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AP European History Timeline

  • Jan 1, 1348

    Black Death

    Black Death
    1348-1351
    The Black Death was a catastrophic pandemic in Europe that killed millions. The Black Death did not only caue physical pain, it also caused people to question their religion.
  • Jan 1, 1350

    Renaissance

    Renaissance
    1350-1550
    The revitalization of Classical ideals and Greco-Roman civilization.
  • Jan 1, 1415

    Council of Constance burns Hus and ends Great Schism

    Council of Constance burns Hus and ends Great Schism
    1415-1417
    The Council was important because they were able to end a divide in Europe.
  • Jan 1, 1450

    Exploration

    Exploration
    1450-1600
    A time period where Europeans traveled the world to find spices, trading routes, and expand their knowledge about the world.
  • Jan 1, 1453

    Fall of Constantinople; end of Hundred Years' War

    Fall of Constantinople; end of Hundred Years' War
    The end of the Hundred Years' war put France at the height of its power. The Fall of Constantinople made the Ottoman Empire more of a threat to Europe.
  • Jan 1, 1455

    Invention of Printing Press

    Invention of Printing Press
    The Printing Press was the ideal invention because it allowed for ideas to spread faster, such as Martin Luther's 95 theses.
  • Jan 1, 1492

    Columbus encounters America; completion of reconquista in Spain

    Columbus encounters America; completion of reconquista in Spain
    The discovery of the Americas leads to the destruction of most of the native american people. Along with the killing off of the native american race, countires also brought new food and animals. The reconquista in Spain removed all muslims from Spain or converted them to Christianity.
  • Jan 1, 1500

    Early Modern Society

    Early Modern Society
    1500-1700
    A period of time where the European's vision shifted from a religious point of view to a scientific point of view.
  • Jan 1, 1500

    Price Revolution

    Price Revolution
    Sixteenth Century
    The high rate of inflation that affected Europe due to things such as the high amount of gold and silver in production and the high prices of certain items due to the Black Death.
  • Jan 1, 1517

    Luther posts 95 theses

    Luther posts 95 theses
    The theses had a great effect on people's religions and it also went against the chuch, causing riots and revolts.
  • Oct 31, 1517

    Protestant and Catholic Reformations

    Protestant and Catholic Reformations
    Sixteenth Century
    A great divide in Western Christianity that led to the creation of new religions such as Luterhanism and Anglicanism, The reformation is said to have been sparked by The Ninety-Five Theses, which was written by Martin Luther.
  • Jan 1, 1519

    Cortes conquers Aztecs

    Cortes conquers Aztecs
    The conquering of the Aztecs virtually leads to the wiping out of all aztecs and desecration of their artifacts.
  • Jan 1, 1524

    Religious Wars

    Religious Wars
    1520's-1650
    A series of wars sparked in Europe that were impacted by the effects of the Protestant and Catholic reformations.
  • Jan 1, 1534

    Act of Supremacy in England creates Anglican Church

    Act of Supremacy in England creates Anglican Church
    The creation of the Anglican church further confused people as to what religion they should be a part of. It also created conflict between the head of England and the Pope due to conflicting religions.
  • Jan 1, 1536

    Calvin establishes reformed faith in Geneva

    Calvin establishes reformed faith in Geneva
    The establishment of religion in Geneva allowed it to spread fast, making it become another important religion in Europe.
  • Jan 1, 1543

    Scientific Revolution

    Scientific Revolution
    1543-1687
    The emergence of modern science that brought about advances in many different aspects.
  • Jan 1, 1543

    Copernicus publishes heliocentric theory

    Copernicus publishes heliocentric theory
    This changed the original geocentric theory, claming that Earth was the center of the universe, which caused tension in Europe. The church fekt this was an act against the Bible and the church.
  • Jan 1, 1545

    Council of Trent opens

    Council of Trent opens
    The Council of Trent was able to reform the Catcholic church. It also saved the papcy.
  • Jan 1, 1550

    Dutch Commercial Dominance

    Dutch Commercial Dominance
    1550-1650
    This period of time helped establish Amsterdam as the financial center of Europe and it helped the Dutch become the bankers of Europe.
  • Jan 1, 1550

    Age of Crisis

    Age of Crisis
    1550-1650
    A time characterized by poor climate due to the little ice age, bad harvests, and food shortages.
  • Jan 1, 1555

    Peace of Augsburg ends religious war in Germany, Charles V abdicates

    Peace of Augsburg ends religious war in Germany, Charles V abdicates
    The Peace of Augsburg allowed rulers to choose the religion of their region, however they usually did not go based off of what the majority of people's religions were in the region.
  • Jan 1, 1580

    Witchcraft Scare

    Witchcraft Scare
    1580-1680
    Witchcraft had grown to be a sinister event when the medieval church started to link acts of the devil to witchcraft, changing the view of witchcraft as a common practice to heresy.
  • Defeat Spanish Armada

    Defeat Spanish Armada
    The English became more encouraged to accomplish things, plus they became a major power in the sea.
  • Edict of Nantes ends French religious wars

    Edict of Nantes ends French religious wars
    First time two religions could coexist due to religious toleration.
  • Baroque Art

    Baroque Art
    1600-1750
    A period of artistic style that used exaggerated motion and detail to produce drama and grandeur.
  • Commercial Revolution

    Commercial Revolution
    Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries
    The Commercial Revolution led to the creation of Mercantilism, which would be dominant in Europe through the 17th and 18th centuries. The Commercial Revolution also led to entrepreneurs, joint-stock companies, and domestic systems.
  • Dutch East India Company founded

    Dutch East India Company founded
    Helped overcome portugese and gain control of spice trade.
  • Conflict Between Parliament and King of England

    Conflict Between Parliament and King of England
    1603-1689
    A time where riots and revolts broke out in England due to disagreements between Charles I and the Parliament. These 'disagreements' caused the English Civil War and the Glorious Revolution.
  • Stuart monarchy begins in England

    Stuart monarchy begins in England
    The monrachy believed they had authority from God to rule (absolutism). This caused the Glorious Revolution and the English Civil War.
  • Age of Louis XIV

    Age of Louis XIV
    !643-1715
    The Sun King, a.k.a. Louis XIV, was one of the most famous rulers of France due to his use of absolutism. Durin his reign, France was at the height of his power. However, his actions led to France's downfall, such as the use of millions of dollars to build the palace of Versailles.
  • Peace of Westphalia ends Thirty Years' War

    Peace of Westphalia ends Thirty Years' War
    The treaty ended up making Calvinism an allowable faith and also recognized the independent authority of German states.
  • Charles I executed in England

    Charles I executed in England
    Led to English Civil War and benefited Oliver Cromwell.
  • Absolutism

    Absolutism
    1650-1750
    During this time period, many rulers said they had an authority from God to rule. This led to rulers such as Elizabeth I and Louis XIV
  • Commercial Wars

    Commercial Wars
    1650-1763
    These wars caused tension between many countires due to the need for resources.
  • Rise of Prussia

    Rise of Prussia
    1650-1763
    Prussia grew to be a massive power during this time and under Frederick William I, the country gained an army of a whopping 80,000 people.
  • Newton publishes Principia Mathematica

    Newton publishes Principia Mathematica
    Gave a single, concise mathematical law on gravitation.
  • Glorious Revolution; Peter the Great's reign begins in Russia

    Glorious Revolution; Peter the Great's reign begins in Russia
    1688-1689
    Glorious Revolution caused the Bill of Rights to be written and placed a sort of system of "checks and balances". Peter the Great expanded Russia and their army.
  • Rise of Russia

    Rise of Russia
    1689-1815
    Due to Peter the Great's efforts, Russia became an extensive European power, not only ruling on land, but also in the Baltic Sea.
  • Bank of England founded

    Bank of England founded
    Bank of England basically acted as accountant to government. Later becomes financial center for Europe.
  • Enlightenment

    Enlightenment
    Eighteenth Century
    An intellectual movemen led by philosophes that stressed the application of reason and the scientific method to every aspect of life.
  • Agricultural Revolution

    Agricultural Revolution
    Eighteenth Century
    The Agricultural Revolution was a period of transition from hunting to stationary farming. Nw tchniques of growing crops allowed for better crop yields. Factors that came into play were better climate, moe farmland, and an increase in the number of livestock.
  • Peace of Utrecht; Death of Louis XIV

    Peace of Utrecht; Death of Louis XIV
    1713-1715
    The Peace of Utrecht put Louis XIV on halt in conquering Europe. Also let England have right to supply slaves for Spain.
  • Rococo Art

    Rococo Art
    1720-1760
    Rococo used light colors and lighthearted styles in order to show what the day had in store.
  • Rise of the Middle Class

    Rise of the Middle Class
    Eighteenth Century
    With the rise of the middle class, it bought about a more balanced civilization.
  • War of Austrian Succession begins

    War of Austrian Succession begins
    Battle has domino effect and basically puts all of Europe in war.
  • Industrial Revolution

    Industrial Revolution
    1750-1850
    The Industrial Revolution was the transition from hand production methods to machines., new chemical manufacturing, and the increased use of steam power.
  • Treaty of Paris ends Seven Years' War

    Treaty of Paris ends Seven Years' War
    British Acquires parts of Canada
    France keeps a couple of islands
    Prussia keeps Silesia
  • American Revolution; Smith publishes Wealth of Nations

    American Revolution; Smith publishes Wealth of Nations
    The people of the New World are able to be free from England. If we did not win the American Revolution, none of us would be here today and our future would have certainly shifted.
    The book by Adam Smith is important because it showed modern economic thoughts and included laissez-faire.
  • Age of Revolutions

    Age of Revolutions
    1789-1848
    The Age of Revolution was a period of time where a grand amount of revolutions took place. This period also experienced a shift from absolute monarchies to constitutionalist republics and states.
  • French Revolution begins

    French Revolution begins
    One of the bloodiest revolutions in histroy, it brought about the creation of new weapons, such as the guillotine, however it did not give many rights nor really accomplish anything.
  • Feminism

    Feminism
    1790's-1980's
    Feminism is the belief in the social, political, and economic equality of the sexes. This movement led was meant to acquire rights for women. Due to this movement, women gained many rights, including the right to vote.
  • Rise of Nationalism

    Rise of Nationalism
    1790's-1914
    Nationalism allowed for people to come together and have a sense of untiy and pride for their country.
  • Wollstonecraft begins feminist movement with Vindication of Rights of Women

    Wollstonecraft begins feminist movement with Vindication of Rights of Women
    Feminism greatly shapes the future of women as gender norms start to shift.
  • Napoleon comes to power in France

    Napoleon comes to power in France
    Napoleon was able to transform France into a modern state and he defeated the Second Coalition. However, he caused a loss of liberty in France.
  • Romanticism

    Romanticism
    First Half of the Nineteenth Century
    Romanticism was a reaction to the Industrial Revolution and a rebellion against the ideas presented in the Age of Enlightenment.
  • Abdication of Napoleon; Congress of Vienna

    Abdication of Napoleon; Congress of Vienna
    Napoleon's abdication was more of a con than a pro because e was a strong military persona. The Congress of Vienna created a balance in Europe.
  • Rise of Liberalism

    Rise of Liberalism
    1830's-1870's
    The Rise of Liberalism supported the belief that governments must protect the most basic, natural rights.
  • Revolution in France; Belgian and Greek Independence

    Revolution in France; Belgian and Greek Independence
    1830-1831
    The French Revolution threw out every old tradition and hierarchy in favor of "Liberté, égalité, and fraternité".
  • Revolutions of 1848; Marx and Engels publish Communist Manifesto

    Revolutions of 1848; Marx and Engels publish Communist Manifesto
    A new idea of politics came out of these revolutions. The Communist Manifesto was able to challenge the mindset of people at the time.
  • Unification and Nation Building

    Unification and Nation Building
    1850-1875
    This event led to the creation of new countries.
  • Realism and Materialism

    Realism and Materialism
    1850-1870's
    This movement changed the scope from Romanticism to the problems of people such as the woring class and peasants.
  • Second Industrial Revolution

    Second Industrial Revolution
    1850-1914
    The Second Industrial Revolution, also known as the Technological Revolution, bought about mass production and the assembly line.
  • Imperialism

    Imperialism
    1850-1914
    A time here Europeans had control of a countless number of regions, including the continent of Africa. The events in this era led to a global economy but intense rivalries.
  • Modern Ideas and Science

    Modern Ideas and Science
    1850-1920's
    Led to the inclusion of women's right, the bacterial revolution, and the theory of evolution.
  • Rise of Modern Society

    Rise of Modern Society
    Second Half of the Nineteenth Century
    This time period was characterized by population growth and urbanization.
  • Crystal Palace Exhibition in Britain

    Crystal Palace Exhibition in Britain
    Provided national center for enlightened people.
  • Britain establishes direct rule of India

    Britain establishes direct rule of India
    Brought British culture to India, however most of India's resources were taken as a result.
  • Darwin publishes Origin of the Species

    Darwin publishes Origin of the Species
    THEORY OF EVOLUTION
  • Italy unified; Russian serfs emancipated

    Italy unified; Russian serfs emancipated
    Even though Italy is brought together, northern Italy is full of rich people while suthern Italy is full of poor people. Even though the serfs were free, they were still restricted.
  • Modern Art

    Modern Art
    1870-1920
    During this era, new art styles were introduced such as cubism and impressionism. Many famous artist also existed during this time period.
  • Unification of Germany; Paris Commune and Third Republic in France

    Unification of Germany; Paris Commune and Third Republic in France
    Germany's unification created a balance of power. German developed very quickly and even rivaled Great Britain. The Third Republic did not last very long.
  • Berlin Conference over imperialism in Africa

    Berlin Conference over imperialism in Africa
    1884-1885
    The Berlin Conference divided Africa among Europe.
  • Freud publishes Interpretation of Dreams

    Freud publishes Interpretation of Dreams
    Freud was one of the first people to ever analyze dreams.
  • Einstein publishes relativity theory; Revolution of 1905 in Russia

    Einstein publishes relativity theory; Revolution of 1905 in Russia
    The relativity theory challenged preconceived ideas of space and time. The revolution was a gigantic massacre and it caused he vote for a Russian Parliament.
  • World Wars

    World Wars
    1914-1945
    This was a time of catastrophe in Europe. Most of Europe had to go to war and gigantic blood baths took placce all across the continent. During World War I, Germany was the focal point of all the action.
  • World War I begins

    World War I begins
    The first World War put mainly all of Europeinto battle and put Germany in the center of it all.
  • Bolshevik Revolution in Russia

    Bolshevik Revolution in Russia
    This revolution caused Russia to lose a quarter of its territories and lose a third of its population,
  • Treaty of Versailles ends World War I

    Treaty of Versailles ends World War I
    Treaty forced Germany to sign war clause and pay all damages
  • Totalitarianism

    Totalitarianism
    1920's-1945
    A time where countries in Europe were under total control by the state.
  • Fascists and Mussolini come to power in Italy

    Fascists and Mussolini come to power in Italy
    All political powers are forbidden except for the fascists.
  • Great Depresion begins

    Great Depresion begins
    Many unemployed workers and government had to intervene.
  • Hitler comes to power in Germany

    Hitler comes to power in Germany
    Hitler put Germany under a total lockdown and turned it into a totalitarian state.
  • Munich Conference - Height of Appeasement

    Munich Conference - Height of Appeasement
    Gave Sudentland to Hitler
  • World War II begins

    World War II begins
    World War II is even bloodier than World War I. One good thing comes out of the war though, the United Nations.
  • Cold War

    Cold War
    1945-1991
    During the Cold War, the U.S. and the Soviet Union built weapons that were very dangerous due to their explosive nature. The Warsaw Pact and NATO were also formed during this era.
  • European Unity

    European Unity
    1945-Present
    After all the conflicts, Europe is finally united as one. Foloowuing this, the European UNion is formed and so is the European Economic Community.
  • World War II ends; Unitd Nations founded

    World War II ends; Unitd Nations founded
    Nazi regime finally ends and Berlin Wall is constructed.
  • NATO formed

    NATO formed
    Europe and United States collaborate with each other to set up defense.
  • European Coal and Steel Communtiy (ECSC) formed

    European Coal and Steel Communtiy (ECSC) formed
    The ECSC was able to put tarrif free trading into place between the countires of France, West Germany, Belgium, Italy, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands.
  • Stalin dies

    Stalin dies
    The Soviet Union's efforts cease.
  • Khrushchev's de-Stalinization speech; Hungary Revolt

    Khrushchev's de-Stalinization speech; Hungary Revolt
    The sppech was significant because it was a shift from Stalin's harsh rules and regulations to a more ideal way of living. The Hungary revolt did not last becuase he Soviets came and shut it down.
  • Treaty of Rome creates European Economic Community (EEC); Sputnik launched

    Treaty of Rome creates European Economic Community (EEC); Sputnik launched
    The EEC eliminates trade barriers and also becomes motivation for economic in Western Europe. The launching of the Sputnik put the Soviet Union against the United States in searching space.
  • Fifth Republic in France under DeGaulle

    Fifth Republic in France under DeGaulle
    Under Degaulle, he let Algeria have freedom, he started to develop nuclear weapons, and took military forces away from NATO.
  • Berlin Wall Erected

    Berlin Wall Erected
    Stopped refugees from coming and going, plus it became a symbol for communism,
  • Cuban Missle Crisis

    Cuban Missle Crisis
    The missle crisis desacrated Khrushchev's trustworthiness and it later helped overthrow him in 1964.
  • Second Vatican Council begins

    Second Vatican Council begins
    Recognized separation of church and state.
  • Student revolts; Czech "Prague Spring" revolt

    Student revolts; Czech "Prague Spring" revolt
    There were many student protests throughout Europe, but they mostly ended up in all the students being arrested. The revolts in Czech occured due to communist control.
  • Helsinki Accords - height of détente

    Helsinki Accords - height of détente
    Marked the high point of the Cold War
    The people who signed them acknowledged basic human rights and ridded Europe of territorial boundaries.
  • John Paul II elected pope

    John Paul II elected pope
    One of the most famous popes and called one of the most influential of his time.
  • Soviet Union invades Afghanistan; Thatcher elected prime minister in Britain

    Soviet Union invades Afghanistan; Thatcher elected prime minister in Britain
    The invasion caused a lot of harm on the Soviet's economic system and it caused social tension with the Soviets. Electing Thatcher as the minister cuased Britain to be able to buy a council house and place reforms that made London a financial center.
  • Solidarity founded in Poland

    Solidarity founded in Poland
    Solidarity was one of the first acts that used peace to overthrow a Communist regime. Candidates from Solidarity were voted over the Communist party also.
  • Gorbachev comes to power in Soviet Union

    Gorbachev comes to power in Soviet Union
    Reformed the Soviet Union
  • Berlin Wall falls and collapse of communism

    Berlin Wall falls and collapse of communism
    Reunification of Germany and end of Cold War in Europe.
  • Break-up of Soviet Union; Balkan conflicts begin in former Yugoslavia

    Break-up of Soviet Union; Balkan conflicts begin in former Yugoslavia
    The break-up of the union caused different ethnic groups to revolt and dmand freedom. The conflicts in former Yugoslavia cause Balkan tension.
  • Maastricht Treaty creates European Union (EU)

    Maastricht Treaty creates European Union (EU)
    Created the World's largest economic market.
  • Euro currency introduced

    Euro currency introduced
    Brought Europe together under European Union.
  • Terroist attacks on United States

    Terroist attacks on United States
    Terroist Attacks caused people to hate the middle east and furthermore put airports under tight control.