The steam engine pumps water out of mines. James Watt perfected the original versions into the "modern" steam engine. This allowed mining to become profoundly more successful.
REIGN OF KING LOUIS XVI
Louis XVI was the king of France from 1774–1792. He was the ruler of France during the French Revolution of 1789. He was executed for treason by guillotine in 1793.
The American Revolution lasted from 1775-1783. The American Revolution was a struggle between American colonists and Great Britain. The colonists wanted freedom from over-bearing Great Britain.
SPINNING MULE DEVELOPED
The spinning mule was developed in 1779 by Samuel Crompton. It gave more control over the weaving process. For example, many different types of yarn could be produced.
Simón Bolivar was a military leader who was important in the Spanish Revolutions. In 1808, he joined the resistance after France invaided Spain.
The French Revolution lasted from 1789- 1799. The French Revolution was driven by conflicts inside of the country, unlike America's whose was driven by conflict with an outside force. Each class was disatisfied with their higher-ups in some way.
The Hatian Revolution took place from 1791-1803. The Haitian Revolution is the only successful slave revolt. This revolt/rebellion also helped hasten the end of slavery.
Toussaint Louverture (born in 1743) was the leader of the Haitian rebellion (1791) against the French. He was able to lead the slaves to the firsht sucessful slave revolt.
Cotton Gin Developed
A cotton gin is a machine that quickly and easily separates cotton fibers from their seeds, allowing for much greater productivity than manual cotton separation. It was developed by Eli Whitney in 1793, and patented in 1794.
REIGN OF NAPOLEAN
Napoleon Bonaparte was a military general who became the first emperor of France. His drive for military expansion shaped the world and changed France's society.
Congress of Vienna
The Congress of Vienna was an assembly that met after the Napoleon wars. The goal was to overthrow Napoleon. They reached this conclusion shortly before the defeat of Napoleon.
WAR OF GREEK INDEPENDENCE
The War of Greek Independence lasted from 1821–1832. It was a rebellion led by the Greeks against the Ottoman Empire. It resulted in the establishment of an independent kingdom of Greece.
There were 2 Opium Wars. The 1st Opim War lasted from 1839 to 1860 and was between China and England. England was exporting opium into China where the lower class population became heavily addicted. Because of this, China's society was crumbling, so they rebelled against England.
UNIFICATION OF ITALY
Garibaldi and the legion of Red Shirts (Italian democrats fighting for a deomocracy) failed in the attempt to maintain conservative power in Europe. However, the aristocratic politician named Camillo di Cavour finally united Italy under the crown of Sardinia.
Communist Manifesto Published
The Communist Manifesto was a short publication written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. It laid out the League's purposes and programs and is seen as one of the world's most influential political manuscripts. The book contains Marx and Engels' theories about the nature of society and politics.
The Taiping Rebellion lasted from 1850–1864. It was a radical political and religious upheaval led by Hong Xiuquan. He was influenced by Christian teachings and claimed to have a series of visions. He believed himself to be the son of Jesus.
UNIFICATION OF GERMANY
Otto von Bismarck pushed German unification from 1850 to 1871. During this time, Bismark sided with Austria to unify the many provinces under the power of Prussia.
Congress of Vienna
The Congress of Vienna was established in 1814 and lasted until 1815. The goal of this congress was to provide a long-term peace for Europe by settling issues arising from the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars. The goal was not simply to restore old boundaries, but to resize the main powers so they could balance each other off and remain at peace.
The Crimean War lasted form October of 1853 to February of 1856. The Crimean War took place in Russia and ended in Russia losing all of its alliances, including: France, Britain, the Ottoman Empire, and Sardinia.
Bessemer Process Developed
The Bessemer process was the first inexpensive industrial process for the mass-production of steel from molten pig iron prior to the open hearth furnace. The process is named after its inventor, Henry Bessemer, who took out a patent on the process in 1855
The Sepoy rebellion, also known as the Indian Mutiny, was a failed attempt for India to escape British rule. This rebellion began in Meerut and spread rapidly throughout India.
Origin of the Species Published
Origin of the Species by Charles Darwin was published on November 24, 1859. Darwin introduced the theory of evolution and the ideal of "survival of the fittest." These ideals had a huge impact around the world and provoced controversy and support.
Emancipation of Russian Serfs
The Emancipation of Russian serfs occured in 1861 and was one of the first and most important liberal reform put in place during the reign of Alexander II of Russia. This emnciaption freed all of the serfs and led the the abolishment of the practice of serfdom, freeing 23 million people.
The Meijj Restoration lasted from 1868–1912. The restoration was a political revolution that was the effect of the Tokagowa Shogunate's decline. The result of this revolution is the modern, westernized Japan.
Indian National Congress Founded
The Indian National Conress was in control of India's struggle for freedom with Great Britian. Since India's time of independence, the Congress has formed the magority of India's government.
The Suez Canal is located in Egypt. It is a 101 mile long canal that reaches from the Mediterranean Sea to the Gulf of Suez. The first modern attempts to build the canal came when Napoleon Bonaparte conducted an expedition to Egypt.
There were 2 Boer Wars, both of which were freedom wars fought between the British Empure and the settlers of the free Boer states. The first Boer war was centered around keeping the soverignty in South Africa from British invasion.
Berlin West Africa Conference
Also known as the Congo Conference, it was the formalization of the scramble for Africa. It gave the powers of the time a piece of Africa and established the boundaries of their territories.
The Boxer Rebellin took place from 1899-1901 and was a violent anti-foreign and anti-Christian movement in China. It ws led by the Society of the Righteous and Harmonious Fists.
This was was fought when Japan wanted Russia to withdraw their expansionist policy in the Far East. Japan was successful, making it the first Asian power in modern times to defeat a European power.
All-India Muslim League Founded
The All-India Muslim League was established in the British Indian Empire. It was founded to establish a separate Muslim majority nation-state (Pakistan) and led to the partition of India in 1947.
Henry Ford & the Assembly Line
Henry Ford introduced the first automobile assembly line. This had a profound impact on the automobile industry and manufactiring worldwide. It was an effective way to massproduce goods with low wage labor.
In 1914, the Panama Canal was completed. The project was overseen by the Spanish in an effort to create a waterway allowing passage between North and South America.