AP European History Important Dates and Eras

  • Jan 1, 1348

    The Black death

    The Black death
    It was a devastating plague that first came to Europe in Italy where it later spread. There was no cure and rats helped spread the disease. There also was no bathing at the time so it spread even quicker.
  • Jan 3, 1350


    It was a time of creativity and art was one of its main features.
  • Jan 2, 1415

    council of Constance burns Hus and ends Great Schism

    council of Constance burns Hus and ends Great Schism
    (1415-1417) Was a split within the Catholic Church from 1378 to 1418. Several men simultaneously claimed to be the true pope.
  • Jan 3, 1450


    exploration that started in the early 15th century with the first Portuguese discoveries in the Atlantic archipelagos and Africa, as well as the discovery of America by Spain in 1492, and the discovery of the ocean route to the East in 1498
  • Jan 2, 1453

    Fall of Constantinople, End of Hundred Years War

    Fall of Constantinople, End of Hundred Years War
    The Hundred Years war was between France and England over who was the rightful king of France. It was fought in France and was later won by France,
  • Jan 2, 1455

    Invention of Printing Press

    Invention of Printing Press
    The printing press allowed for news to be spread faster and it also incrased knowledge by the printing of older books such as the bible for people to read
  • Jan 2, 1492

    Columbus encounters America, completion of recnquista in Spain

    Columbus encounters America, completion of recnquista in Spain
    Columbus finds the Americas which thus helps the economy of Spain majorly due to the new trade and resources available.
  • Jan 3, 1500

    Protestant and Catholic Reformations

    Protestant and Catholic Reformations
    sixteenth century
    changes within the church.
  • Jan 3, 1500

    Price revolution

    Price revolution
    refers to the relatively high rate of inflation that characterized the period from the first half of the 16th century
  • Jan 2, 1517

    Luther posts 95 Theses

    Luther posts 95 Theses
    Luther posted these points to the door of the church because he thought that what the church was doing was corrupt and wrong. He would later create his own religion called Lutherism.
  • Jan 2, 1519

    Cortez conquers the Aztecs

    Cortez conquers the Aztecs
    This was very benificial for Spain as it gained new territory for the Spanish. The Aztecs were also very wealthy with gold which increased spains amount of gold.
  • Jan 3, 1520

    Religious Wars

    Religious Wars
    Wars between religions mainly the Roman catholic Church but also caused due to religious conflict.
  • Jan 2, 1534

    Anglican Church is created in England

    Anglican Church is created in England
    The king of England created this church and was out of rebellion against the Roman Catholic church.
  • Jan 2, 1536

    Calvin establishes reformed faith in Geneva

    Calvin establishes reformed faith in Geneva
    Calvin created his own religion called Calvinism which was a branch off of Lutherism which was a branch off the Roman Catholic Church
  • Jan 2, 1543

    Copernicus publishes Heliocentric Theory

    Copernicus publishes Heliocentric Theory
    This was going against the the church at the time and got a lot of criticism. It stated that the planets moved around the sun and not vise versa.
  • Jan 3, 1543

    Scientific Revolution

    Scientific Revolution
    This was a period of time in which many scientific discoveries were made and it became very popular.
  • Jan 2, 1545

    Council of trent opens

    Council of trent opens
    Had three main points
    1.to bring back Protestants to the Church
    2. to state Catholic teaching clearly
    3. to address the issue of abuses in the Church
  • Jan 3, 1550

    Dutch Commercial Dominance

    Dutch Commercial Dominance
    shipping and trade and the surge of nationalism accompanying the struggle for independence from Spain. Alongside the British, the Dutch initially built up colonial possessions on the basis of indirect state capitalist corporate colonialism, via the Dutch East and West India Companies.
  • Jan 3, 1550

    Age of crisis

    Age of crisis
    A time period of much conflict in central Europe.
  • Jan 2, 1555

    Peace of Augsburg

    Peace of Augsburg
    gave german rulers the right to choose the religion for their state
  • Jan 3, 1580

    Witchcraft scare

    Witchcraft scare
    time period where people accused many women of being witches which they would later kill them.
  • Defeat of Spanish Armada

    Defeat of Spanish Armada
    This established British Superiority over Spain in the Navy.
  • Edict of Nantes

    Edict of Nantes
    It granted a large measure of religious liberty to his Protestant subjects, the Huguenots. The edict upheld Protestants
  • Dutch East India Company founded

    Dutch East India Company founded
    This was a company more fond of trade then the exploration and conquering of the British.
  • Early Modern Society

    Early Modern Society
    the beginning of self cleaning and other methods used in todays society.
  • Baroque art

    Baroque art
    The popularity and success of the Baroque style was encouraged by the Catholic Church, which had decided at the time of the Council of Trent, in response to the Protestant Reformation, that the arts should communicate religious themes in direct and emotional involvement.
  • Stuart Monarchy beginsin England

    Stuart Monarchy beginsin England
    This was a different family to take plac in power of the royal throne in England
  • Conflict between Parliment and king of england

    Conflict between Parliment and king of england
    this was a time where the king of England was losing power to parlimet
  • Age of Louis XIV

    Age of Louis XIV
    France's classical age, including his revocation of the Edict of Nantes and aggressive foreign policy
  • Peace of Westphalia

    Peace of Westphalia
    This ended the thirty years war in Europe and divided the power and threshold of different countries.
  • Charles 1 Executed

    Charles 1 Executed
    There was a rebellion and Cromwell won so the losing king was executed.
  • Commercial wars

    Commercial wars
    This was a time for the fighting of different trade routes and territories.
  • Absolutism

    the acceptance of or belief in absolute principles in political, philosophical, ethical, or theological matters.
  • Rise of Prussia

    Rise of Prussia
    Prussia was taking over Austria and had the help of Russia in its take on world dominance.
  • Newton publishes the Principa Matematica

    Newton publishes the Principa Matematica
    This was the foundation of many important discoveries yet to come in the Scientific Revolution.
  • Glorious Revolution, Peter the Great rules Russia

    Glorious Revolution, Peter the Great rules Russia
    Peter the Great gains land, increaes education, frees the surfs, and changes the economy of Rusia for the better.
  • Rise of Russia

    Rise of Russia
    Russia became very powerful after the rise of Prussia because they had aquired more land and had westernized the country.
  • Bank of England

    Bank of England
    This gains money for England and gives the king power and control over its economy.
  • Commercial Revolution

    Commercial Revolution
    A time period of increased trade among the different countries.
  • Rise of the middle class

    Rise of the middle class
    It was a time of a type of people whos income was not below the poverty line yet not wealthy.
  • Enlightenment

    European intellectual movement of the late 17th and 18th centuries emphasizing reason and individualism rather than tradition. It was heavily influenced by 17th-century philosophers such as Descartes, Locke, and Newton, and its prominent exponents include Kant, Goethe, Voltaire, Rousseau, and Adam Smith.
  • Agricultural Revolution

    Agricultural Revolution
    this was a time of increaed amounts of farming. there was a lot of farming being done in the Americas that was traded leading to a competive economy.
  • Peace of Utrecht

    Peace of Utrecht
    Ended War of Spanish Succession
  • Rococo Art

    Rococo Art
    It developed in the early 18th century in Paris, France as a reaction against the grandeur, symmetry, and strict regulations of the Baroque, especially of the Palace of Versailles
  • War of Austrian Succession

    War of Austrian Succession
    Austria vs. Prussia
    Britain vs. France
    •based on dynastic interests
    •Silesia still Prussian control
  • Industrial Revolution

    Industrial Revolution
    There was a large increase in factories mainly in Textiles which created more jobs which increased the economy.
  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
    Ends the 7 years war and everyone has to give back conquered land except for Prussia.
  • American Revolution

    American Revolution
    The American colonies rebel against Britian and fight a war for their freedom.
  • French Revolution Begins

    French Revolution Begins
    The people of France get tired of the nobles and the kings having all the power and abusing it so they rebel and kill the king.
  • Age of Revolutions

    Age of Revolutions
    This included the famous French revolution.
  • Feminism

    This was revolution where women were upset and believed that they should have equal rights to men and led by Wollstencraft.
  • rise of Nationalism

    rise of Nationalism
    Nationalism was an important factor in the development of Europe. In the 19th century, a wave of romantic nationalism swept the European continent, transforming its countries. Some newly formed countries, such as Germany, Italy and Romania were formed by uniting various regional states with a common "national identity"
  • wollstonecraft begins feminist movement

    wollstonecraft begins feminist movement
    Wollstonecraft was an early feminist promter who mainly argued for better education for women.
  • Napoleon comes to power in France

    Napoleon comes to power in France
    Napoleon came to power in France after the rebellion and would later be kicked out.
  • Romanticism

    Romanticism (also the Romantic era or the Romantic period) was an artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.
  • Abdictation of Napoleon. Congress of Viena

    Abdictation of Napoleon. Congress of Viena
    Overthrew French Directory in 1799 and became emperor of the French in 1804. Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated in 1814.
  • Revolution in france

    Revolution in france
    Another revolution in France that would lead to the rise of Napoloen again but would later be exiled.
  • Rise of Liberalism

    Rise of Liberalism
    Political and economic doctrine that emphasizes the rights and freedoms of the individual and the need to limit the powers of government
  • Revolution of 1848

    Revolution of 1848
    were influenced by Marx and Engels writins and books about socialism and revolutions.
  • Unification

    this was a time where countries were unifying together to become more powerful.
  • Realism and Materialism

    Realism and Materialism
    holds that matter is the fundamental substance in nature, and that all phenomena, including mental phenomena and consciousness, are the result of material interactions.
  • Imperialism

    a policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force.
  • Rise of Modern society

    Rise of Modern society
    The distribution between high, middle and lower class fluctuates less and becomes more stable.
  • Second industrial Revolution

    Second industrial Revolution
    the second revolution that had an increase of industry and factories
  • Crystal Palace Exhibition

    Crystal Palace Exhibition
    reference to the temporary structure in which it was held, was an international exhibition that took place in Hyde Park, London, from May 1st to October 11th, 1851. It was the first in a series of World's Fair exhibitions of culture and industry that were to become a popular 19th-century feature.
  • Modern idea and Science

    Modern idea and Science
    Essentilay the second scientific revolution.
  • Britian establishes direct rule of India

    Britian establishes direct rule of India
    This greatly helped Englands economy by giving them large access to resources and a plethra of trade
  • Darwin publishes "Orgin of the Species"

    Darwin publishes "Orgin of the Species"
    This was very large contribution to science of the time and led the way to new discoveries about the natural word and the study of enviormental science.
  • Italy Unified, Serfs freed in Russia

    Italy Unified, Serfs freed in Russia
    Although the serfs were freed in Russia they still had to pay back the money which put them in debt which made them servants so they technically were not free.
  • Modern Art

    Modern Art
    The second revolution in creativity know as a rebirth of art.
  • Unification of Germany

    Unification of Germany
    The formal unification of Germany into a politically and administratively integrated nation state officially occurred on 18 January 1871 at the Versailles Palace's Hall of Mirrors in France. Princes of the German states gathered there to proclaim Wilhelm of Prussia as Emperor Wilhelm of the German Empire after the French capitulation in the Franco-Prussian War.
  • Berlin Conference over Imperialism in Africa

    Berlin Conference over Imperialism in Africa
    regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period, and coincided with Germany's sudden emergence as an imperial power.
  • Freud publishes "Interpalation of Dreams"

    Freud publishes "Interpalation of Dreams"
    published by Freud
  • Einstein publishes relativity theory, Revolution in Russia

    Einstein publishes relativity theory, Revolution in Russia
    this was ground breaking for science at the time.
  • world war 1 begins

    world war 1 begins
    This war marked the end of the Ottoman Empire wjy was the longest lasting empire to this day.
  • World Wars

    World Wars
    A time period where wars were fought that originated in Europpe but spread out usualy from Germany.
  • Bolshevik Revolution in Russia

    Bolshevik Revolution in Russia
    This was the second revolution in Russia and it led to the reformation of the country.
  • Treaty of Versailles

    Treaty of Versailles
    This treaty ended world war I and was signed in France.
  • Totalitarianism

    concept used by some political scientists in which the state holds total authority over the society and seeks to control all aspects of public and private life wherever possible.
  • Mussolini comes to power in Italy

    Mussolini comes to power in Italy
    Mussolini would end up teaming up with Hitler in World War II.
  • Great Depression Begins

    Great Depression Begins
    This was a time of economical collapse in the United States where the farmers could not find jobs.
  • Hitler comes to power in Germany

    Hitler comes to power in Germany
    He later starts World War II but loses to the allied forces.
  • Munich Conference

    Munich Conference
    leaders of Great Britain, France, and Italy agreed to allow Germany to annex certain areas of Czechoslovakia.
  • World War II begins

    World War II begins
    This was the second world war started by Hitler and his allies who would later be defeated..
  • World War II Ends, United Nation formed

    World War II Ends, United Nation formed
    Hitler and his allies were defeated.
  • European Unity

    European Unity
    time period where countries in Europe are not at war and are allied together.
  • Cold war

    Cold war
    The Cold War was a state of political and military tension after World War II between powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others) and powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its allies in the Warsaw Pact).
  • NATO formed

    NATO formed
    The North Atlantic Treaty Organization, also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance based on the North Atlantic Treaty
  • ECSC formed

    ECSC formed
    The ECSC was the first international organisation to be based on the principles of supranationalism,[2] and would ultimately lead the way to the founding of the European Union
  • Stalin Dies

    Stalin Dies
    This was a major downfall point for the soviet Union and communism in Russia.
  • Krushchevs speech, Hungary Revolt

    Krushchevs speech, Hungary Revolt
    The reforms consisted of changing or removing key institutions that helped Stalin hold power: the cult of personality that surrounded him, the Stalinist political system
  • Sputnik launched, Treaty of Rome, EEC

    Sputnik launched, Treaty of Rome, EEC
    The russians were able to launch a spacecraft into sapce in which they called Sputnik. and the European Economic Community formed.
  • the Fifth Republic of France Formed

    the Fifth Republic of France Formed
    The Fifth Republic emerged from the collapse of the French Fourth Republic, replacing the prior parliamentary government with a semi-presidential system.
  • berlin wall erected

    berlin wall erected
    The Berlin Wall was a barrier that divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989, constructed by the German Democratic Republic starting on 13 August 1961, that completely cut off West Berlin from surrounding East.
  • Cuban Missle Crisis

    Cuban Missle Crisis
    Point in the Cold War where Russia and Cuba allied and missles were a firing point in Cuba towards America.
  • Second Vatican Council

    Second Vatican Council
    addressed relations between the Roman Catholic Church and the modern world.
  • Prague Spring Revolt

    Prague Spring Revolt
    It was to grant additional rights to the citizens of Czechoslovakia in an act of partial decentralization of the economy and democratization.
  • Helsinki accords

    Helsinki accords
    Countries signed the declaration in an attempt to improve relations between the Communist bloc and the West.
  • John Paul II elected pope

    John Paul II elected pope
    He was the second longest-serving pope in modern history.John Paul II is recognised as helping to end Communist rule in his native Poland and eventually all of Europe.
  • Soviet Union invades Afghanistan and Thatcher is elected Prime Minister of England

    Soviet Union invades Afghanistan and Thatcher is elected Prime Minister of England
    Russia invades Afghanistan to try and stabalize the area and diminish the terrorism headquarters that were stationed there.
  • Solidarity founded in Poland

    Solidarity founded in Poland
    It was the first trade union in a Warsaw Pact country that was not controlled by the Communist Party.
  • Gorbachhev comes to power in Soviet Union

    Gorbachhev comes to power in Soviet Union
    He later ends the Cold War and helps tear down the Berlin wall.
  • Berlin Wall falls

    Berlin Wall falls
    the falling of the wall signifies the end of the Cold war.
  • Break-up of Soviet Union

    Break-up of Soviet Union
    this was the seperating of different countries that combined to be know as the Soviet Union.
  • Maastricht treaty

    Maastricht treaty
    It created the European Union and led to the creation of the single European currency, the euro.
  • Euro currency introduced

    Euro currency introduced
    It was the known currency for all parts of Europe.
  • Terrorist attacks on the United States

    Terrorist attacks on the United States
    It severely hurts the economy in the United States because it hit buildings that serve to help trade. It also decreased moral in the countries citizens.