was time they left Sudan. But before they left, they help the Sudanese create a government that would work without them (The British) being there to help and guide the Sudanese through, the British wanted the Sudanese to go on by themselves. However, of the 800 government officials, there were 4 who came from the South Sudan.
  • Anya Nya is Created

    Anya Nya is Created
    This group of separatist rebellions was formed in the year 1963 by Joseph Lagu. They fought in the 1st civil war from 1963-1972. In the year 1972, Joseph Lagu signed a peace agreement with the president, Gaafar Nimeiri. (Digital Journal)This peace agreement was signed in Addis Ababa, called the 1972 Addis Ababa Agreement. Addis Ababa is currently Ethiopia’s capital city.
  • Nimeiri Becomes President in Sudan

    Nimeiri Becomes President in Sudan
    Nimeiri remained the president until the year 1985, when he was overthrown by Mohammed Taha. Nimeri stopped the first civil war in Sudan. But instead of a democratic government, Nimeiri decided that he wanted to take over Sudan and that’s what he did, a dictatorship. During Nimeiri’s time of ruling, there were things such as riots, inflations, where the prices of food rose.
  • Oil is First Discovered in Sudan

    Oil is First Discovered in Sudan
    Southern Sudan discovered oil in their property, and they were very happy because they thought that they would become rich just like when the countries in the Middle East found oil and became rich. But things weren’t going as plan for Sudan. North Sudan said that they would process and import the oil for Southern Sudan, but they took all the profit instead of sharing it with the south, causing the south to hate the north and feel that they were cheating on them.
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    2nd Civil War in Sudan

    There are many factors that led to the second civil war, just like the first civil war. Here are some of them: Southern Sudan had most of the supplies and sources, while the northern lacks supplies, and so they tried to take control of all the resources that the south had. One of the biggest factors that created this war was when the president, Nimeiri introduced the Sharia Law in 1983 which ignored parts of the contract that had been signed by both the north in 1972.
  • SPLM/A is Created

    SPLM/A is Created
    The SPLM/A was created on 16 May 1983 with Joseph Oduho as the chairman of the rebel group. This group was created after the Sudanese government ignored the agreement that was signed by Gaafar Nimeiri and Joseph Lagu. In 2005, the SPLM/A signed a peace agreement called the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA). The SPLM/A ruled the South Sudan ever since they signed the CPA. (ppt)
  • Major Famine in Sudan

    Major Famine in Sudan
    In 1989 there was a big drought in Sudan. The drought caused a tremendous lack of food because there wasn’t enough water for the crops or other plants to grow. The north refused to send any food supplies to the south, because they thought that if they did that, it would be like helping their own enemy. This decision caused thousands of civilians in the south to starve.
  • Darfur Conflict Starts

    Darfur Conflict Starts
    The Arab militias who were paid by the government came in attacked, killed, and tortured the rebellions. However, they did not kill only the rebellions, they killed many other civilians also. In all, over 2 million people died and/or lost their homes in this crisis.
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    ICC Declares Genocide in Sudan

    In 2003 the fighting began in Darfur. To stop the rebels, the government paid the Arab militias, which were Janjaweeds to get rid of the rebels. More than 2 million people in Sudan have died and/or lost their homes in this attack.
  • Omar Al-Bashir Becomes President

    Omar Al-Bashir Becomes President
    When Omar Al-Bashir had the power, he took over everything, like a dictatorship. During the drought in Sudan, Omar Al-Bashir refused to send any supplies down to the south, because he felt that if was like helping their enemy. In the year 2005, Omar Al-Bashir was voted to be the president. He was protested by the SPLM/A, which fueled a new civil war.
  • Independence of South Sudan

    Independence of South Sudan
    South Sudan declared their independence in 2011, making it the 54th state in Africa. This has been a long wait for the South Sudanese. The north and the south have had 2 civil wars against each other because of the conflicts and envy happening among them. There have been an innumerable amount of conflicts between the north and the south, like the Britain’s closed-doors policy against the South, or the oil that was discovered by the South and stolen by the North.