Group 1 History Timeline (Final Project)

  • Feb 19, 1473

    Nicolaus Copernicus

    Polish astronomer whose theory of a heliocentric universe was cause for much controversy during the 1500s.
  • Feb 15, 1564

    Galileo

    Galileo
    Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer and philosopher who played a major role in the Scientific Revolution. His achievements include improvements to the telescope and support for Copernicanism.
  • John Locke

    English philosopher whose Two Treatises of Government dictated that government is only created in the minds of man and that the only true law is the law of nature.
  • Newton

    English mathematician and physicist who contributed his theory gravity and devolpments on the property of light to the Scientific Revoltuion
  • Montesquieue

    Montesquieue
    French philosopher during the Enlightenment period who is most famous for his treatise The Spirit of the Laws which gave an account of the different forms of government throughout Europe.
  • Voltaire

    Voltaire
    French philosopher during the Enlightenment period whose controversial writings earned him multiple exiles from France and other various countries.
  • Rousseau

    Enlightenment philosopher who is most famous for his Social Contract. His writings heavily influenced Robespierre of the French Revolution.
  • Beccaria

    Italian philosopher and politician who is most noted for his essay On Crimes and Punishments which denounced the use of unnecessary torture upon perpetrators of the law and advocated the abolotion of the death penalty.
  • Louis XVI

    Insufficient king of France during the period of the French Revolution. Was eventually deposed and executed by means of the guillotine.
  • Marie Antoinette

    Marie Antoinette
    Wife of King Louis XVI of France during the period of the French Revolution. Her love of expensive clothing and lavish jewelry was a cause for controversy while the common man could not even afford bread.
  • Robespierre

    Robespierre
    Influential lawyer/politician during the time of the French Revolution. Major advocator of the Rein of Terror, and was eventually arrested and executed by means of the guillotine.
  • Mary Wollstonecraft

    Mary Wollstonecraft
    English feminist who is famous for her essay A Vindication of the Rights of Woman which advocated women’s rights.
  • Spinning Jenny

    Spinning Jenny
    Device invented by James Hargreaves that revolutionized the British Textile Industry. This was one of the first inventions of the Industrial Revolution
  • Napoleon

    French general who rose to power following the Rein of Terror. Sought to conquer opposing nations using advanced military tactics. Eventually met his downfall at the Battle of Waterloo, and died in exile.
  • French Revolution

    French Revolution
    Period of revolution that plagued France which drastically changed the government, military and culture of the country. Defined by the thousands of executions by the guillotine.
  • Reign of Terror

    Period during the French Revolution in which citizens were systematically executed if they were found out to be in opposition of the Revolution. The period of the Reign of Terror was largely credited to Robespierre.
  • Darwin

    Darwin
    British naturalist who developed the theory of Evolution
  • Congress of Vienna

    An international conference between the major powers of Europe which sought to rebuild Europe after the defeat of Napoleon.
  • Bismarck

    Bismarck
    Prime Minister of Prussia who was an active voice in the unification of Germany.
  • Karl Marx

    Karl Marx
    German philosopher whose ideas contributed to the development of socialism and modern communism
  • Spencer

    Spencer
    English philosopher who applied Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution to human behavior. Coined the phrase “survival of the fittest”.
  • Sir Francis Galton

    A British scientist who developed the concept of eugenics which paved the way for Social Darwinism.
  • Opium War

    War fought in China against Great Britain over British trading privileges of opium.
  • Nietzche

    Nietzche
    German philosopher who believed that it was impossible for a human being to know absolute truth
  • Pavlov

    Pavlov
    Russian psychologist famous for his development of classical conditioning and his experiment involving the salivation of a dog at the sound of a bell
  • Crimean War

    War initiated by Russia against France and Great Britain over the holy land of Jerusalem. Each nation believed they had claim to the land because each nation’s religion had roots in Jerusalem.
  • Sigmund Freud

    Sigmund Freud
    Austrian physician who developed the belief that behaviors are a result of unconcious desires.
  • Sepoy Rebellion

    Rebellion of the sepoys against the East India Company which began when the sepoys refused to use rifle cartridges greased with pork fat.
  • Civil War

    Conflict fought between Northern and Southern states in America over the issues of state’s rights and slavery in America.
  • Archduke Franz Ferdinand

    Archduke of Austria whose assassination led to the outbreak of WWI.
  • Stalin

    Communist leader of the Soviet Union who, through his rule, was responsible for the deaths of nearly 20 million people.
  • Scramble for Africa

    Sudden rush for European countries to invade and colonize Africa.
  • Mussolini

    Leader of Italy during WWII. He was the founder of the Fascist Party and formed an alliance with Hitler and the Nazi Party.
  • Hitler

    Hitler
    Communist leader of the German Nazi party who was responsible for the murder of over five million Jews during World War II
  • Boxer Rebellion

    A peasant rebellion against European influence in China, especially Christianity. The Boxers were a secret society gifted in martial arts and believed to have magical powers.
  • Boer War

    War waged between Europeans and European settlers in Africa (Boers). Initially, the European armies were wholly unprepared and suffered many losses, but in the end, the Boers gave in and gave Europe a share of their land.
  • World War 1

    World War 1
    A world wide war involving both the Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente brought about by the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. Lasted four years and was ended with the Treaty of Versailles
  • Lusitania

    Luxury liner traveling from New York to England, secretly carrying war supplies, was bombed by German u-boats, led to America involvement in the WWI.
  • Treaty of Versailles

    Peace treaty that ended WWI and required that Germany take responsibility for the war.
  • Concentration Camps

    Enclosed prisons where the Nazi Party held enemies of the Nazi regime, namely Jews. Within these camps, prisoners were systematically executed in large quantities.
  • World War II

    World War II
    A world wide war fought primarily between the Axis and the Allied powers. Began with Germany’s invasion of Poland and the rising of Nazi power.
  • Pearl Harbor

    Naval airbase located on the island of O’ahu, Hawai’I which was bombed by the Japanese on December 7, 1941.
  • Battle of the Bulge

    One of the bloodiest battles fought during WWII. German armies gave one final effort but were defeated by the Allies. It is considered one of the major turning points of the war.
  • Hiroshima

    Hiroshima
    City located in Japan that was bombed by the USA during WWII.
  • Nagasaki

    Nagasaki
    City located in Japan which was bombed by the USA during WWII.