Alex's World History Time Line

  • May 29, 1453

    Ottomans Conquer Constantinople

    Ottomans Conquer Constantinople
    The Ottoman Empire, an islamic empire, conquered Constantinople and took over trade operations in the Middle East. This empire would spread throughout the Middle East and North Africa until 1919.
  • Sep 7, 1533

    Elizabeth I becomes Queen of England

    Elizabeth I becomes Queen of England
    Elizabeth I became Queen of Ireland and England, and rules until her death on March 24th, 1603. She was the third queen to rule alone, and proved all stereotypes of how woman cannot rule alone, wrong. She was called "The Virgin Queen" and had no children, therefore being the last person in the Tudor dynasty.
  • England defeats the Spanish Armada

    England defeats the Spanish Armada
    Lord Charles Howard and Sir Francis Drake led a naval force against the "unstoppable" Spanish Armada. Just after midnight, the English sent eight burning ships into a crowded harbor at Calais. The spanish panicked, lifted the anchors, and sailed out into the sea to keep from catching fire. Then the English attacked, and won because of their superior guns. The Armada fled to Scotland.
  • Tokugawa Shogunate

    Tokugawa Shogunate
    Tokugawa clan takes over imperial Japan and establishes itself as the Shogun. They establish the capital at Kyoto and rule until 1857.
  • The Thirty Years War

    The Thirty Years War
    Began when Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II of Bohemia tried to restrict the religious activities of his subjects ,sparking a rebellion among protestants. The war involved major powers of Europe with Sweden, France, Spain, and Austria waging campaigns primarily on German soil. It resulted in 800 million casualties, and ended with a series of treaties that made of the Treaty of Westphalia. This war reshaped the religious and political map of central Europe. *ended in 1648*
  • The English Civil War

    The English Civil War
    Started over a conflict between Charles I and Parliament over an Irish uprising. It was Parliamentarians and Royalists, over England's government. The overall outcome resulted in the execution of Charles I, his son, Charles II, and the replacement of the English monarchy with, at first, the Commonwealth of England, and then the Protectorate. *ended in 1651*
  • Manchus found the Qing Dynasty in China

    Manchus found the Qing Dynasty in China
    Was the last imperial dynasty in China. Manchu: a member of people originally living Manchuria
  • Peter the Great becomes Czar of Russia

    Peter the Great becomes Czar of Russia
    Peter the Great ruled after his brother, Ivan V, died in 1696. Peter undertook extensive reforms to re-establish Russia. He focused on advancing in science, gaining territory, establishing the first newspaper, and modernizing the Russian alphabet. *died in 1725*
  • The Industrial Revolution

    The Industrial Revolution
    The British Industrial Revolution primarily started and prospered in rural areas in Europe. It started in the 1750's, and lasted up until around 1800. This revolution consisted of moving from human labor to machine labor. Many new inventions were created, including the seed drill for people on farms, and special machines to mass produce products. Although this revolution helped people in many ways, it also created unsafe jobs and poor living conditions for the poor and working class.
  • Catherine the Great becomes Czarina of Russia

    Catherine the Great becomes Czarina of Russia
    Catherine was married to King Peter III, but he pushed her side, and alienated her. She soon rose up with other alienated nobles, and got him to step down from his throne. She soon became the Czarina and accomplished many things, like expanding Russia's borders, she made the church part of the state (and all of it's holdings), she also expanded educational opportunities. She sponsored many cultural projects.
  • The British colonies of North America declare their independence

    The British colonies of North America declare their independence
    On July 4th, 1776, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, The Continental Congress adopted the Declaration on Independence, which proclaims the independence of a new United States of America from Great Britain and its monarchy. *Britain loses their major trading area*
  • The French Revolution

    The French Revolution
    During this revolution, the citizens of France tried to demolish centuries-old institutions, and re-shape the government. On August 22nd, 1795, the National Convention composed a new Constitution that created two branches for the legislature and gave executive power to the five-member directory appointed by parliament.
  • The Napoleonic Age

    The Napoleonic Age
    The final stage of the French Revolution. Began roughly with coup d'etat (translated as "blow of state"). He brought a new set of laws, he restored the church and the states relationship, he rooted out corruption, and many more things. He crowned himself emperor in 1804. *he almost took over all of Europe*
  • Mexico declares its independence from Spain

    Mexico declares its independence from Spain
    Mexico broke away from Spain and they had their own revolution. Spain lost many of their slaves and people
  • The Unification of Italy

    The Unification of Italy
    Also known as the Risorgimento (meaning resurgence or revival), was the political and social movement that united different states of the Italian peninsula into a single state of the Kingdom of Italy. Started in 1818, and lasted until 1860.
  • The Great Reform Bill of 1832

    The Great Reform Bill of 1832
    An act of the British Parliament that changed many aspects of the electoral system. It gave more seats to the House of Commons to large cities, and took seats away from "rotten boroughs"
  • The Opium Wars

    The Opium Wars
    Consisted of two wars involving Chinese disputes over British trade in China. The wars weakened the Qing dynasty and forced China to trade with the rest of the world.
  • The Great Potato Famine

    The Great Potato Famine
    A great famine of potatoes in Ireland when the potato failed in successive years. The crop failures were caused by late blight, which is a disease that kills both the leaves and the roots of the potato plant.
  • Karl Marx and Fredric Engels publish "The Communist Manifesto"

    Karl Marx and Fredric Engels publish "The Communist Manifesto"
    "The Communist Manifesto" is a political pamphlet by two German philosophers. It was recognized as one of the most influential political manuscripts. It discusses the issues of capitalism and includes an analytical approach to the class struggle. It also briefly talks about about how capitalist society of the time would eventually be replaced by socialism.
  • The Taiping Rebellion

    The Taiping Rebellion
    A massive rebellion or, civil war that lasted from 1850 to 1864. It was fought by the Manchu-led Qing dynasty and the millenarian. It was the most destructive civil war in China. A christian-inspired rural rebellion threatened to overtake the Qing empire. The leader claimed to be the brother of jesus.
  • The British Colonization of India

    The British Colonization of India
    The British took over India for two main reasons. India had a huge population (300 million) and they had raw materials. This colonization was good, and bad for Indian citizens. They got a better education, modern goods, modern transportation, protection, and an increase in protection. But they were considered "half citizens".
  • Charles Darwin publishes "The Origin of Species"

    Charles Darwin publishes "The Origin of Species"
    This book introduced the theory that populations evolve over the course of generations through a process of natural selection. He included evidence from his expedition called "The Beagle Expedition". The Beagle Expedition happened in the 1830's when he road on a boat named "The Beagle". He traveled many areas, and mainly took notes on geology.
  • The Civil War begins in the United States

    The Civil War begins in the United States
    In 1861, seven southern slave states left the US, and started "The Confederate States of America". They wanted to keep slaves, the US wanted to free them. War started when the Confederates attacked Fort Sumter (a US military base). In the end (1865), the Confederates surrendered.
  • The Emancipation Proclamation

    The Emancipation Proclamation
    A presidential proclamation and executive order issued by President Abraham Lincoln. This document freed all slaves.
  • The Meiji Restoration

    The Meiji Restoration
    A chain of events that restored practical imperial rule to Japan under emperor Meiji. The period started in 1868, and lasted all the way through 1912. The modernized Japan through the 20th century.
  • The Suez Canal

    The Suez Canal
    An artificial sea-level canal in Egypt. It connects the Mediterranean sea to the Red sea. It's been closed a total of five times.
  • The Unification of Germany

    The Unification of Germany
    Princes and German states gathered in the Hall of Mirrors in France, to proclaim Wilhelm I of Prussia as German emperor. This unification caused religious, linguistic, cultural, and social tension.
  • The Berlin Conference

    The Berlin Conference
    The conference that sets up the stage to divide Africa. The "Scramble for Africa".
  • The Russo-Japanese War

    The Russo-Japanese War
    Japan modernized so quickly, they were able to defeat the Russians. By the early 1900's, Japan was one of the most powerful areas in the world. The Russians declined after this, and it led to the Russian Revolution.
  • The Mexican Revolution

    The Mexican Revolution
    This was an armed struggle that lasted 10 years in Mexico. This revolution totally transformed the Mexican culture and government.
  • The Chinese Revolution

    The Chinese Revolution
    China has had two revolutions, one in 1911, and the other in 1949. The first one (1911) was a revolution to overthrow China's last imperial dynasty. The second one (1949) was when the communist leaser, Mao Zedong declared the creation of the People's Republic of China (PRC).
  • World War I Begins

    World War I Begins
    Also known as the "Great War". It was against the Allied Powers, and the Central Powers. Started because a Serbian nationalist assassinated the Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria. The Austrian king, Franz Ferdinand's father, was furious, and declared war on Serbia. Then a bunch of other countries joined in, while choosing sides. The Allies won.
  • The Russian Revolution

    The Russian Revolution
    Caused by the loss of the Russo-Japan War. Led to the rise of the Soviet Union.