Jan 1, 1500
Land BridgeThe land bridge existed during the ice age, the first humans probably followed their food across it and eventually arrived in North America. Once they arrived the land bridge melted and they had no way home. 10 000 years after they made their way to Quebec. This happened many years before 1500.
Jan 2, 1500
First OccupantsThe oldest traces of occupation in North America is around 30 000 years BC . The Natives believed in "Free" occupation of territory they therefore had no sense of private land ownership and shared land.
Aug 30, 1500
Jacques Cartier1534 Jacques+his crew mapped the Gulf of St. Lawrence, he wrote about what he thought was gold but was actually lots of fish, furs, and timber. 1535 Sailed up the St Lawrence until he reached Stadacona QC. The natives showed the mean Europeans how to survive scurvy and winter. They return with native captives (including Chief Donacona) 1541 Jacques attempted to set up a colony and was unsuccessful. Missionaries attempted to convert aboriginals. France lost interest for 60yrs.
Period: Aug 30, 1500 to
Sep 2, 1500
Jacques Cartier 2Attempted to:
Find a route to Asia
Bring back gold and other riches
Claim land for the king of France
Sep 2, 1500
Relations with the Native peoplesAlliances (between native and french) were formed over trade.
Aboriginal population decimated due to diseases and wars
Crossbreeding between different cultural groups created the Métis
French allied with iroquois
English Allied with Algonquins Europeans learned How to survive winter,clothing, travel,How to eat certain foods
Natives learned: Shown weapons, iron tools,Foods like salt, bread,Suffered due to alcohol and disease
Samuel de ChamplainThe king sent a voyage in 1605. Samuel de Champlain and his crew established a settlement in Nova Scotia called Port Royal. Unfortunately, due to its position, Port Royal failed. The natives did not have the ability to reach the settlement to help The french nor trade furs. Samuel de Champlain and his crew returned in 1608 to 1609 to establish a trade post near Stadacona (QC) (where the river narrows. This would be called New France
Seigneurial RegimeA method of land division was needed (to cultivate the new land)
It was called the seigniorial system The king would grant pieces of land to rich French men called Seigneurs or Lords. They would have to develop the land and would receive rent from the censitaire (peasants) who lived on it.
Seigneurial Regime 2 (seigneurs)Both the Seigneur and the Censitaire had responsibilities:
The seigneur had to:
build a manor on his seigneury and live there.
build a mill on his seigneury because the peasants needed a mill to grind their wheat into flour.
provide a piece of land for building a church.
Seigneurial regime 3 (Censitaires)The censitaire had to:
Pay rent to the Seigneur, if the rent wasn’t payed, the land can be taken away
Whenever a censitaire ground his wheat at the mill, he had to give some of it to the seigneur.
The seigneur could force his censitaires to work three or four days each year on his estate without having to pay them (The corvée)
Jean TalonThe king took wanted to encourage settlement in N.F. so, he put an Intendant named Jean Talon in charge. He created several policies that would encourage this:
Soldiers were offered free land if they agreed to stay in N.F. after their service was done
Minor criminals were offered to move to N.F.
Sent Files du roi, from the streets of France sent over to marry the many men
Payments were given to couples who married young,
Fathers of unmarried girls paid fines
Bachelors over 21 paid fines
British Regimevery wealthy French would leave New France
the population was 99% French and 1% English
they are all now British Subjects.
1763: British immigration starts, first to come will be the wealthy business men.
1791: measures to encourage immigration (granting of land to shipping and railroad companies, immigration agents coming in 1828)
1812: laws against American immigration in Upper Canada
1840: Emigration Commission and permanent immigration office in London.
Immigration of Loyalists1783 to 1800 Immigration of Loyalists and Americans Effects of the Loyalists
36,000 loyalists came to Canada (Most settled in the Maritimes)
6,000 loyalists came to Quebec (Most settled West of Montreal) The English population of Quebec had a sudden increase (1% - 10%)
Irish Immigration1815 A wave of Irish people imigrated due to the Irish Potato Famine Conditions during the passage were difficult and disease spread
A Cholera epidemic forced them to create the quarantine station at "Grosse-Ile"
Emigration to the United States and the westOverpopulation of the seigneuries leads to:
Emigration to the forest regions of Quebec for example Outaouais, Témiscamingue and Western Canada.
Emigration to the United States from about 1840 was high since there was more opportunity in the United States
Colonization of new regionsOverpopulation and exploitation of forests leads to the opening up of new areas such as Saguenay, Laurentides, Abitibi Témiscamingue, Mauricie and Outaouais.These new were encouraged by the church (less trouble), they were mostly successful if some natural resources were present.
Composition of PopulationFrench Canadian remains the majority due to their high birth rate.
English speaking minority is growing in response to various waves of immigration
Territorial groupment of different ethnic groups in cities
Contemporary Immigration PoliciesSharing federal and provincial powers with regard to immigration matters under the BNA 1867
National Policy 1878: Immigrant recruitment to populate the Canadian and land grants and handing over of land to rail companies in order to settle the west
Immigration following international events (economic crises, wars)
1945, diversification of immigration.