Chapter 26

  • Japan is Closed Off to Europeans

    European traders and missionaries had arrived to Japan before this date. Japan reacted negatively to their presence and responded by sealing off the country to all European influences in order to preserve traditional Japanese culture and society. This is significant because many Americans were offended by Japanese isolationism during the 1800s and wanted to open Japan to foreign trade.
  • Average Standard of Living is Nearly Equal Worldwide

  • Period: to

    Reign of Muhammad Ali of Egypt

    Ali was appointed governor of Egypt by the Ottoman sultan, but established Egypt as an independent nation. He drafted peasants and hired European officers, reformed the government and replaced Turkish as the official language with Arabic. To pay for the plans, Ali encouraged the development of commercial agriculture. High-ranking officials created estates and forced peasants to work as tenants growing cash crops.
  • Opium Imports to China

    British merchants discovered by this decade that the Chinese greatly wanted the drug opium. It was legally grown in India and smuggled it into China with fast boats and bribed merchants. This is significant because it took silver from China and weakened them both economically.
  • Great Trek

    In response to the British occupation of Cape Town, the Boers make their Great Trek into the interior of Africa. In the interior, they fought the Zulu and Xhosa people for land. This is significant because it would lead to further imperialism.
  • Lin Tse-hsu is Sent to Canton

    In Canton, he orders British merchants to obey Chinese laws. The British merchants refused so they were expelled from China. This is significant because it started the Opium War.
  • Foreign Investments

    Around this year, Europeans started to widely invest in foreign nations. By 1914, Europeans had invested over $40 billion abroad. This demonstrates that the gap between the wealthy and the poor allowed for the upper and upper-middle classes to invest money in search of interest and dividends.
  • Demand for Chinese Workers in Cuba

    During this decade, the Spain actively recruited Chinse workers to work as field hands on Cuban plantations. About 130,000 Chinse immigrated and lived their lives as virtual slaves.
  • Treaty of Nanking

    The British, after occupying Chinese coastal cities with Indian troops, forced the Chinese to sign the treaty. The Chinese were forced to cede Hong Kong to the British, pay $100 million in reperations and open up four major cities to foreign trade. As a result, the opium trade flourished and Hong Kong developed rapidly as an Anglo-Saxon enclave.
  • Japn is Opened to Trade

    Commodore Matthew Perry steamed into Edo Bay in 1853 to demand diplomatic relations with the Japanese emperor. Senior Japanese officials, realizing how defenseless their cities were against naval bombardment, signed a peace treaty with the United States. The treaty opened two ports in Japan and permitted trade. Further treaties spelled out the rights of foreign merchants in Japan. The event demonstrates that America was able to open nations to trade with only the threat of war.
  • The Great Rebelion

    An insurrection by Muslim and Hindu mercenaries in Northern India was put down primarily by loyal troops from Southern India. The event is significant because Great Britain ruled India directly after the rebellion.
  • Steam Power is Used on Boats

    During this decade, steam power started to replace sails as the main source of power on boats. This caused a sharp decrease in passenger and freight rates because it was more efficient. Due to this, the intercontinental shipment of low-priced freight became economically possible.
  • Second Opium War Ends

    During the war, Beijing was occupied by seventeen thousand British and French soldiers and the emperor’s summer home was burnt. The war ended with another round of harsh treaties on China. The Chinese were forced to accept trade and investment on unfavorable terms, gave Europeans greater privileges in China and opened China to foreign trade and ideas.
  • Period: to

    Reign of Ismail of Egypt

    Ismail continued Ali's progressive improvements of Egypt by financing the Suez Canal and aquaducts for agriculture. By 1876 his efforts put Egypt into heavy debt. Britain intervened to protect European stockholders and appointed European commisioners.
  • Europeans in Alexandria

    By this date, there were over 50,000 Europeans living in the Egyptian city of Alexandria. They worked as government officials, police officers, doctors and other jobs. This is significant because it demonstrates the role of immigration in Egypt.
  • Meiji Restoration

    A group of patriotic samurai seized power over Japan to create a new government to meet the foreign threat. Hey abolished the old feudal structure gave freedom of movement and created a free, government-stimulated economy. They also rejuvenated their armed forces by improving their navy, requiring three years of military service for all males and attracting foreign experts. This is significant because it allowed Japan to become an imperialistic nation.
  • Leopold II Sends Henry M. Stanely to Central Africa

    While there, Stanley established trade stations, signed treaties with African rulers and rapidly spread Leopold’s flag. The event is significant because it would result in the Belgians taking control of much of Central Africa.
  • The Egyptian Nationalist Party is Formed

    Colonel Ahmed Arabi formed the party to counter European intervention in Egypt. This si significant because the party often resorted to violence to remove the European presence in Europe.
  • White Walls

    During this decade, America and Australia started to pass discriminatory laws designed to decrease Asian immigration. This is significant because it substantially decreased Asian immigration.
  • Pierre de Brazza Enters Central Africa

    Brazza was sent to Africa because Leopold’s actions alarmed the French. While there, Brazza signed a protection treaty with the chief of the Teke tribe. This is significant because it would result in the establishment of a French protectorate on the north bank of the Congo River.
  • Anti-European Riots in Alexandria

    Many Egyptians rioted after continuing diplomatic pressure forced Ismail to resign in favor of his weaker son, Tewfiq. The events caused riots in Alexandria that spread throughout Europe after British ships fired on the city. Ahmed Arabi led the rebellion, but it was eventually put down by a British force.
  • Berlin Conference

    The conference was arranged by Jules Ferry of France and Otto von Bismarck of Germany. It is significant because it established that European claims to African territory would have to rely on effective occupation. This resulted in a mass rush into Africa by multiple European nations in order to claim territory. It also effectively established that no single nation would be able to claim all of Africa.
  • Hindu Indian National Congress

    Educated Indians came together and demanded equality and self-government. By 1907, many Indians in the Congress, including moderates, were demanding independence. This is significant because it demonstrates that a genuine movement for national independence had been created.
  • Period: to

    Sino-Japanese War

    During the war, China was soundly defeated by the Japanese. The event is significant because it resulted in the nations of Europe creating spheres of influence in China. Only general mistrust amongst the European powers and the U.S. Open Door policy prevented full annexation.
  • Fashoda Crisis

    Following the Battle of Omdurman, the victorious British force found that the French had occupied the village of Fashoda in an attempt to claim the upper reaches of the Nile. This quickly became a diplomatic crisis that threatened war. However, the French were unwilling to fight and wracked by the Drefus Affair, so they backed down. This demonstrates that European nations had the sense to stop short of fighting each other for foreign territory.
  • The Hundred Days of Reform

    The Chinese government attempted to modernize to Western institutions to save their country. This event demonstrates the influence of modernizers in China.
  • End of the Spanish-American War

    Following the war, America received the Philippines from Spain. It quickly became apparent that the United States had no intention of granting the Philippines independence, so many Filipino patriots revolted. These revolts were suppressed by the United States. This is significant because it resulted in the United States becoming an imperial power.
  • Battle of Omdurman

    During the battle, British forces under the command of Horatio Kitchener effectively used the Maxim machine gun. Around 11,000 Muslim Sudanese soldiers were killed while there were only 26 British soldiers killed. This is significant because it demonstrates the technological advantages of European powers.
  • White Man's Burden

    Rudyard Kipling argued that imperialism was necessary to “civilize” foreign people. This is significant because the white man’s burden was used as justification for imperialism. For example, the Philippines weren’t granted independence partially because many Americans thought that the Filipinos needed to be civilized.
  • Period: to

    Boer War

    During the war, the British in Southern Africa managed to defeat the Afrikaners. However, the territory gained was united with the old Cape Colony in 1910 as a self-governing colony. The Boers were able to use their numerical superiority to gradually gain political power over the British colonies.
  • Period: to

    Boxer Rebellion

    During the Rebellion, Boxers, antiforeigner patriots, killed two hundred foreign missionaries and several thousand Chinese Christians. This is significant because it resulted in the foreign occupation of Peking, large scale plundering and large reparations by intervening European, American and Japanese forces.
  • Heart of Darkness

    Joseph Conrad wrote Heart of Darkness to attack the pure selfishness of the Europeans colonizing Africa. The main character in his novel starts off as a liberal scholar but quickly turns into a brute.
  • J.A. Hobson's Imperialism

    Hobson argued that the rush for colonies was due to the economic needs of unregulated capitalism, particularly the need of the rich to find outlets for their surplus goods. He also argued that only special interest groups gained from imperialism and that the quest for an empire distracted from domestic issues. Many people ignored the work because they were convinced that they needed colonies to be a succesful nation.
  • Japan Attacks Russia

    The Japanese managed to defeat the Russians. This is significant because they gained a foothold in China and Port Arthur.
  • Japanese Annexation of Korea

    Japan formally annexed Korea. The event is significant because it demonstrates that Japan was a formal imperial power.
  • Qinq Dynasty is Toppled

    A spontaneous uprising toppled the Qinq Dynasty as a response to the decline in the dynasty caused by anarchy and foreign intervention. The event is significant because a Western-style republic with an elected parliament was finally established in China after thousands of years of rule by an emperor.
  • 60 Million Immigrants from Europe

    Between 1815 and 1932, 60 million people left Europe. This is significant because it shows the large-scale movement of European people.
  • The Average Yearly Income is 25 Times Higher in the First World Than in the Third World

    This demonstrates the impact of imperialism and industrialization.