Ap euro

Ap European History interactive timeline

  • Dec 28, 1348

    Black Death

    Black Death
    The Black Death was spread by rats that were infested with fleas. The Black Death caused economic, social, political, and cultural upheaval. The symptoms for the Black Death included high fever, aching joints, swelling of the lymph nodes, and dark blotches caused internal bleeding.
  • Dec 24, 1350


    The renaissance was the "rebirth" of the Greco-Roman civilization. It was also an age of recovery from the tragic events of the 14th century; such as the Black Death, political disorder, and economic recession.
  • Dec 27, 1415

    Council of Constance burns Hus and ends Great Schism

    Council of Constance burns Hus and ends Great Schism
    The Holy Roman emperor Sigismund called on a council at Constance to reunite the Christendom, to examine the teachings of John Wycliffe and Jan Hus, and to reform the church. The council then condemned 45 propositions of Wycliffe as well as 30 of Hus (who was delivered to the secular power, and burned at the stake). The Great Schism lasted for 40 years, and caused doubt to the Catholic Church and Christendom.
  • Dec 24, 1450


    Expansion was an extremely crucial factor in the European transition from the agrarian economy of the Middle Ages to a commercial and industrial capitalistic system, and led Europeans into new and lasting contacts with people who were non-European. The motives were mostly God, glory, and gold.
  • Dec 27, 1453

    Fall of Constantinople; end of Hundred Years' War.

    Fall of Constantinople; end of Hundred Years' War.
    The fall of Constantinople marked the end Byzantine Empire, it had also ompacted Christendom in a big way. Pope Nicholas V had commenced a big crusade right after to help recover the city after the fall of Constantinople.
    The Hundred Years' War had ended when the Bordeaux surrendered, leaving Calais as the last English possession in France. The siege of Orleans was ended thanks to Joan of Arc (a major part in the Hundred Year's War).
  • Dec 27, 1455

    Invention of Printing Press

    Invention of Printing Press
    Johannes Gutenburg is credited with creating the first printing press with movable type, which helped create the "Mazarin Bible" (1456). The printing press enabled the worksof humanists (such as Erasmus and More) to be quickly spread across Europe.
  • Dec 27, 1492

    Columbus encounters America; completion of reconquista in Spain

    Columbus encounters America; completion of reconquista in Spain
    Columbus had set sail to America in 3 ships (the Nina, the Pinta, and the Santa Maria), which was funded by the Queen of Spain. Columbus had named America after Amerigo Vespucci.
    The Reconquista was the taking of Muslims, repopulating Spain, and forcing others to convert to Christianity.
  • Dec 24, 1500

    Protestant and Catholic Reformations

    Protestant and Catholic Reformations
    (16th century)
    The Protestant and Catholic reformations were caused by the church corruption, the Avignon papacy, conciliarism, development of personal devotions, greedy secular leaders, Papal need for money which led them to sell indulgences, and the printing press.
  • Dec 27, 1500

    Price Revolution

    Price Revolution
    (16th century)
    The Price Revolution was a period of time thatt the Western European economy has a consistent inflation in prices. Contributions to the Price Revolution was a growth of population (which also had a rising demand),and an income of gold and silver from the New World.
  • Dec 27, 1500

    Early Modern Society

    Early Modern Society
    The Early Modern Society included multiple things, such as the Witchcraft craze, as well as the Civil War. The Civil War has Charles I executed, the Parliment getting rid of monarchy, and then Oliver Cromwell dissolving the Parliment. The old powers of monarchy, however, is then restored by Charles II (he also passed the "Declaration of Indulgences" which suspended the laws that the Parliment passed against Catholics and Puritans)
  • Dec 28, 1517

    Luther posts 95 Theses

    Luther posts 95 Theses
    Luther had witnessed the selling of indulgences by Johann Tetzel. Luther was apalled, being that he thought that salvation could not be sold by the pope, but a free gift from God. Luther had posted his "Ninety-five Theses" to the door of Castle Church in Wittenburg; thanks to the printing press the "Ninety-five Theses" had spread across Europe.
  • Dec 28, 1519

    Cortez conquers Aztecs

    Cortez conquers Aztecs
    Hernan Cortes, a Spanish conquistador, entered the Aztec territory with a small band of his men, in which the Aztecs had thought they were sent there by their God Quetzalcoatl. The Spanish took a lot of the Aztecs' gold, however in the end the Aztecs were defeated by disease (such as the measles).
  • Dec 24, 1520

    Religious Wars

    Religious Wars
    During the religious wars, there were two sides, the Huguenots who fought for religious liberty and the Guises who fought to eliminate Calvinism and for the control of France. The wars took place in France.
  • Dec 28, 1534

    Act of Supermacy in England creates Angelican Church

    Act of Supermacy in England creates Angelican Church
    In 1533, Henry defied the pope and married Anne Boleyn. The Parliament then passed the Act of Supremacy which declared that the Enligh king to be the "Protector and Supreme Head of the Church and Clergy of England", however Henry VIII rejected it.
  • Dec 29, 1536

    Calvin established reformed faith in Geneva

    Calvin established reformed faith in Geneva
    Calvin and his followers regulated all aspects of life in Geneva. They banned activities such as playing cards, dancing, and attending the theater. They also enforced a strict high standard of morality that included attending church regularly.
  • Dec 27, 1543

    Scientific Revolution

    Scientific Revolution
    There was belief in Alchemy, which was the ideas of transmutation (the mixing of chemicals and alchemy signs). The Ptolemaic/Geocentric model was widely accepted and promoted by the Roman Catholic Church, however Copernicus and Kepler both discredit the geocentric model and promote the heliocentric model. Women also start to get involved with modern science as well.
  • Dec 29, 1543

    Copernicus publishes heliocentric theory

    Copernicus publishes heliocentric theory
    Copernicus was a Polish clergyman and astronomer. He first proposed the heliocentric model in his book "On the Revolutions of Heavenly Bodies", which directly challenged the geocentric model. The heliocentric theory is a theory of the Sun being in the center of the universe.
  • Dec 29, 1545

    Council of Trent opens

    Council of Trent opens
    The Council of Trent reaffirmed Catholic doctrines (they rejected Luther’s doctrine of justification, Protestant belief in the supremacy of the Bible, and Luther’s contention. The Council of Trent also reformed church abuses, reasserted traditional practices, and resisted limiting papal authority.
  • Dec 27, 1550

    Dutch Commercial Dominance

    Dutch Commercial Dominance
    The Dutch Republic was Europe's leading commercial power; Amsterdam was Europe's financial center up until the French Revolution. Shipbuilding was actually a big role in the increase of the Dutch economy. The Dutch also replaced the Italians as the bankers of Europe, and the Dutch East Indies Company gained control of the spice trade in the East Indies.
  • Dec 27, 1550

    Age of Crisis

    Age of Crisis
    The age of Crisis was caused by things such as the population (population increasing and decreasing), the Price Revolution and the Enclosure movement, as well as the Scientific Revolution. There was also financial crisis because of the war.
  • Dec 29, 1555

    Peace of Augsburg ends religious war in Germany; Charles V abdicates

    Peace of Augsburg ends religious war in Germany; Charles V abdicates
    Between 1546 and 1555, a religious civil war between Catholics and Protestants (Charles V and German Princes) tore Germany apart. The Peace of Augsburg ended the civil war, and gave each German prince the right to determine the religion of his state (either Roman Catholic or Lutheran).
    Charles V gave the sovereignty of the Netherlands to his son Philip of Spain, being that his health was taking a toll for the worst.
  • Dec 27, 1580

    Witchcraft Scare

    Witchcraft Scare
    Women were mostly at blame as victims of witchcraft (mostly older women and widows). Reasons for the craze mostly had to do with religious uncertainty and social conditions, Those accused of witchcraft were usually put on trial and if found guilty they would be hung or burned at the stake.
  • Defeat of Spanish Armada

    Defeat of Spanish Armada
    Under the command of Lord Charles Howard and Sir Francis Drake, the English naval had defeated the Spanish Armada. It had also boosted the English morale, as well as lowered Spain's morale.
  • Edict of Nantes ends French religious wars

    Edict of Nantes ends French religious wars
    The Edict of Nantes granted religious toleration to the French Huguenots. It had also established Henry IV as a politique who placed political expediency above religious principles.
  • Baroque Art

    Baroque Art
    Baroque replaced Mannerism, and started in Italy and then spread to the rest of Europe. Baroque artists tried to combine the classical ideals of Renaissance art with the spiritual feelings of the 16th century religious revival. The baroque painting style was known for its use of dramatic effects to cause emotion.
  • Commercial Revolution

    Commercial Revolution
    (17th and 18th century)
    The Commercial Revolution was caused by new ocean trade routes, population growth, the Price revolution, and new new nation-centered economic system. The key features for the Commercial revolution was new entrepreneurs, new industries, new domestic/putting-out system, and new joint-stock companies. The consequences consisted of the decline of early commerical centers, rise of capitalism, and the rise of bourgeoise.
  • Dutch East India Company founded

    Dutch East India Company founded
    The Dutch East Indies Company displaced the Portuguese and gained control of the lucrative spice trade in the East Indies.
  • Conflict between Parliament and King in England

    Conflict between Parliament and King in England
    The conflict between the Parliament and the King in England started with James I. Puritan members of Parliament urged James to "purify" the church of England, James convinced that the Presbyterian system of church government would destroy royal control of the church and threaten the monarchy. Then when Charles I took control, the Parliament passed a number of laws that limited royal power. Charles II restored the royal power.
  • Stuart monarchy begins in England

    Stuart monarchy begins in England
    The Stuarts were the first kings of the United Kingdom. King James I of England was also King James VI of Scotland, which combined the two thrones for the first time. The Stuarts reigned in England and Scotland from 1603 to 1714
  • Age of Louis XIV

    Age of Louis XIV
    Louis XIV (also know as the "Sun King") was known as being France's most powerful monarch and did not share his power with the Parliament. Louis XIV was also responsible for the Palace of Versailles, which was designed as a visable power of Louis' power and greatness. Louis XIV also revoked the Edict of Nantes.
  • Peace of Westphalia ends Thirty Years’ War

    Peace of Westphalia ends Thirty Years’ War
    Hundreds of diplomats representing the German states, France, Sweden, Spain, the Dutch and the pope met in Westphalia. The provisions were that each of the over 300 German states received the right to conduct diplomacy and make treaties, rulers were allowed to decide the religious faith in their territory, the independence of the Dutch Republic and neutrality of Switzerland were formally recognized, the French annexed part of Alsace, and Sweden received additional territory around the Baltic Sea
  • Charles I executed in England

    Charles I executed in England
    Charles was forced to go onto trial where he was convicted of treason and sentenced to death (he was beheaded)
  • Absolutism

    Absolutism was a system in which the soverign power/ultimate power in the state rested in the hands of a king who claimed to rule by divine right. Absolutism was a response of to the crises of the 16th and 17th centuries, and a search of order (an extension of monarchy was as a stabilizing force).
  • Commercial Wars

    Commercial Wars
    The Commercial wars were conflicts started between the Dutch and British. The Commercial wars had a huge impact for the fact that they caused conflict between other multiple European countries over resources.
  • Rise of Prussia

    Rise of Prussia
    Frederick William the Great laid the foundation for Prussia. He first created a strong army of about 40,000 men, he also then built Prussia's economy by following the faishonable mercantilist policies. Frederick William the Great's son Frederick III had also made further contributions and then became King Frederick I.
  • Newton publishes “Principia Mathematics”

    Newton publishes “Principia Mathematics”
    Newton’s “Principia” combined Kepler’s laws of planetary motion, Galileo’s laws of inertia and falling bodies, and Newton’s own conception of gravitation into a single mathematical law of universal gravitation. Newton’s concise mathematical formula described all forms of celestial and terrestrial motion.
  • Glorious Revolution; Peter the Great’s reign begins in Russia

    Glorious Revolution; Peter the Great’s reign begins in Russia
    The Glorious Revolution replaced James II with Mary and William of Orange.
    Peter the Great recognized that Russia had fallen behind Western Europe, so he expanded Russia’s army and created a navy. Peter the Great had also improved the agriculture by importing potatoes, strengthened the economy by importing skilled workers, and liberated Russian women by allowing them to go out in public without their veils.
  • Rise of Russia

    Rise of Russia
    Peter the Great accelerated the westernizing process noticeably. Peter the Great reorganized the army (having both Russians and Europeans, and an army of 210,000 men), he also created the first Russian navy. He also reorganized the central government (partly along Western lines).
  • Bank of England founded

    Bank of England founded
    The Bank of England was founded to act as the Government's banker and debt-manager. Since then their role has developed.
  • Rise of the Middle Class

    Rise of the Middle Class
    (18th century)
    There was an increase in wealthy middle class. There was also more primary schools available.
  • Enlightenment

    (18th century)
    Immanuel Kant describes the Enlightenment with his quote,"Man leaving his self-caused immaturity. People were using the scientific method to understand life, there was also a new skeptism (about religion and growing secularization), and travel books become popular.
  • Agricultural Revolution

    Agricultural Revolution
    (18th century)
    There was traditional agricultural production (peasants in village communities farmed much of the land in western Europe, and used an open-field system). There was also innovations in the low countries (such as enclosed fields, continuous crop rotation, use of manure as fertilizer, and etc.). English agriculture had the enclosure movement (landowners consolidated the land, and forced many poor people to move to the city).
  • Peace of Utrecht; Death of Louis XIV

    Peace of Utrecht; Death of Louis XIV
    The Treaty of Utrecht created a new balance of power that preserved peace for 30 years.
    Louis XIV died of gangrene at Versailles.
  • Rococo Art

    Rococo Art
    Rococo stressed grace and gentle actions, and had a fondess for curves. Rococo displayed the pursuit of pleasure, happiness, and love.
  • War of Austrian Succession begins

    War of Austrian Succession begins
    There was an Austrian and Prussian rivalry; Frederick had captured Silesia with the support of France. Then there was the Anglo-French rivalry; the French supported Prussia and the English supported Austria and in Canada, American colonists captured the French fortress of Louisbourg.
  • Industrial Revolution

    Industrial Revolution
    The Industrial revolutions is responsible for major changes in agriculture, manufactoring, mining, transport, and technology. The economy and technology was increaing rapidly alongside the developement of the steam-powered ship. The Industrial Revolution had improved living conditions for some.
  • Treaty of Paris ends Seven Years’ War

    Treaty of Paris ends Seven Years’ War
    The British acquired French Canada and the land between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River. France retained her Caribbean sugar islands and a few commercial installations in India. Prussia had also took possession of Prussia.
  • American Revolution; Smith publishes “Wealth of Nations”

    American Revolution; Smith publishes “Wealth of Nations”
    The American Revolution allowed the English colonies to free themselves from England.
    Smith included classical economic thought his laissez-faire economics beliefs in "Wealth of Nations".
  • Age of Revolutions

    Age of Revolutions
    The age of Revolutions displayed change in a lot of countries (such as change in the government), because there was multiple conflicts. The age of revolutions included the American Revolution, French Revolution, and etc.
  • French Revolutions begins

    French Revolutions begins
    The French Revolution was inspired by radical and liberal ideas, and marked the global decline of absolute monarchies and organized religions and then replaced them with democracies and republics.
  • Rise of Nationalism

    Rise of Nationalism
    Nationalism is the belif that a nation has a group of people who have similar traditions, history, as well as language. Nationalists would argue that every nation should be sovereign and include everyone in a community, as well as a person's greatest loyalty should be to the nation-state.
  • Feminism

    Feminism is the equality between the two genders. The first feminism (per say) that we see in Mary Wollstonecraft, who wrote "Vindication of the Rights of Women"(1792), this piece by her goes on how the subjection of women by men is wrong.
  • Wollstonecraft begins feminist movement with “Vindication of Rights of Women”

    Wollstonecraft begins feminist movement with “Vindication of Rights of Women”
    Wollstonecraft was an English author and early feminist. The “Vindication of Rights of Women” argued that women are not naturally inferior to men, that they only appear inferior because of their lack of education.
  • Napoleon comes to power in France

    Napoleon comes to power in France
    Napoleon quickly took command of the new government, as first consul he held all the power and made all the decisions. Napoleon’s popularity continued to rise as he restored order, simulated prosperity, and defeated the Second Coalition. He had also used democracy to destroy democracy, and transformed France into a efficient modern state.
  • Romanticism

    (first half of the nineteenth century)
    The Romanticism movement influenced religion, art, music, and philosophy; it also inspired a desire for freedom of thought,feeling, and action.The key characteristics were the primacy of emotion, a different past, and a new view of nature. Romantics believed in a loving, personal God.
  • Abdication of Napoleon; Congress of Vienna

    Abdication of Napoleon; Congress of Vienna
    The allies ended Napoleon's rule as emperor of France and sent him into exile on Elba, beacause of the Treaty of Fontainebleau.This left France with no more dictator.
    The Congress had a settlement which the victors and France both agreed to, and lead to a balance of power in Europe.
  • Rise of Liberalism

    Rise of Liberalism
    Liberalism is a viewpoint or idea of liberty. Liberalism owed much to the Enlightenment, the American and French Revolution, and it was also significant during the Industrial Revolution. There is economic liberalism (the idea of "laissez-faire") and political liberalism (which is the basic rights to the people).
  • Revolution in France, Belgian and Greek independence

    Revolution in France, Belgian and Greek independence
    In 1824, Charles X succeeds his brother Louis XVIII and opposed to republicanism, liberalism, and constitutionalism. Charles X’s policies angered his liberal and working-class opponents, which started 3 days of rioting. The working-class had won, and helped Louis Philippe become “King of the French”.
    Belgium had become a nuetral state, while Greece had become an independent state.
  • Revolutions of 1848; Marx and Engels publish “Communist Manifesto”

    Revolutions of 1848; Marx and Engels publish “Communist Manifesto”
    The causes of the Revolutions of 1848 was that conservative leaders steadfastly refused to respond to the problems and social tensions created by industrialization to the problems and social tensions created by industrialization and urbanization, nationalists in Italy and Germany yearned for unification and national minorities in the Austrian Empire demanded independence.
    The "Communist Manifesto" affected how people thought. In the book they argued that women were exploited by men.
  • Unification and Nation-Building

    Unification and Nation-Building
    There was a unification with countries such as Italy, and Germany. The situation with italy is that there was repeated failures, continued obstacles, and piedmont leadership. The situation with Germany is that there was obstacles to unity and there was Prussia's growing strength. Then in France, they were rebuilding Paris and transformed it France's symbol of prosperity and greatness.
  • Realism and Materialism

    Realism and Materialism
    The key characteristics of realism is that it disenchanted with romanticism, focused on the daily concerns of people such as workers and peasants, and it critized the cruelty of industrial life and the greed and insensitivity of the wealthy. Materialism, on the other hand, was a desire for wealth and material possessions with little interest in ethical and spiritual matters.
  • Second Industrial Revolution

    Second Industrial Revolution
    The second Industrial Revolutions had new industries (such as steel production), new sources of power (such as electricity, oil, and gasoline), new forms of communication and transportion (such as the telephone), and new industrial powers (Germany emerged as Europe's leading industrial power).
  • Imperialism

    European nations excerised increasing economic and political power control over Africa and Asia. European nations then tried to rule vast regions of the world. The imperialist powers seized control over some areas (such as Germany, East Africa, and French Indo-China), and the great powers established spheres of influence over large parts of China. The consequences of imperialism was that it damaged and sometimes destroyed native cultures, created a global economy, and etc.
  • Rise of Modern Society

    Rise of Modern Society
    (second half of 19th century)
    There was population growth, urbanization, and changes concerning the right's of woman. These developments contributed to help create the modern society that is still currently going on.
  • Modern Ideas and Science

    Modern Ideas and Science
    There was the bacterial revolution with the contribution of Louis Pasteur (discovered that heat can destroy harmful bacteria), Robert Koch (identified the tuberculosis bacteria), Joseph Lister (introduced carbolic acid to sterilize surgical instruments and wounds); this decreased the European death rates. There was also Charles Darwin's theory of evolution (which is basically only the fittest survive).
  • Crystal Palace Exhibition in Britain

    Crystal Palace Exhibition in Britain
    he Crystal Palace was a cast-iron and plate-glass building originally erected in Hyde Park, London, England. It had also symbolized the industrial, military, and economic superiority of Great Britain.
  • Britain establishes direct rule of India

    Britain establishes direct rule of India
    Britain took most of India's resources, however they did contribute infrastructure and postal services to India. India had the most valuable provinces of the British Empire and was known as "the jewel in the British crown".
  • Darwin publishes “Origin of the Species”

    Darwin publishes “Origin of the Species”
    Darwin’s book “Origin of the Species” challenged the idea of the special creation by proposing a revolutionary theory of biological evolution. It proposed that every plant and animal “struggle for existence”, and only the “fittest survive” which is determined by natural selection.
  • Italy unified; Russian serfs emancipated

    Italy unified; Russian serfs emancipated
    Italian unification was a political and social movement that united the urban/industrialized Northern Italy and the rural/poor Southern Italy.
    The serfs were free, but they still had the same obligations, couldn't land, and now had to pay taxes.
  • Modern Art

    Modern Art
    The key characteristics for impressionism was that it captured a moment in time (a slice of life), interested in the fleeting effects of light on color, and depicted leisure activitiedof the parisian bourgeoisie. The key characteristics of cubism was that is presented multiple views of the same objects, it fragmented forms into flat/jagged shapes, and it portrayed flat/2d space without traditional linear perspective.
  • Unification of Germany;Paris Commune and Third Republic in France

    Unification of Germany;Paris Commune and Third Republic in France
    When Germany reunited it created a balance of power in Europe, and it lead to them becoming industrialized and became a huge opponet to Europe.
    The Third Republic of France did not last long.
  • Berlin Conference over imperialism in Africa

    Berlin Conference over imperialism in Africa
    The conference had European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period. Leopold II of Belgium had taken control over the Congo.
  • Freud publishes "Interpretation of Dreams"

    Freud publishes "Interpretation of Dreams"
    Freud had analyzed dreams with a series of experiments, and even used his own research. It had also influenced the modern art and literature.
  • Einstein publishes relatively theory;Revolution of 1905 in Russia

    Einstein publishes relatively theory;Revolution of 1905 in Russia
    Einstein had challenged traditional conceptions of time, space, and motion.
  • World Wars

    World Wars
    The World Wars both started because of Germany; World War I started because Germany invaded Belgium, while World War II started because Geman forces attack Poland and then Great Britain and France declared war on Germany. Women also had to take over the men's job because the men were off at war.
  • World War I begins

    World War I begins
    WWI had caused unprecedented death and destruction, overthrew established monarchies and social orders in Russia, Germany and Hungary. It had also led many people to question the optimistic belief in reason, progress, and individual rights.
  • Bolshevik Revolution in Russia

    Bolshevik Revolution in Russia
    The Revolution overthrew the imperial government and put the Bolsheviks in power. It had ended with the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, and Russia losing a quarter of its European territory as well as a 3rd of its population
  • Treaty of Versailles ends World War I

    Treaty of Versailles ends World War I
    Germany had lost 13% of their land (including Alsace-Lorraine), and their territories in Africa and the Pacific were given to Britain, France, and Japan. Poland then became an independent nation again and even got some of Germany's land. Germany's army was also limited and they had to pay reparations. The final signing took place in the Hall of Mirrors in Versailles.
  • Totalitarianism

    Totalitarianism is a form a government that doesn't allow individual freedom, and the goverment rules every (basically a dictatorship, but with the government). Italy's dictator Benito Mussolini used the term "totalitario" in 1920 to describe the state that Italy was in.
  • Fascists and Mussolini come to power in Italy

    Fascists and Mussolini come to power in Italy
    Mussolini quickly joined his power and organized a Fascist state. He outlawed all political parties excepts the Fascist. His propaganda encouraged Italians to accept his leadership without question, his billboards were all around Italy.
  • Great Depression starts

    Great Depression starts
    The Great Depression was caused by the American stock market crashing, which lead to enormous financial losses and triggered a global financial crisis. The financial crisis had also led to sharp declines in global trade and manufacturing. The government cut budgets and reduced spending, helping to accelerate the downward economic spiral.
  • Hitler comes to power in Germany

    Hitler comes to power in Germany
    Hitler rose to power because he concluded that he would not overthrow the Welmar Republic by revolutionary means, however he used the electoral process to legally gain power. Hitler also skillfully used modern propaganda techniques to convince the German people to follow his leadership, and used an ideology that exploited their fears.
  • Munich Conference-height of appeasement

    Munich Conference-height of appeasement
    The Munich Conference ended with Sudtenland handed over to HItler and discrediting the British policy of appeasement. It also became a symbol of surrender, and following it was WWII.
  • World War II begins

    World War II begins
    In August 1939< Germany and the Soviet Union stunned the world by announcing a 10-year nonaggression pact, and even secretly agreed to divide eastern Europe. The in September that same year, German forces attacked Poland, and two days later Great Britian and France declared war on Germany. Germany's Blitzkrieg (lightening war) combined fast-moving armor and air power to overwhelm Poland.
  • European Unity

    European Unity
    The European unity has brought Europe about 60 years of peace, and even lauched the european currency. It also unified Europe towards a common enemy after the fall of Constantinople.
  • Cold War

    Cold War
    The Cold War was fought between America and the Soviet Union (Russia). It was caused because the Soviet Union tried to spread communism, which America feared a communist attack as the Soviet feared a counter-attack. The Cold War help create the Nato Alliance and the Warsaw Pact.
  • World War II ends;United Nations founded

    World War II ends;United Nations founded
    When WWII ended the Nazi regime ended, and the Berlin wall was put up.
    The UN is a replacement for the League of Nations, was created to prevent another such conflict, and was an intergovernmental organization to promote international co-operation.
  • NATO formed

    NATO formed
    NATO was founded in response of the threat proposed by the Soviet Union. NATO was the 1st peacetime military alliance the United States entered into outside of the Western Hemisphere.
  • European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) formed

    European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) formed
    It was established by the Treaty of Paris (signed by Belgium, France, West Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and Luxembourg). It called for tariff-free trade in coal & steel.
  • Stalin dies

    Stalin dies
    Stalin was the leader of the Soviet Union and had died from a heart attack.
  • Khrushchev's de-Stanlinization speech;Hungary revolt

    Khrushchev's de-Stanlinization speech;Hungary revolt
    Khrushchev's speech "On the Personality Cult and its Consequences" had denounced Stalin, and it gave more freedom to writers.
    The Hungary revolt was when the soviets came and ended this revolt.
  • Treaty of Rome creates European Economic Community (EEC); Sputnik launched

    Treaty of Rome creates European Economic Community (EEC); Sputnik launched
    The EEC was an international organization created by the Treaty of Rome. It aimed to bring about economic integration (such as a common market).
    The lauched symbolized the technology the Soviet Union had.
  • Fifth Republic in France under DeGaulle

    Fifth Republic in France under DeGaulle
    DeGaulle's policies gave Alegria independence, withdrew French military forces from NATO, developed nuclear weapons for France , and opposed to those for democracy.
  • Berlin Wall erected

    Berlin Wall erected
    The Berlin wall separated Germany, more specially those who were communist (east Germany) and those who were democratic (west Germany).
  • Second Vatican Council begins

    Second Vatican Council begins
    The Council had gone over the Roman Catholic Church and the modern world, and it had affected the view Catholics had on the world.
  • Cuban Missle Crisis

    Cuban Missle Crisis
    The Cubam Missile Crisis was a 13-day confrontation between the Soviet Union and America; it had also undermined Khrushchev's credibility.
  • Student revolts;Czech "Prague Springs" revolt

    Student revolts;Czech "Prague Springs" revolt
    The Student revolts had gone on throughout Europe, and most of the time ended with the police involvment.
    The Czech revolted because of Czechoslovakia returning to communist control.
  • Helsinki Accords-height of detente

    Helsinki Accords-height of detente
    Helsinki Accords was the first act of the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe (Finland); it had marked a high point in the Cold War, and ratified European territorial boundaries.
  • John Paul II elected pope

    John Paul II elected pope
    John Paul II was traveled the most out of all the popes, appointed the most cardinals, and wrote the most books.
  • Soviet Union invades Afghanistan;Thatcher elected prime minister in Britain

    Soviet Union invades Afghanistan;Thatcher elected prime minister in Britain
    The invasion,they had sent thousands of troops, put a lot of pressure on the Soviet Union's econonmy, and also caused social issues.
    Thatcher allowed the buying of a council house, lowered the industry in Britain.
  • Solidarity founded in Poland

    Solidarity founded in Poland
    It was the first time voters had elected their own Solidarity candidates over the communist party.
  • Gorbachev comes to power in Soviet Union

    Gorbachev comes to power in Soviet Union
    Gorbachev created a program for economic reconstructing and democratixation, and also had many reforms.
  • Berlin Wall falls and collapse of Communism

    Berlin Wall falls and collapse of Communism
    This united Germany again, and also marked the end of communism.
  • Break-up of Soviet Union; Balkan conflicts begin in former Yugoslavia

    Break-up of Soviet Union; Balkan conflicts begin in former Yugoslavia
    The break up allowed different ethnic groups to revolt and demand their freeedom; it split into 15 countries.
    The Balkan conflicts led to a devolution of the Balkan peninsula.
  • Maastricht Treaty creates European Union (EU)

    Maastricht Treaty creates European Union (EU)
    The EU some could say is the United Nations of Europe. It had also created the world's largest economic market.
  • Euro currency introduced

    Euro currency introduced
    The Euro currency is not used in all European countries. It does, however, show the unity of the European country.
  • Terrorist attacks on United States

    Terrorist attacks on United States
    Terrorists (sent by Osama Bin Laden) had hijacked four airplanes and purposely flew them into targets in the United States of America. Because of the terrorists, it had cause a lot of anger towards the Middle East.