Polish astronomer whose theory of a heliocentric universe was cause for much controversy during the 1500s.
Feb 15, 1564
Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer and philosopher who played a major role in the Scientific Revolution. His achievements include improvements to the telescope and support for Copernicanism.
English philosopher whose Two Treatises of Government dictated that government is only created in the minds of man and that the only true law is the law of nature.
English mathematician and physicist who contributed his theory gravity and devolpments on the property of light to the Scientific Revoltuion
French philosopher during the Enlightenment period who is most famous for his treatise The Spirit of the Laws which gave an account of the different forms of government throughout Europe.
French philosopher during the Enlightenment period whose controversial writings earned him multiple exiles from France and other various countries.
Enlightenment philosopher who is most famous for his Social Contract. His writings heavily influenced Robespierre of the French Revolution.
Italian philosopher and politician who is most noted for his essay On Crimes and Punishments which denounced the use of unnecessary torture upon perpetrators of the law and advocated the abolotion of the death penalty.
Insufficient king of France during the period of the French Revolution. Was eventually deposed and executed by means of the guillotine.
Wife of King Louis XVI of France during the period of the French Revolution. Her love of expensive clothing and lavish jewelry was a cause for controversy while the common man could not even afford bread.
Influential lawyer/politician during the time of the French Revolution. Major advocator of the Rein of Terror, and was eventually arrested and executed by means of the guillotine.
English feminist who is famous for her essay A Vindication of the Rights of Woman which advocated women’s rights.
Device invented by James Hargreaves that revolutionized the British Textile Industry. This was one of the first inventions of the Industrial Revolution
French general who rose to power following the Rein of Terror. Sought to conquer opposing nations using advanced military tactics. Eventually met his downfall at the Battle of Waterloo, and died in exile.
Period of revolution that plagued France which drastically changed the government, military and culture of the country. Defined by the thousands of executions by the guillotine.
Reign of Terror
Period during the French Revolution in which citizens were systematically executed if they were found out to be in opposition of the Revolution. The period of the Reign of Terror was largely credited to Robespierre.
British naturalist who developed the theory of Evolution
Congress of Vienna
An international conference between the major powers of Europe which sought to rebuild Europe after the defeat of Napoleon.
Prime Minister of Prussia who was an active voice in the unification of Germany.
German philosopher whose ideas contributed to the development of socialism and modern communism
English philosopher who applied Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution to human behavior. Coined the phrase “survival of the fittest”.
Sir Francis Galton
A British scientist who developed the concept of eugenics which paved the way for Social Darwinism.
War fought in China against Great Britain over British trading privileges of opium.
German philosopher who believed that it was impossible for a human being to know absolute truth
Russian psychologist famous for his development of classical conditioning and his experiment involving the salivation of a dog at the sound of a bell
War initiated by Russia against France and Great Britain over the holy land of Jerusalem. Each nation believed they had claim to the land because each nation’s religion had roots in Jerusalem.
Austrian physician who developed the belief that behaviors are a result of unconcious desires.
Rebellion of the sepoys against the East India Company which began when the sepoys refused to use rifle cartridges greased with pork fat.
Conflict fought between Northern and Southern states in America over the issues of state’s rights and slavery in America.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Archduke of Austria whose assassination led to the outbreak of WWI.
Communist leader of the Soviet Union who, through his rule, was responsible for the deaths of nearly 20 million people.
Scramble for Africa
Sudden rush for European countries to invade and colonize Africa.
Leader of Italy during WWII. He was the founder of the Fascist Party and formed an alliance with Hitler and the Nazi Party.
Communist leader of the German Nazi party who was responsible for the murder of over five million Jews during World War II
A peasant rebellion against European influence in China, especially Christianity. The Boxers were a secret society gifted in martial arts and believed to have magical powers.
War waged between Europeans and European settlers in Africa (Boers). Initially, the European armies were wholly unprepared and suffered many losses, but in the end, the Boers gave in and gave Europe a share of their land.
World War 1
A world wide war involving both the Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente brought about by the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. Lasted four years and was ended with the Treaty of Versailles
Luxury liner traveling from New York to England, secretly carrying war supplies, was bombed by German u-boats, led to America involvement in the WWI.
Treaty of Versailles
Peace treaty that ended WWI and required that Germany take responsibility for the war.
Enclosed prisons where the Nazi Party held enemies of the Nazi regime, namely Jews. Within these camps, prisoners were systematically executed in large quantities.
World War II
A world wide war fought primarily between the Axis and the Allied powers. Began with Germany’s invasion of Poland and the rising of Nazi power.
Naval airbase located on the island of O’ahu, Hawai’I which was bombed by the Japanese on December 7, 1941.
Battle of the Bulge
One of the bloodiest battles fought during WWII. German armies gave one final effort but were defeated by the Allies. It is considered one of the major turning points of the war.
City located in Japan that was bombed by the USA during WWII.
City located in Japan which was bombed by the USA during WWII.