British flag 640

Modern Britian.

  • Bank of England.

    Bank of England.
    Establishment of Bank of England, one of the many-established financial instituions in London and leading provincial towns.
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    Growth of Foreign Trade.

    British foreign trade expands over 70%.
  • Invention of Flying Shuttle.

    Invention of Flying Shuttle.
    Jame Kay`s invention of theflying shuttle let faster production of cloth from thread weaving, causing a demand for thread, which was hand-spun from wool & cotton.
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    Industrial Revolution.

    Britian`s economy "takes off" due to their:
    - Pre-existing capitalism [private farmland; income from profit],
    - Construction of roads & canals for transportation of goods,
    - No internal tarriffs.
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    Growth of Foreign Trade II.

    Foreign trade again increases by 80%. The growth of the British economy mean better food & hosuing conditions, decreased agricultural dependency (by 30%), and increase of the middle class.
  • Marriage Act of 1753.

    Marriage Act of 1753.
    The Marriage Act is passed, determined to make legal marriages easier. By making legal marriages easier, the British government hoped to end wedlock, unmarried sex, and illegitimacy (of children), Still, many couples chose to elope.
  • Invention of Spinning Jenny.

    Invention of Spinning Jenny.
    Jame Hargreaves` invention of the spinning jenny, coupled with the introduction of water power, industrializes the hand-spinning process of thread (from cotton & wool).
    Later steam power would lead to even greater productivity.
  • Publication of "Wealth of Nations."

    Publication of "Wealth of Nations."
    In the Wealth of Nations, Adam Smith stated that specialized production (of goods), coupled with efficient trade would increase productivity - not just new machinery.
  • Invention of Power Loom.

    Invention of Power Loom.
    Samuel Compton`s invention of the power loom, aimed at easing handloom weavers` work. However, this machine needed many modifications before reaching efficiency.
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    British Control in India.

    Britain has almost complete control over India via the British East India Compant, puppet governments, regormation of the agarian structure, and introduction of railroads, telegraph lines, postal system & "English" styled education.
  • British Settlement in Austria.

    British Settlement in Austria.
    British settlement in Austria begins witn establishment of penal colonies.
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    Growth of Cotton Supply.

    Britian begins receiving its cotton supply from America`s slave plantation, after years of receiving it (and pottery) from India.
  • Publication of "Lyrical Ballads".

    Publication of "Lyrical Ballads".
    Collaborating together, William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge produce "Lyrical Ballads", a collection of romantic poetry.
  • Publication of "Essay on Population."

    Publication of "Essay on Population."
    In his "Essay on Population", Thomas Malthus shows that population is growing a much quicker rate than food supply, causing an increase in poverty.
  • End of Slave Trade.

    End of Slave Trade.
    Influenced by spreading abolitionist campaigns, such as the Society for the Abolition of the Slave Trade, Britain and America, on 1 January 1808, end their involvement in the slave trade.
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    Campaign against Machinery.

    Luddiles (or followers of General Ned Lud) resisted technological advances since they were replacing humans in jobs. As a result, they embarked on a campaign to wreck machinery in protest.
  • Spread of Reverberations.

    The spreading of Reverberations cross Europe lead to vast changes. Princes and monarchies met to determine the borders of nations after Napoleon`s fall. In fear of a similar situation, no single power was allowed to dominate afterwards, weakening the power of the royalty.
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    The arrival of a depression in Britain causes the creation of the new middle and working classes. After the Industrial Revolution, which brought economic prosperity, many people were also less tolerant when depressions occurred; therefore, many began protests, feeling that the government is repressing them.
  • Publication of "The Principles of Political Economy".

    Publication of "The Principles of Political Economy".
    In his work, economist David Ricardos concludes that little can actually be done to fix living standards due to the "laissez-faire" approach and resistance to trade and industry regulation.
  • Peterloo Massacre

    Peterloo Massacre
    When sixty thousand people gathered at St. Peter`s Field to listen to Orator Hunter, local militia kill 11 people and wounded another 400.
  • Refusal of Troppau Protocol.

    Britain refuses to sign the Troppau Protocol, hoping that a Spanish-America conflict would lead to British dominance in the Americas - especially after finally taking Canada out of French rule).
  • Leader of Industrial Power.

    Leader of Industrial Power.
    Britain establishes itself as the leader of industrial power. With only 21 million people (which was less than 10% of Europe`s population), Britain was producing 2/3 of the world`s coal supply, 1/2 of its iron, and 1/2 of its cotton cloth.
  • Establishment of Leading Industrial Power.

    Establishment of Leading Industrial Power.
    Britia establishes itself as the world`s leading industrial power. With ~21 million people (less than 10% of Europe`s population), Britian still produced 2/3 of world`s coal, 1/2 of its iron, and 1/2 of its cotton cloth.
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    Creation of term Industrial Revolution.

    The term "industrial revolution" was first used in England, expressing the extensive change that society had undergo in that generation. These differences included:
    - Economic growth, fuelled by increased production {from new st eam technology} and trade,
    - Development of financial institutions {banks & stock exchanges} via changes in money`s supply & form, credit provision, and investment forms,
    - Cultural reform with the creation of middle class and their conspicious consumption.
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    Construction of Railroads.

    Replacement of canals; Railroads, alongside the steam locomotion, offered a quicker transporation of goods.
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    Passing of Reform.

    After years, Lurd John Russell`s reform is passed, which aims to relocate former rural seats in Parliament to the more populated cities. This shift to a more representative government would lead to a later full-out democracy.
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    Yorkshire Slavery Campaign.

    During the height of West India`s abolitionist movement, industrial reformer Richard Oastler argues against the child labour of Indians.
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    Asian Emigration.

    Britain sends approximately 2 million Indian labourers to her colonies, where they compete against the black labourers on plantations. Although the Chinese were also migrated to the colonies, they typically were used in mining and construction work.
  • Accession of William IV.

    Accession of William IV.
    William IV forces the need for an election, where he is then able to take the throne.
  • Death of Jeremy Bentham

    Death of Jeremy Bentham
    Death of Jeremy Bentham, who influenced masses of people towards utilitarism, or the belief that laws should be created only for "the greatest happiness of the greatest number."
  • 1832 Reform Act.

    1832 Reform Act.
    Only middle class men receive the right to vote.
  • Factory Act of 1833.

    Factory Act of 1833.
    Under the Factory Act, employees had the right to holidays. Despite this act, employers did not want to comply since they did not care much for the employees. Employers would also put workers under dangerous conditions, offering little pay. The Factory Act also banished labour of children (those under age 10), and limited the working hours for "teens".
  • Drafting of New Poor Law Amendment Act.

    Drafting of New Poor Law Amendment Act.
    The New Poor Law Amendment Act is written, to introduce the "less eligibility principle", where one had to experience the horrible conditions of a free-market factory workhouse, to lower unemployment. This was really only successful in rural areas, which were more prone to unemployment.
  • Abolishment of Slavery.

    	Abolishment of Slavery.
    In all British colonies, the abolishment of slavery begins. By Jan. 1 1835, all slavery in the entire British Empire has been banished.
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    Opium Wars.

    Britian monopolizes trade with China through the Opium Wars` Treaty of Nanking.
  • Mines Act of 1842.

    Mines Act of 1842.
    Under the Mines Act of 1842, employment of women and children (under 10) in mines are illegal because of health concerns. It was found that women would prematurely age, and children were at risk of growth stunts.
  • Jame Smith`s Parliamentary Report.

    Jame Smith`s Parliamentary Report.
    In his parliamentary report, Jame Smiths describes the poor living conditions of Leeds, among other cities, with:
    - Little access ti fresh air or clean water,
    - Difficult removal of waste,
    - Over-crowding, with families of 10 people sharing ONE bed,
    - Lack of privacy & sanitation.
    These conditions were caused mainly by the Industrial Revolution, as the opening of job opportunities caused people to flood into cities. Only the rich could like in
  • New Factory Act of 1847.

    New Factory Act of 1847.
    Under the New Factory Act of 1847, children`s work was limited to a maximum of 10 hours. This would later become standardized for adults as well.
  • Draft of Public Health Act

    Draft of Public Health Act
    The Public Health Act was drafted, which gave the General Board of Health the responsibility of overseeing the general health of areas. This was in response to Edwin Chadwick`s earlier report about the high mortality rates in cities, especially after the outbreak of cholera.
  • Publication of "An Appeal of One-Half of the Human Race, Women, Against the Pretensions of the Other Hal, Men, to Retain the in Political, and Thence in Civil and Domestic Slavery".

    Publication of "An Appeal of One-Half of the Human Race, Women, Against the Pretensions of the Other Hal, Men, to Retain the in Political, and Thence in Civil and Domestic Slavery".
    In mid-1800s, the document is published. In his work, William Thomson states that the home was "the eternal prison-house of the wife" because of women`s limited freedoms and rights.
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    Taiping Rebellion.

    China`s anti-monarchist Taiping Rebellion was a response to growing Western influences and trade. The Manchu defeated suppressed the war, with European aid, which gave Europe more control over trade.
  • Religious Census.

    Religious Census.
    To the horror of the Church, a census reveals only 50% of the population actually attends church. Of the working class, less than 10% do.
  • Revision of Marriage Act.

    Revision of Marriage Act.
    The Marriage Act is revised to offer divorce courts. The creation of divorce courts made it easier for all couples to divorce. Prior to this change, only the upper classes could offer divorces; hence, the lower class would simply "return the ring" and move apart.
  • Mutiny of 1857.

    Mutiny of 1857.
    Britian is forced to imprision Indian soldiers. In the Mutiny of 1857, these Indian soldiers refuse to bite animal-fat covered rifle cartridges (as religion states they can not eat animal fat); thus, they are unable to reload their rifles.
  • Government of India Act.

    Government of India Act.
    Under the Government of India Act, all East India Company`s rights are transferred to the British crown.
  • Publication of "Syllabus of Errors."

    Publication of "Syllabus of Errors."
    In his "Syllabus of Errors," Pope Pius IX rejects the acceptance of modern nations` progress and calls for a return to religion.
  • Morant Bay Riot.

    The rising conflict between black peasants and white landowners in British colonies result in the Morant Bay riot. In retaliation for the 18 killed, Governor Edward Jon Eyre executes & flogs peasants, as well as burns their homes. His actions caused outcry in Britain.
  • Second Reform Act.

    Second Reform Act.
    Benjamin Disraeli passes the Second Reform Act, granting the vote to male, urban working-class homeowners. This causes the voter population to increase by one million.
  • Canadian Confederation.

    Canadian Confederation.
  • Publication of "The Subjection of Women".

    Publication of "The Subjection of Women".
    In his "The Subjection of Women," JS Mill advocates for gender equality. He states that women and men are actually equal in a society, but our minds have become twisted by the dominant role that men has in nature (where they were the hunters). He also argues that wife-beating should be stopped.
  • Nation-Wide Primary Education.

    Nation-Wide Primary Education.
    Nation-wide primary education is introduced. This shows the change in society`s ideals, from muscles to intellect.
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    Great Depression.

    The Great Depression was ironically named, since with lower prices and families` increased wages, they could actually afford more; thus, the living conditions improved.
  • Accession of Benjamin Disraeli.

    Accession of Benjamin Disraeli.
    Soon after becoming Prime Minister, Disraeli calls upon tradition (by re-inforcing ties to the modern royal family), pride of the empire, and social reforms.
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    British-Zulu War.

    Britain ultimately triumphs over the Zulus due to their technological advantage. This was similar outcome in other battles that they would fight.
  • Battle of Islandlwana.

    Battle of Islandlwana.
    In the battle of Isnalndlwana, South African Zulus originally deafeted the British army. One year later, the British defeat South Africa.
    In 1883, some of the kingdom was returned to leader Cetewayo.
  • Accession of William Gladstone.

    Accession of William Gladstone.
    By swaying public opinion against Disraeli`s decision to back the Ottoman Empire in a war with Russia, Gladstone becomes Prime Minister. He quickly gives the right to vote to male, rural working-class homeowners, which increases the voter population by two million.
  • Irish Home Rule Bill.

    After introducing the Irish Home Rule Bill, Gladstone divides the Liberal Party. This division allows the Conservatives to regain the majority in Parliament and seat of the Prime Minister.
  • Publication of "The Control of the Tropics."

    Publication of "The Control of the Tropics."
    In his "The Control of the Tropics", Benjamin Kido suggests that all colonies be developed properly. Around that time period, many thought that the colonies were full of savages that needed the "superior" ideas of Europe to right themselves.
  • Battle of Omdurman.

    Battle of Omdurman.
    The British triumph at Omdurman, infuriating the French. This almost leads to a British-French war at Fashoda.
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    Boer Wars.

    With the rise in nationalism, the Boer Wars commence in South Africa. The Boer Wars were created by the discovery of gold in South Africa.
  • Creation of the Labour Party.

    Creation of the Labour Party.
    Dedicated to the working class, the creation of the Labour Party was happily accepted. Later, the Labour Party would fight the elections of 1906, hoping to first secure labour laws and social reforms.
  • Publication of "The Psychology of Jingoism."

    Publication of "The Psychology of Jingoism."
    In his "The Psychology of Jingoism", John A. Hobson describes the form of "aggressive nationalism", or the hatred for other nations that are not similar to their own.
  • Theory of Economic Imperialism.

    Directly opposite of Kido`s "The Control of the Tropics", J.A. Hobson states that colonies should not be developed - only used used for economic advantages.
  • Suicide of Emily Davison.

    Suicide of Emily Davison.
    In protest of gender inequality, Emily Davison throws herself in front of the King`s horse, causing her to die.
  • Formation of Women`s Social and Political Union.

    Formation of Women`s Social and Political Union.
    Launched by Emmeine Pankhurst and daughter Christabel, the Women`s Social and Political Union [WSPU] directly acted for gender equality with:
    - Questioning of beliefs,
    - Refusal to pay taxes,
    - Hunger strikes in prison,
    - Violence against property,
    - Rallies before Parliament, etc.
  • New Social Welfare.

    A new form of social welfare is introduced, replacing the New Poor Law.
  • Proposal of The People`s Budget of 1909.

    Proposal of The People`s Budget of 1909.
    Chancellor of the Exchequer David Llyod George proposes The People`s Budget of 1909, which would begin taxes on inherited wealth. It was ultimately defeated by the aristocrats in the House of Lords.
  • Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand & WWI.

    Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand & WWI.
    Archduke Franz Ferdinand is shot. This event, alongside European tensions (which could not be solved by further expansion since Europe & its colonies accounted for 80% of the globe) caused the outbreak of WWI.
  • Right to Vote: Part I.

    Right to Vote: Part I.
    All working class men & women, aged 30 and older, receive the right to vote.
  • Right to Vote: Part II.

    Right to Vote: Part II.
    All women, aged 21 and older, receive the right to vote. This finally makes the two genders equal in terms of voter eligibility.