AP European History Interactive Timeline

  • Jan 1, 1348

    Black Death

    Black Death
    The Black Death was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated 75 to 200 million people and peaking in Europe
  • Jan 1, 1350


    The cultural rebirth that occurred in Europe from roughly the fourteenth through the middle of the seventeenth centuries, based on the rediscovery of the literature of Greece and Rome.
  • Jan 1, 1415

    Council of Constance burns Huns and ends Great Schism

    Council of Constance burns Huns and ends Great Schism
    Council of Constance, 16th ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church. Following the election of two rival popes, Gregory XII in Rome and Benedict XIII in Avignon in 1378 and the attempt at the Council of Pisa in 1409 to resolve the Great Schism by the election of a new pope, the church found itself with three popes instead of one.
  • Jan 1, 1450


    During this age, European explorers searched for trade routes, overseas wealth, and adventure. Technological innovations advanced exploration, such as the inventions of the astrolabe, a device used to determine latitude; the caravel, an large ship of unprecedented speed; and the magnetic compass.
  • Jan 1, 1453

    Fall of Constantinople; end of Hundred Years' War

    Fall of Constantinople; end of Hundred Years' War
    The fall of Constantinople led to the growth of the Ottoman Empire, brining the enemy closer to Europe. The end of the Hundred Years' War was also important because it centralized France, brought a sense of nationalism to France and England, and it brought new weapons.
  • Jan 1, 1455

    Invention of printing press

    Invention of printing press
    Helped to increase literacyi, increase productivity, and it also helped lead to newspapers. The printing press was a major influence in the spread of the new religions and ideas during the Protestant Reformation and in Europe.
  • Jan 1, 1492

    Columbus encounters America; completion of reconquista in Spain

    Columbus encounters America; completion of reconquista in Spain
    The discovery of the Americas led to the Columbian Exchange. This brought new food, diseases, and animals to both Europe and the Americas. The significance of the reconquista in Spain is that it removed all the Muslims from Spain and forced people to convert to Christianity.
  • Jan 1, 1500

    Early Modern Society

    Early Modern Society
    Characterized by profound changes in many realms of human endeavor. Among the most important include the development of science as a formalized practice, increasingly rapid technological progress, and the establishment of secularized civic politics, law courts and the nation state.
  • Jan 2, 1500

    Price Revolution

    Price Revolution
    (1500-1650) Price revolution is a term used to describe a series of economic events from the 2nd half of the 15th century to the first half of the 17th century. The price revolution refers most specifically to the high rate of inflation that occurred during this period across Western Europe.
  • Jan 1, 1517

    Luther posts 95 Theses

    Luther posts 95 Theses
    The Ninety-Five Theses, was written by Martin Luther in 1517 and is widely regarded as the primary catalyst for the Protestant Reformation. The disputation protests against clerical abuses, especially the sale of indulgences.
  • Jan 1, 1519

    Cortez conquers Aztecs

    Cortez conquers Aztecs
    Cortez's conquer over the Aztecs resulted in the downfall of the indigeneous tribes of the Americas, a loss of culture and a beginning of enslavement of the Native Americans. It also brought diseases such as smallpox and measles to the Americas.
  • Jan 1, 1520

    Protestant and Exploration

    Protestant and Exploration
    By the 1520s, Martin Luther's ideas crystallized opposition to the Church, and Christian Europe was torn apart. In response, the Catholic Church set in motion the counter-reformation.
  • Jan 1, 1520

    Religious Wars

    Religious Wars
    Europe was plagued by wars of religion. However, while religion was given as the reason for war, there were many other reasons as well. These included land, money and economics, political power, natural resources, and more.
  • Jan 1, 1534

    Act of Supermacy in England creats Anglican Church

    Act of Supermacy in England creats Anglican Church
    The first Act of Supremacy was legislation in 1534 that granted King Henry VIII of England Royal Supremacy, which means that he was declared the supreme head of the Church of England. Royal Supremacy is specifically used to describe the legal sovereignty of the civil laws over the laws of the Church in England.
  • Jan 1, 1536

    Calvin establishes reformed faith in Geneva

    Calvin establishes reformed faith in Geneva
    Transformed Geneva into a Christian community where activity was heavily regulated. It also spread to France, England, and New England. It became an important religion in Europe.
  • Jan 1, 1543

    Scientific Revolution

    Scientific Revolution
    The emergence of modern science during the early modern period, when developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology, human anatomy and chemistry transformed views of society and nature.
  • Jan 1, 1543

    Copernicus publishes heliocentric theory

    Copernicus publishes heliocentric theory
    Heliocentrism, or heliocentricism,[1] is the astronomical model in which the Earth and planets revolve around the Sun at the center of the Solar System. Changes the perpective of people's way of thinking and perceptions of the universe.
  • Jan 1, 1545

    Council of Trent opens

    Council of Trent opens
    The council had opened 18 years earlier, in response to the difficulties the Church faced in the wake of the Protestant Reformation. Reformed the Catholic Church and reaffirmed church doctrine. It preseved the papacy as the center of Christianity and reaffirmed the seven sacraments, while these are major effects of the council there also many more important changes
  • Jan 1, 1550

    Dutch Commericial Dominance

    Dutch Commericial Dominance
    (1550-1650) The Dutch Golden Age was a period in Dutch history, roughly spanning the 17th century, in which Dutch trade, science, military, and art were among the most acclaimed in the world.
  • Jan 1, 1550

    Age of Crisis

    Age of Crisis
    The Crisis of the Late Middle Ages refers to a series of events in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries that brought centuries of European prosperity and growth to a halt. Such as the presence of series of famines and the decline of the Holy Roman Empire
  • Jan 1, 1555

    Peace of Augsburg ends religious war in Germany; Charles V abdicates

    Peace of Augsburg ends religious war in Germany; Charles V abdicates
    The Peace of Augsburg in 1555 formally recognized Lutheranism and allowed the German princes to choose what religion their state would have. Charles V abdicating results in giving or freeing away parts of the Holy Roman Empire, thus dividing it more
  • Jan 1, 1580

    Witchcraft Scare

    Witchcraft Scare
    (1580-1680) A period of witch hunts that took place across early modern Europe between the fifteenth and eighteenth centuries.The trials were sparked by the belief that malevolent Satanic witches were operating as an organized threat to Christendom.
  • Defeat of Spanish Armada

    Defeat of Spanish Armada
    Queen Elizabeth's decisive defeat of the Invincible Armada made England a world-class power and introduced effective long-range weapons into naval warfare for the first time, ending the era of boarding and close-quarter fighting.
  • Edict of Nantes ends French religious wars

    Edict of Nantes ends French religious wars
    Granted French Protestants religious tolerance. It also was the first formal recognition by an European monarchy that two religions could coexist.
  • Baroque Art

    Baroque Art
    (1600-1750) The Baroque is often thought of as a period of artistic style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, architecture, literature, dance, and music.
  • Commericial Revolution

    Commericial Revolution
    17th and 18th Centuries
    The Commercial Revolution was a period of European economic expansion, colonialism, and mercantilism which lasted from approximately the 17th century until the early 18th century.
  • Dutch East India Company founded

    Dutch East India Company founded
    The Dutch East India Company was a chartered company established in 1602, when the States General of the Netherlands granted it a 21-year monopoly to carry out trade activities in Asia. It is often considered to have been the first multinational corporation in the world and it was the first company to issue stock.
  • Stuart monarchy begins in England

    Stuart monarchy begins in England
    The Stuarts believed that their authority came from God. They were against the Parliament, in which leading to the English Civil War and the Glorious Revolution in England.
  • Conflict between Parliament and King in England

    Conflict between Parliament and King in England
    (1603-1689) In early 17th century England, the first two Stuart kings, James I and Charles I, sought to establish an absolute monarchy and to enforce their views on religion. These policies led to a revolt by Parliament, with the support of the Puritans, against Charles I. The English Civil War of the 1640's ended wit the victory of Parliament and the execution of the King.
  • Age of Louis XIV

    Age of Louis XIV
    Louis XIV, France's Sun King, had the longest reign in European history (1643-1715). During this time he brought absolute monarchy to its height, established a glittering court at Versailles, and fought most of the other European countries in four wars.
  • Peace of Westphalia ends Thirty Years' War

    Peace of Westphalia ends Thirty Years' War
    The Peace of Westphalia that ended the war marked a turning point in European history. Conflicts fought over religious faith ended. The treatise recognized the sovereign independent authority of more than 300 German princes. After the treaty of Westphalia the Holy Roman Empire remained a loosely knit federation.
  • Charles I executed in England

    Charles I executed in England
    The beheading of Charles I on January 30th, 1649, left an impactful mark on the history of England and on the way that the English think about themselves. It was the climactic movment of the Puritan Revolution and it also changed the whole character of the conflict. Most of the people who had taken up arms against Charles I seven years earlier were opposed to his killing, if not outraged by it.
  • Absolutism

    (1650-1750) Period after exploration providing European nations with vast overseas empires and wealth that strengthens the kings into absolute monarchs and the exploring nations into superpowers, but causes external conflicts, such as religious and colonial wars, and internal conflicts, such as revolutions and civil wars, as kings got too powerful.
  • Commercial Wars

    Commercial Wars
    (1650-1763) Anglo-Dutch Wars, also called Dutch Wars, Dutch Engelse Oorlogen, (English Wars), the four 17th- and 18th-century naval conflicts between England and the Dutch Republic. The first three wars, stemming from commercial rivalry, established England’s naval might, and the last, arising from Dutch interference in the American Revolution, spelled the end of the republic’s position as a world power.
  • Rise of Prussia

    Rise of Prussia
    Prussia significantly became a strong power with a strong army. Under Frederick William I they gained an army of 80,000 people. Military life became very important for both Prussia and Frederick William I and Frederick William II
  • Newton publishes Principia Mathematica

    Newton publishes Principia Mathematica
    Newton's book had an advanced knowledge on math and science. Explained the laws of gravitation and motion. The book also had an impact on how the world and specifically the English society developed
  • Glorious Revolution; Peter the Great's reign begins in Russia

    Glorious Revolution; Peter the Great's reign begins in Russia
    Glorious revolution resulted in the Parliament limiting the monarch's power and issued the Bill of Rights in order to limit the monarch's power. The significance of Peter the Great is that he modernized Russia and expanded Russia's army,
  • Rise of Russia

    Rise of Russia
    Russian society emerged from the Time of Troubles shattered and unsure of itself. This shaken society was then subject to wrenching social and economic change and strong external influences. Became a strong force on the Baltic Sea
  • Bank of England founded

    Bank of England founded
    Bank of England is that it acted as the government's banker and debt-manager. It became a financial center later on in European history. It affected economic and financial activity in England.
  • Rise of the Middle Class

    Rise of the Middle Class
    18th Century
    The rise of the middle class brought different classes of people. There were no longer few rich and many poor. There was now a middle class with bankers, merchants, artisans, etc...
  • Enlightenment

    18th Century
    The Enlightenment is the period in the history of western thought and culture, stretching roughly from the mid-decades of the seventeenth century through the eighteenth century, characterized by dramatic revolutions in science, philosophy, society and politics
  • Agricultural Revolution

    Agricultural Revolution
    18th Century
    Le d to innovations in agriculture such as the open-field system, enclosed fields, continuous crop rotation, and use of manure as fertilizer. Thus allowing an abundant amount of food supply to Europe.
  • Peace of Utrecht; death of Louis XIV

    Peace of Utrecht; death of Louis XIV
    The Peace of Utrecht, which was actually made up of several different treaties, resolved a more than decade-long, pan-continental conflict called the War of the Spanish Succession, and its conditions irrevocably shifted the balance of power in Western Europe. The death of Louis XIV passed on his ruling expertise to his descendents through his journals and he made France in debt.
  • Rococo Art

    Rococo Art
    Rococo Art succeeded Baroque Art in Europe. It was most popular in France, and is generally associated with the reign of King Louis XV (1715-1774). It is a light, elaborate and decorative style of art.
  • War of Austrian Succession begins

    War of Austrian Succession begins
    War of the Austrian Succession, a conglomeration of related wars, two of which developed directly from the death of Charles VI, Holy Roman emperor and head of the Austrian branch of the house of Habsburg. The French and Prussian were fighting againest the English and Austrians
  • Industrial Revolution

    Industrial Revolution
    The Industrial Revolution was a period from the 18th to the 19th century where major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transport, and technology had a profound effect on the socioeconomic and cultural conditions.The Industrial Revolution marks a major turning point in human history.
  • Treaty of Paris ends Seven Years' War

    Treaty of Paris ends Seven Years' War
    The Treaty of Paris officially ended the Revolutionary War. It was signed in Paris by Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and John Jay.
  • American Revolution; Smith publishes "Wealth of Nations"

    American Revolution; Smith publishes "Wealth of Nations"
    From the American Revolution the coloner in the English colonies were able to free themselves from England, as a result England lost a lot of land. "Wealth of Nations" introduced classical economic thought and included his laissez-faire economics beliefs.
  • Age of Revolutions

    Age of Revolutions
    The Age of Revolution is the period from approximately 1775 to 1848 in which a number of significant revolutionary movements occurred in many parts of Europe and the Americas
  • French Revolution begins

    French Revolution begins
    French Revolution, the revolutionary movement that shook France reached its first climax in 1789. The revolution popularized the use of the gulliotine and also led to the Legistlative Assembly in France
  • Feminism

    Feminism led to many demands for equality for women. Eventually, the femenist movement led to more women in science and at work. Furhtermore women were eventually able to vote in European countries.
  • Rise of Nationalism

    Rise of Nationalism
    Nationalism was an important factor in the development of Europe. In the 19th century, a wave of romantic nationalism swept the European continent, transforming its countries.
  • Rise of Nationalism

    Rise of Nationalism
    Nationalism was an important factor in the development of Europe. In the 19th century, a wave of romantic nationalism swept the European continent, transforming its countries.
  • Wollstonecraft begins feminist movement with "Vindication of Rights of Women"

    Wollstonecraft begins feminist movement with "Vindication of Rights of Women"
    Eventually the femenist movement leaded to a restructure of gender hierarchies. With femenism, women demanded better rights and started to work more.
  • Napolean comes to power in France

    Napolean comes to power in France
    Napoleon improved the schools and court systems of France. The Napoleonic Code is a law system used by many countries. Also, made France a military power, but during his decline, the Bourbon monarchy was restored and made France miserable till he returned from exile.
  • Rise of Liberalism

    Rise of Liberalism
    Led to a belief in natural rights that governments must protect. People also believed in a support of civil liberties including freedom of the press, assembly, and religion. It led to an opposition of full democracy and wanted laissez-faire.
  • Revolution in France; Belgian and Greek independence

    Revolution in France; Belgian and Greek independence
    In France the bourgeois and landowning classes emerged as the dominant power. Feudalism was dead; social order and contractual relations were consolidated by the Code Napoléon. The Revolution unified France and enhanced the power of the national state. Belgium and Greece were able to become neutral states. The significance is there were able to be independent states.
  • Revolutions of 1848; Marxmand Engeks publish "Communist Manifesto"

    Revolutions of 1848; Marxmand Engeks publish "Communist Manifesto"
    The revolutions led to a new age of political realism. Also, it is important to know that peaceful reforms let England avoid these revolts. The "Communist Manifesto" influenced the thought of people. Engeks wrote about the dialectical process of thesis, antithesis, and synthesis, also argued that women were exploited by men and capitalists.
  • Romanticism

    First half of the 19th Century
    Romanticism (also the Romantic era or the Romantic period) was an artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century
  • Unification and Nation-Building

    Unification and Nation-Building
    Unification and nation-building was significant as it created new countries. This idealogy created more cultural cohesiveness and led to a network state.
  • Realism and Materialism

    Realism and Materialism
    Both materialism and realism opposed romanticism; realism is a widely used term in the arts. In literature, it came into being as a response to Romanticism. While Romanticism focused on the inner, spiritual side of human nature. Materialism in philosophy is the view that everything that exists is either composed of matter or depends on matter for its existence.
  • Second Industrial Revolution

    Second Industrial Revolution
    Second industrial revolution brought new industries; new sources of power, such as electricity, oil, and gasoline; and also new forms of communication and transportation, such as the telephone; and new industrial powers.
  • Imperialism

    Imperialism was a period of colonial expansion and its accompanying ideologies by the European powers. The period is distinguished by an unprecedented pursuit of overseas territorial acquisitions.
  • Modern Ideas and Science

    Modern Ideas and Science
    Modern ideas and science resulted in new things suchs as women's rights, mass politics, the bacterial revolution, and the theory of evolution. This led to a better understanding of the world and also led to the establishment of several modern sciences
  • Rise of Modern Society

    Rise of Modern Society
    Second half of the 19th Century
    The rising levels of education in Europe foreshadowed the emergence of modern societies and processes of social mobilization, as urbanization and literacy
  • Crystal Palace Exhibition in Britain

    Crystal Palace Exhibition in Britain
    The Crystal Palace exhibition provided a national center for the enlightened people. It symbolized the industrial, economic, and military superiority of Great Britain.
  • Britain establishes direct rule of India

    Britain establishes direct rule of India
    ndia became subject to British rule. Allowing to bring some British culture into India. Britain took most of the resources that were available in India. However, Britain actually contributed to the infrastructure and postal services of India.
  • Darwin publishes "Origin of the Species"

    Darwin publishes "Origin of the Species"
    In Darwin's "Orgin of Species", it challenged the idea of special creation by proposing a theory of evolution. It reaffirmed the Malthusian belief that only the "fittest" species could survive and that natural selection picked off people.
  • Italy unified; Russian serfs emancipated

    Italy unified; Russian serfs emancipated
    Northern Italy was urban and industrialized while Southern Italy was rural and poor. The government was still in heavy debt after unification. The emancipation of the serfs allowed the serfs to free, however the peasants could not own the land. This created some freedom, but the lower class still was restricted.
  • Modern Art

    Modern Art
    Modern art began as a Western movement, particularly in painting and printmaking, and then expanding to other visual arts, including sculpture and architecture in the mid-19th century. There were new techniques that were seen in art, such as modernity, impressionism, and cubism
  • Unification of Germany; Paris Commune and Third Republic in France

    Unification of Germany; Paris Commune and Third Republic in France
    Germany's unification created a new European balance of power. The German empire industrialized quickly and became the strongest state in Europe and a rival to Great Britain.
    The significance of the Third Republic in France was a time of confusion. The Third Republic did not last long and was not loved by the people.
  • Berlin Conference over imperalism in Africa

    Berlin Conference over imperalism in Africa
    Regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period. The Berlin Conference divided Africa among European nations. Such as the Congo was now under Leopold II in Belgium. The conference also created rules for the race to colonize the African territories.
  • Freud publishes "Interpretation of Dreams"

    Freud publishes "Interpretation of Dreams"
    Freud was among one of the first psychologists to analyze dreams through experiments and clinical trials. He also used his own experiences in his research. This provided knowledge as to what dreams were.
  • Einstein publishes relativity theory; Revolution of 1905 in Russia

    Einstein publishes relativity theory; Revolution of 1905 in Russia
    Einstein's relativity theory challenged traditional conceptions of time, space, and motion. The revolution's impact was a massacre that provoked strikes and demands for change. The election of a Russia parliament resulted from the revolution.
  • World Wars

    World Wars
    Wars involving many large nations in all different parts of the world.This era was a time with rivalry and conflict. It showed that a balance of power and peace was necessary to keep countries in check.
  • World War I begins

    World War I begins
    World War I put most of Europe into war. It led to many battle, with Germany in the middle of the war. World War I was important because the world was trying to become more peaceful together.
  • Bolshevik Revolutions in Russia

    Bolshevik Revolutions in Russia
    The Bolsheviks were born out of Russia’s Social Democrat Party. When the party split in 1903, the Bolsheviks only had one obvious leader, Lenin. The Bolshevik Revolution ended in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. Russia then lost a quarter of its European territory and a third of its population.
  • Treaty of Versailles ends World War I

    Treaty of Versailles ends World War I
    On 28 June 1919, the peace treaty that ended World War I was signed by Germany and the Allies at the Palace of Versailles near Paris.Dissolved Austria-Hungary into different states and gave land back to France. It also created the League of Nations
  • Totalitarianism

    Totalitaranism occured as total control over the lives in citizens. It also manipulated and censored the information people received. It was significant because it was a form of government that tried to mold loyal citizens.
  • Facists and Mussolini come to power in Italy

    Facists and Mussolini come to power in Italy
    All political parties were outlawed except for Fascists. Also, Mussolini effected Italy by making people think he was always right. Mussolini controled the corporations in Italy.
  • Great Depression begins

    Great Depression begins
    Many people became homeless because they lost their job and couldn't pay their rent. The unemployment rate increased a lot during the great depression. Starvation and illness hurt a lot of the country. Everyone who did not have a job was having a hard time feeding themselves and paying the rent. It transformed the optimistic spirit of the late 1920s with a sense of doubt and fear.
  • Hitler comes to power in Germany

    Hitler comes to power in Germany
    Hitler convinced Germans to follow his leadership. He used the people's fears to his advantage. He then created a totalitarian state in Germany.
  • Munich Conference-height of appesement

    Munich Conference-height of appesement
    The Munich Conference gave Sudetenland to Hitler. It also discredited the British policy of appeasement.The conference held in Munich, during which the leaders of Great Britain, France, and Italy agreed to allow Germany to annex certain areas of Czechoslovakia.
  • World War II begins

    World War II begins
    More than 50 countries took part in the war, and the whole world felt its effects. Men fought in almost every part of the world, on every continent except Antarctica. Most importantly, the Holocaust began and a mass murder happened of Jews. It also was important because is resulted in the United Nations.
  • Cold War

    Cold War
    The Cold War is the name given to the relationship that developed primarily between the USA and the USSR after World War Two. The Cold War was to dominate international affairs for decades and many major crises occurred
  • European Unity

    European Unity
    Most European nations were joined. They were unified together and this later leads to the European Economic Community and the European Union.
  • World War II ends; United Nations founded

    World War II ends; United Nations founded
    The final battles of the European Theatre of World War II as well as the German surrender to the Western Allies and the Soviet Union took place in late April and early May 1945. The United Nations was significant as it created a political union in which countries could participate in.
  • NATO formed

    NATO formed
    NATO was formed for primarily three different purposes: deterring Soviet expansionism, forbidding the revival of nationalist militarism in Europe through a strong North American presence on the continent, and encouraging European political integration.
  • European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) formed

    European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) formed
    The European Coal and Steel Community was a six-nation international organisation serving to unify Western Europe during the Cold War and create the foundation for the modern-day developments of the European Union. The ECSC was the first organisation to be based on the principles of supranationalism.
  • Stalin dies

    Stalin dies
    Stalin's death is that the regin of terror in the Soviet Union ended upon his death. This led to Nikita Khrushchev as the new leader.
  • Khrushchev's de-Stalinization speech; Hungary revolt

    Khrushchev's de-Stalinization speech; Hungary revolt
    The de-Stalinization speech involved having a shift toward producing consumer goods, curbing the power of the secret police, and granting more freedom to writers and intellectuals.
    The significance of the Hungary revolt , the Soviets came in and crushed this revolt.
  • Treaty of Rome creates European Economic Community (EEC); Spurtnik launched

    Treaty of Rome creates European Economic Community (EEC); Spurtnik launched
    EEC eliminated trade barriers among its members. It also emerged as the driving force behind economic integration in Western Europe. The significance of Sputnik lauching became a symbol of Soviet technological prowess. It played a key role in contributing to the space race between the US and the Soviet Union.
  • Fifth Republic in France under DeGaulle

    Fifth Republic in France under DeGaulle
    New policies under DeGaulle granted Algeria full independence, withdrew French military forces from NATO, developed nuclear weapons for France, and opposed Great Britain's entry into the EEC.
  • Berlin Wall erected

    Berlin Wall erected
    Barrier that divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989, the Berlin Wall stopped the flow of refugees and simultaneaously became a symbol of Communist oppression. The Berlin Wall divided the communist and democratic people of a Germany
  • Second Vatican Council begins

    Second Vatican Council begins
    Acknowledged the seperation of the church and state, renounced war, ordered wide-ranging reforms in religious life and training of clergy. This also influenced how Catholics viewed the world.
  • Cuban Missle Crisis

    Cuban Missle Crisis
    The Cuban missile crisis was a 13-day confrontation in October 1962 between the United States and the Soviet Union over Soviet ballistic missiles deployed in Cuba.
  • Student revolts; Czech "Prague Spring" revolt

    Student revolts; Czech "Prague Spring" revolt
    The significance of the student revolts was that there were many protests throughout Europe. It concluded with the the police usually arresting many of them.The significance of the revolts in Czechoslovakia is it allowed it to returned to communist control. They also has Russia staying in control behind the Iron Curtain.
  • Helsinki Accors-height of detente

    Helsinki Accors-height of detente
    The Helsinki Final Act was an agreement signed by 35 nations that concluded the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, held in Helsinki, Finland.The Helsinki Accords were primarily an effort to reduce tension between the Soviet and Western blocs by securing their common acceptance of the post-World War II status quo in Europe.
  • John Paul II elected Pope

    John Paul II elected Pope
    John Paul II is he became the most-traveled pope, the pope who appointed the most cardinals, wrote the most books, and called the most influential figure of his time by the London Times.
  • Soviet Union invades Afghanistan; Thatcher elected prime minister in Britain

    Soviet Union invades Afghanistan; Thatcher elected prime minister in Britain
    The invasion caused a lot of stress on the economic system of the Soviet Union. It also caused a lot of social discontent with the people in the Soviet Union. The significance of having Thatcher elected is that she allowed to right to buy a council house, put reforms that established London as the financial center, and lowered the industry in Britain.
  • Solidarity founded in Poland

    Solidarity founded in Poland
    Polish voters were able to elect their own Solidarity candidates over the Communist Party in 1989. This showed the first time the people in a state could peacefully exit a Communist regime.
  • Gorbachev comes to power in Soviet Union

    Gorbachev comes to power in Soviet Union
    Gorbachev put up many new reforms in Soviet Union. He put up a program of economic restructuring, had democratization, and encouraged Soviet citizens to discuss ways to reform their society.
  • Berlin Wall falls and collapse of communism

    Berlin Wall falls and collapse of communism
    The collapse of the Berlin Wall showed the reunification of Germany occured as a result of the collapse of teh Berlin Wall. It marked the end of the Cold War in Easter Europe and the decline in Communism
  • Break-up of Soviet Union; Balkan conflicts begin in former Yugoslavia

    Break-up of Soviet Union; Balkan conflicts begin in former Yugoslavia
    The collapse of the Union of Socialist Soviet Republics radically changed the world's economic and political environment. Now, different ethnic groups were able to revolt and demand their own freedom, since they had lost their fear of the Communist party under Gorbachev. Balkan conflicts is that it led to a devolution of the Balkan peninsula. These conflicts led to ethnic nations forming, such as Kosovo.
  • Maastricht Treaty creates European Union (EU)

    Maastricht Treaty creates European Union (EU)
    The Maastricht Treaty, which was signed on February 7, 1992, created the European Union. The treaty met with substantial resistance in some countries.
  • Euro currency introduced

    Euro currency introduced
    The euro was introduced to world financial markets as an accounting currency on 1 January 1999, replacing the former European Currency Unit (ECU) at a ratio of 1:1.
  • Terrorist attacks on the United States

    Terrorist attacks on the United States
    The terrorist attacks caused hatred and anger towards people of the Middle East. It also brought fear to the people in the US. Furthermore, it also led to tightened restrictions in the airports.