Bb815f   europe regional

Creative Time Line Project AP Euro

By DucNong
  • Period: Jan 1, 1309 to Mar 4, 1376

    The Babylonian Captivity

    During this time period the popes lived in Avignon in France in which Philip the Fair of France pressured Pope Clement V to stay in Avignon in order to control the church and its policies.Following the death of Pope Gregory XI whom brought the papalcourt back to Rome ,the cardinals were pressured to elect a Italian as Pope. Soon after his election the cardinals elected his election was invalid and elected another in his place Pope Clement VII.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1315 to Dec 31, 1322

    Hunger strikes Northern Europe

    Also known was the Great Famine;caused by poor harvesting and vast population of the poor which lead to starvation and scarce amounts of food.
  • Jun 9, 1324

    Defensor Pacis,Marsiglio

    Defensor Pacis,Marsiglio
    Was one of the most controversial works written during this time published by Marsiglio of Pauda and was ended up excommunicated.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1337 to Dec 1, 1453

    Hundred Years' War

    The violation of the the Treaty of Paris of 1259 and economic reasons like the wool trade and the control of Flemish towns which were vital to both countries economies. Most of the war was fought in France and consistedof random sieges and raids. For the majority of the war, England had conquered much of the French territory until Joan of Arc who arguably was the ultimate factor in Frances eventual victory.
  • Jan 30, 1346

    The Battle of Crecy

    The Battle of Crecy
    Major battle in THe Hundred Year War where the English completly dominated the French by the use of longbows and cannons
  • Period: Jun 1, 1347 to Dec 1, 1352

    The Black Death

    Spread through out Europe over the course of three years and wiped out 1/3 of Europes continental population in five years since it was introduced;Rats were the cause of the disease and spreaded easily because of peasant comsumption of the diease filled rats.
  • Sep 18, 1348

    Black Death Arrives in mainland Europe

    Black Death Arrives in mainland Europe
    Was easily spread to the mainland by the poors consumption of disease infested rats
  • May 19, 1358

    Jacquerine peasant uprising in France

    French taxations for the Hundred Years War fell hearvily on the poor and the built up frustations of the French peasants caused a massive uprising
  • Period: Jan 1, 1378 to Dec 31, 1417

    The Great Schism

    Period of European powers siding with Pope Urban or the Frenchs antipope Clement. Aragon,Castile,Portugal,and Italian city states soon after when the emperor alienated them because of hostility towards France and side with Pope Urban.
  • Nov 20, 1381

    Peasants' Revolt in England

    Period in which the social and economic conditions caused a mass increase in peasant uprisings.
  • Period: Nov 19, 1400 to

    Re-emergence of Serfdom in eastern Europe

    Between 1500 and 1650 the social,legal and economic conditions of peasants declined and many free peasants lost their freedom and resorted into serfdom
  • Period: Sep 19, 1422 to Sep 19, 1461

    Charles VII revives France and Monarchy

    Charles began the recovery by bonding together the Burgundians and Armagnacs who had been at war for decades;He pushed out nearly all of the English off French territory.Charles reorganized the royal concil and giving increased influence to the middle class and strengthened royal finances.
  • Aug 18, 1429

    French Victory in Orleans;Charles VII crowned king

    French Victory in Orleans;Charles VII crowned king
    Joan of Arc was vital to this victory because of her strong belief in her mission and she was wounded during this time which greatly enhance the morale of the troops
  • Dec 18, 1431

    Joan Of Arc burned at the steak and declared a heretic

    Joan Of Arc burned at the steak and declared a heretic
    Joan Of Arc was captured by British allies and was charged sorcery and politicall reasons.
  • Period: Sep 19, 1434 to Sep 19, 1494

    Medici family in power in Florence

    While there was a form of a republican government the powerful family of bankers actually ruled from behind the scenes.
  • Nov 19, 1440

    Ivan the III

    Ivan the III
    Also known as Ivan the Great because of his work to gain territory and laying the foundation for Russia.
  • Nov 20, 1450

    Bartholomew Dias

    Bartholomew Dias
    An early Portuguese explorer who traveled down the coast of Africa in search of a water route to Asia and managed to round the southern tip of Africa in 1488.
  • Period: Nov 20, 1450 to

    Age of Exploration

    Era of phenomenal advances in geographical knowledge and technology.
  • Nov 20, 1451

    Christopher Colombus

    Christopher Colombus
    Italian navigator who discovered the New World most notably America in the service of Spain while looking for a route to China
  • Apr 15, 1452

    Leonardo Da Vinci

    Leonardo Da Vinci
    The man who did so many things to change the world we live in today. Hes ideas are still used today and hes mind was in a league of his own.
  • Apr 19, 1454

    Invention of movable type

    Invention of movable type
    The invention of movable type brought major changes and transformed the public and private life of Europeans. Was use for by governments for many purposes including propaganda,declaration of war,communication,treaties.
  • Nov 20, 1454

    Amerigo Vespucci

    Amerigo Vespucci
    The Italian sailor who corrected Columbus's mistake, acknowledging the coasts of america as a new world.
  • Nov 20, 1460

    Prince Henry the Navigator

    Prince Henry the Navigator
    Prince of Portugal who established an observatory and school of navigation at Sagres and directed voyages that spurred the growth of Portugal's colonial empire (1394-1460)
  • Period: Nov 19, 1462 to Nov 19, 1505

    Reign of Ivan the III in Russia

    During his reign saw the beginning of the Russian state and gain in vast territories
  • May 3, 1469

    Niccolo Machiavelli

    Niccolo Machiavelli
    Wrote one of the most widely read and studied book in history.
  • Sep 19, 1469

    Marriage of Isabella of Castile and Ferndinand of Aragon

    Marriage of Isabella of Castile and Ferndinand of Aragon
    The marriage dint bring administrative unity rather it brougt a union of the two houses but political differences between the two house still stand.
  • Feb 19, 1473

    Nicolaus Copernicus

    Nicolaus Copernicus
    An astronomer that made a heavy contribution to the Scientific Revolution through his book "On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres".
  • Mar 6, 1475

    Michelanglo

    Michelanglo
    One of the prominant figures of the High Renaissance known for his scultures and work of the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel.
  • Nov 10, 1483

    Martin Luther

    Martin Luther
    The man who sparked the reformation itself by a simple act of defiance and his beliefs agaisnt the corruption of selling indulgences
  • Nov 20, 1484

    Bartholomew de las Casas

    Bartholomew de las Casas
    A Spanish priest, who wrote about the atrocities committed by Spanish settlers in the New World.
  • Oct 19, 1494

    Invasion of Italy by Charles VII of France

    Invasion of Italy by Charles VII of France
    Italy became a the focus of international ambitions and battleground of foreign invaders. Frances army took the major city states with ease.
  • Nov 20, 1497

    Vasco da Gama

    Vasco da Gama
    Portuguese explorer who in 1497-1498 he led the first naval expedition from Europe to sail to India, opening an important commercial sea route
  • Period: Sep 18, 1500 to Sep 18, 1527

    High Renaissance

    Period in which creativity of arts such as painting,sculpting,and archtecture were praised;The city of Florence led the way.
  • Sep 20, 1500

    Northern Renaissance

    Northern Renaissance
    The Northern Renaissance was open to many types of religion,cultures,traditions and ideas and spawned a couple of important humanists such as Thomas More and Eramus. Like any other place in Europe at this time the North was home to many great artists.
  • Sep 20, 1503

    Mona Lisa

    Mona Lisa
    One of the most known paintings in our history and which is of a half length portrait of a woman by no other then Leonardo Da Vinci
  • Oct 20, 1506

    Pope Julios II begins on the work of Saint Peters Basilica

    Pope Julios II begins on the work of Saint Peters Basilica
    Tored down the old Saint Peters Basilica to work on the current structure and became one of the architectural masterpeices of the High Renaissance
  • Jan 4, 1508

    Ceiling of Sistine Chapel

    Ceiling of Sistine Chapel
    Argubably Michelangos greatest work and took him seven years to complete
  • Sep 20, 1509

    English Reformation

    English Reformation
    Mostly focused on King Henry VII and how he reformed England. Started when King Henry wanted a divorced but Pope Clement dint grant him permission therefore he used the parliament to reform England and grant him power of head of the church which allowed him to remarry.
  • Oct 1, 1513

    The Prince by Niccolo Machiavelli

    The Prince by Niccolo Machiavelli
    Book published by Niccolo Machiavelli in which the topic of was political power:how the ruler should gain,maintain,and increase it.
  • Mar 19, 1516

    More, Utopia

    More, Utopia
    Written by Thomas More and presents a revolutionary view of society
  • Oct 31, 1517

    Martin Luther writes 95 Theses

    Martin Luther writes 95 Theses
    A list a of reasons and statements agaisnt the selling of indulgences and his beliefs which he hammered into the Church doors.
  • Jan 21, 1525

    Anabaptists

    Anabaptists
    Group that believed that only adults can make a free choice about religious faith,baptism and entry into the Christian community and was led by Zwingli
  • Aug 21, 1528

    Castiglione , The Courtier

    Castiglione , The Courtier
    This book focused on educational and ideals of a proper man. Castiglione states that an educated man of the upper class had to be physically,spiritually and intellectually fit with a broad background of many educational subjects
  • Nov 19, 1530

    Ivan the IV

    Ivan the IV
    Better known as Ivan the Terrible due to his harsh and vicious reign and in addition Russia was under constant wars during his reign and led to many fleeing the country.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1533 to

    Reign of Ivan the Terrible in Russia

    Ascended to the throne at age 3 and the rise of the new service nobility accelerated under his reign. However under his reign saw the depopulation of Russia due to his constant nack for wars and vicious rule
  • Period: Nov 19, 1540 to

    Scientific Revolution

    The Scientific Revolution was the development and rise of science during the early modern period and is reguarded as one of the most important time periods in history
  • Jul 10, 1541

    Calvinism

    Calvinism
    The most significant form of Protestantism led by John Calvin and the conerstone of Calvinism is the belief in absolute supremecy,the power of God and the weakness of humanity
  • Nov 19, 1543

    On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres

    On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres
    Written by Copernicus and states his theory that instead of the Earth as the center of the universe it is the Sun
  • Dec 14, 1546

    Tycho Brahe

    Tycho Brahe
    A Danish nobleman who established himself as Europes leading astronomer at that time and built the most sophisticated observatory of his day.
  • Nov 20, 1559

    Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis

    Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis
    This ended the long conflict known as the Habsburg-Valios wars. It was between France and Spain which ultimately Spain was the winner. After the treaty, France had to accept Spanish dominance in Italy and Spanish governors ruled many of the major cities in Spain.
  • Nov 19, 1564

    Galileo Galilei

    Galileo Galilei
    Famous Italian mathetician,physicist,astronomer, and philosopher and made great contributions to the Scientific Revolution during the Renaissance
  • Nov 19, 1571

    Johannes Kepler

    Johannes Kepler
    A German mathetician and astronomer whom became a key figure in the Scienctific Revolution because of his contributions in his laws of planetery motion and provided the foundation to Newtons laws of universal gravitation
  • Thomas Hobbes

    Thomas Hobbes
    Famous figure in English philosophy and known for his views of the social contract theory
  • Spanish Armada destroyed

    Spanish Armada destroyed
    The "worlds greatest navy " is defeated by Queen Elizabeths I forces led by Lord Charles Howard and Sir Francis Drake.
  • Rene Descartes

    Rene Descartes
    A French philosopher who made a huge step foward in the history of mathematics in which he discovered the analytic geometry.
  • Edict of Nantes

    Edict of Nantes
    The Edict of Nantes granted the Huguenots the liberty to conscience and the liberty of public worship. This document helped France reach absolutism and restored internal peace in France.
  • Dutch East Company Found

    Dutch East Company Found
    The founding of what is soon be one of the greatest coporations in European history with significant influence in the world and operates off trade in Asia.
  • Jamestown

    Jamestown
    First English settlement in America.
  • Period: to

    Thirty Year Wars

    One of the most destructive conflicts in European history that eventually involved most of the powers in Europe and was intially fought between the Protestant and Catholic states
  • John Locke

    John Locke
    Reguarded as one of the most influencial and powerful Enlightenment thinkers and contributes to the social contract theory.
  • Isaac Newton

    Isaac Newton
    Arguable the most influencial and important scientist of the Scientific Revolution and contributed many theories in math and science that are still used today.
  • Leviathan

    Leviathan
    Written by English philosopher and states that people are 2 things: Selfish and Evil so in order to keep them from making bad descisions they need absolute monarchs to guide them
  • Period: to

    Navigational Act

    Result of English desire to increase both military power and private wealth.
  • Principia.

    Principia.
    Regarded as one of the most important works in the history of science and written by no other then the notorious Isaac Newton and included his laws of motion, creating the foundation of classical mechanics and his Laws of Universal Gravitation aswell as a developed Kepler's laws of planetary motion
  • Montesquieu

    Montesquieu
    A French philosopher who lived during the times of the Enlightment and was known for his theory of seperation of powers
  • Period: to

    The Enlightment

    Time period in which cultural and social changes occurred and the methods of natural sciences could and should be used to examine and understand all aspects of life.
  • Voltaire

    Voltaire
    One of the great Enlightenment thinkers and was of French nationality. Famous for his attacks and criticism of the Catholic chuch and support of freedom of religion
  • Period: to

    Expansion of rural industry in Europe

    Due to the massive increased of population the rural industry recieved many workers that contributed to the expansion of industry.
  • The Beginning of the Population Explosiom

    A remarkable growth in population in Europe during the 1700s continuing on into the twentieth century.
  • Growth of the Cottage Industry

    Growth of the Cottage Industry
    This was the cause of the population boom in Europe and because of many with out jobs this industry expanded greatly.
  • Period: to

    Atlantic Slave Trade

    The forced and unjust migration of millions of Africans in the Atlantic system to be traded as slaves.
  • Period: to

    War of the Spanish Succession

    Many were afraid that Louis XIV would have control of both the Spanish and French throne
  • John Wesley

    John Wesley
    Founder of the Methodist and served as the catalyst for popular religious revival in England
  • Jean-Jacques Rousseau

    Jean-Jacques Rousseau
    A influential Enlightment thinker and of Geneva. His political theories helped sparked the French Revolution.
  • Frederick the Great

    Frederick the Great
    Born under his father the ruler of Prussia ,Frederick William I, he developed a love for music and language at a young age and soon will become one of the most powerful figures in Prussian and European history
  • Maria Theresa

    Maria Theresa
    The only Female ruler of the Habsburgs dominions and the last in her house and during her reign saw many wars as she tried to defend from all those to defied the Pragmatic Sanction.
  • Adam Smith

    Adam Smith
    Scottish professor of philosophy delevoped the general idea of freedom of enterprise in foreign trade
  • Period: to

    Reign of Frederick The Great of Prussia

    Reign of arguably one of the most genius warfare leaders in European history and during his reign won wars agaisnt Austria,France, and England while gaining an abundance amount of territory
  • Period: to

    Reign of Maria Theresa of Austria

    The Holy Roman Empress and Queen of Austria Maria Theresa had a tough start to her reign already losing a vital region to Prussia through the Silesian Wars but nonetheless semented her legacy through her offsprings
  • 1st Silesia War

    1st Silesia War
    Frederick the Great sought after Silesia, a Austrian region, and led his powerful Prussian army agaisnt Austria and was victorious agaisnt Maria Theresa of Austria
  • Period: to

    Reign of Frederick William of Prussia

    One of the Predominate monarchs of Eastern Europe and had a strong attachment to his army which led him to develope one of the most powerful armies in Europe at this time
  • Period: to

    War of Austrian Succession

    A series of wars fought between the Habsburg dominion and those who betrayed the Pragmatic Sanction. Included the Silesian Wars and the Seven Years War
  • 2nd Silesian War

    2nd Silesian War
    The Austrians attempt at recapturing Silesia and ended horribly wrong for them as they were defeated swiftly by Frederick the Great once again
  • Edward Jenner

    Edward Jenner
    Discovered a successful treatment for smallpox in 1796 in which he also performed his first vaccination on boy and published his findings in 1789.
  • Crop Rotation

    Crop Rotation
    This perhaps was one of the most vital innovations of the Agricultural Revolution which allowed the improvement of farming and a massive increase of crop production
  • Period: to

    Agricultural Revolution

    A time period of significant increases in agricultural production due to increases in labor and land productivity
  • Frederick the Great Religious Views

    Frederick was very tolerant with his subjects and their beliefs although Jews in Prussia remained an oppressed group;Frederick himself was a Calvinist and later on became a Freemason
  • Open Field System

    Open Field System
    Named to be the greatest achievement of medivial agriculture and was developed bu European peasants. This system divded the land to be cultivated by peasants of a given village into several large, narrow, strips of land.
  • Period: to

    Seven Years War

    An alliance made up of Austria,France,and Russia was made up with the goal of conquering Prussia and divide up its territory but with Frederick the Greats brilliance in the battle field and Russias withdrawal from the war saw Prussia victorious
  • Period: to

    The Industrial Revolution

    The change in technology, brought about by improvements in machinery and by use of steam power
  • The Social Contract by Rousseau

    The Social Contract by Rousseau
    Written by Jean-Jacques Rousseau he stated that the people and the government were bound to a contract and that contract is that the government has one job and that is to protect the basic rights of the people and failed to do so then the people have the right to back out of the contract and make their own government.
  • Prussias Economic State

    With the acquisition of Silesia, Prussias industries flourished because of the regions raw materials and resources while afterwards Frederick reinstated the value of silver coins and put in place a indirect taxation system which provided the Prussian state with more revenue
  • Prussias Social State

    Under the reign of Frederick the Great saw the allowance of serfdom and extensive power of nobles granted by Frederick himself while Frederick dedicated to a high minded government
  • The first efficient Steam Engine

    Major developments by Scottish inventor and mechanical engineer James Watt, the steam engine began to be used in many industrial settings
  • The Tennis Court Oath

    The Tennis Court Oath
    The third estate swore the Tennis Court Oath, vowing to stay put until they had created a constitution that placed power in the hands of the people.
  • National Assembly

    National Assembly
    With the creation of the National Assembly, members of the Third Estate, were determined to change the system and create a constitution that set out equal rights for all men.
  • Womens march to Versailles

    Womens march to Versailles
    The poor women of Paris still found that there was a considerable bread shortage and the prices were very high. Rumors had been spreading in Paris that the royals were hoarding all the grain and a mob of 7000 working class women marched to Versailles.
  • Period: to

    The French Revolution

    Country wide famine and the oppression and taxation of the third estate caused the revolution resulting in the rise of Napoleon into emperor of France.
  • Storming of the Bastille

    Storming of the Bastille
    A state prison on the east side of Paris, known as the Bastille, was attacked by an angry and aggressive mob. The prison had become a symbol of the monarchy’s dictatorial rule, and the event became one of the defining moments in the Revolution that followed.
  • Execution of Louis XVI

    Execution of Louis XVI
    One day after being convicted of conspiracy with foreign powers and sentenced to death by the French National Convention, King Louis XVI is executed by guillotine.
  • Reign of Terror

    Reign of Terror
    Robespierre, growing increasingly paranoid about revolts, embarked upon a Reign of Terror in late 1793–1794, during which he had more than 15,000 people executed at the guillotine.
  • The Cottin Gin

    a machine that quickly and easily separates cotton fibers from their seeds, allowing for much greater productivity of cotton invented by Eli Whitney
  • Robespierre executed

    Robespierre executed
    Troops from the National Convention seized and arrested Robespierre and his followers. Shortly after he and his allies were executed at the guillotine.
  • Directory established

    Directory established
    It was the first formally constituted French Republic and was a body of five Directors that held executive power in France following the Convention and preceding the Consulate.
  • Napoleons Egypt Campaign

    Napoleons Egypt Campaign
    Napoleon wins his Egyptian campaign with an army of 38,000. It was a battle fought between the French army in Egypt under Napoleon, and local Mamluk forces.
  • Thermidorian reaction

    Thermidorian reaction
    The Thermidorian Reaction was a revolt within the French Revolution against the leadership of the Jacobin Club over the Committee of Public Safety. It was triggered by a vote of the National Convention to execute Robespierre.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte overthrows the Directory

    Napoleon Bonaparte overthrows the Directory
    Directory and the French Revolution itself came to an end with the coup d'état in which Napoléon overthrew the Directory and replaced it with the Consulate
  • Civil Code(Napoleon)

    Civil Code(Napoleon)
    Napoleon set out to reform the French legal system and the code forbade privileges based on birth, allowed freedom of religion, and specified that government jobs go to the most qualified.
  • Napoleon crowns himself Emperor

    Napoleon crowns himself Emperor
    Napoleon crowns himself Emperor to justify the re-creation of a hereditary monarchy in France.
  • First succesful Steam Boat

    Developed by Robert Fulton
  • Napoleon invades Russia

    Napoleon invades Russia
    Napoleon led his army into Russia and his army was made up of soldiers from the several nations now under his control. Napoleon expected a short war, to punish Czar Alexander I for his misbehavior in leaving the Continental System.
  • Napoleon defeated and exiled

    Napoleon defeated and exiled
    Napoleon finally abdicated his throne and surrendered to European powers. He then signed the Treaty of Fontainebleau, which exiled him to Elba.
  • Period: to

    Louis XVIII reign

    agreed to constitutional monarchy. bicameral parliament set up. Lower house was Chamber of Deputies.
    -Embraced Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen
    -religious tolerature; let napoleonic code stand
    -ultra-royalism emerged, led by Charles X (Count of Artois / Louis XVIII's brother) which wanted things back to pre-revolution; they hated liberal reforms
  • Battle of Waterloo

    Battle of Waterloo
    The Battle of Waterloo, in which Napoleon’s forces were defeated by the British and Prussians, signaled the end of his reign and the end of France’s domination in Europe.
  • Napoleon Spain campaign

    Napoleon invaded Spain thus begining the Peninsular War, an important phase of the Napoleonic Wars that was fought between France and much of Europe between 1792 and 1815.
  • The Holy Alliance

    Pact between three great European powers of Prussia,Russia,and Austria.
  • Congress of Vienna

    An European summit held at Vienna after Napoleon's banishment, with Metternich as the dominant figure, aimed at territorial resettlement and restoration to power of the crowned heads of Europe.
  • Otto Von Bismarck

    Prime Minister of prussia, then chancellor of German Empire
    Responsible for unity in 1871
  • Alexander the II

    Son of Nicholas I who, as czar of Russia, introduced reforms that included limited emancipation of the serfs
  • Carlsbad Decrees

    Discouraged liberal teachings in southern Germany and imposed by Metternich.
  • Napoleon's Death

    Napoleon's Death
    Napoleons death is argued to be by a number of causes but most believed he died to stomach cancer or poisoning
  • Metternich

    Chancellor of Austria from 1821 to 1848
  • Louis Pasteur

    Pasteur was a French chemist and biologist who proved the germ theory of disease and invented the process of pasteurisation.
  • Period: to

    Charles X reign

    -ultra-royalism took root in the monarchy now
    -started taking away rights of people
    -emigres given land back that people had now been living on for almost 40 years by force!; restored primogeniture; disbanded national guard
    -he tried to seizepowerin 1830 and got ousted
    Louis Phillipe came in as king
  • Joseph Lister

    British surgeon and scientist and discovered that microorganisms cause infection
  • Stephensons Rocket

    Stephensons Rocket
    Designed by Robert Stephenson and although the Rocket was not the first steam locomotive, it was the first to bring together several innovations to produce the most advanced locomotive of its day.
  • George Stephenson begins rail service between Liverpool & London

    The prime minister, the Duke of Wellington, and a large number of important people attended the opening ceremony that included a procession of eight locomotives.
  • Greece wins independence.

    Rebellion of Greeks within the Ottoman Empire, a struggle which resulted in the establishment of an independent kingdom of Greece with the help of other European powers.
  • The Steam Hammer

    Invented by James Nasmyth epitomized the rapid developement of steam power technology in Britain
  • Reform Bills in England

    Act of Parliament that transferred voting privileges from small boroughs controlled by nobility to large industrial towns controlled by middle class.
  • Factory Act

    Movement in Great Britain that outlawed the employment of children under the age of nine in textile mills; also limited the work days for those aged nine to thirteen to nine hours a day, and teenagers to twelve hours a day.
  • Poor Law

    Gave aid to the poor, however it was very helpful against unemployment and very favorable to employers.
  • Period: to

    Chartist Movement

    -reform bill had only helped merchant class that could own land
    -this would help the working class
    1. Universal male suffrage
    2. annual election for house of comons
    3. secret ballot
    4. equal districts
    5. no property requirements to be elccted to house of commons
    6. want a salry by govt in house of commons presented to parliament three times in this period. never successful
  • Mines Act

    Prohibited underground work for women, considered a scandal for women to work in the pits, prevented the fraternizing of sexes
  • Ten Hours Act in Britain

    Ten Hours Act of 1847 Limited labor of women and children in all industrial establishments to 10 hours per day.
  • Revolts in France,Austria, and Prussia

    A series of political upheavals throughout Europe but within a year, monarchy forces had regained control, and the revolutions collapsed.
  • Marxian Socialism

    Karl Marx published the Communist Manifesto in order to encourage Socialism
  • Public Health Act

    The aim of this act was to improve sanitary conditions of towns and populous places in Britain by placing the supply of water, sewerage, drainage, cleansing and paving under a single local body
  • Illegitimacy Explosion

    The sharp increase in out-of-wedlock births that occurred in Europe between 1750 and 1850, caused by low wages and the breakdown of community controls.
  • Social Darwinism

    The belief that only the fittest survive in human political and economic struggle.
  • The Crystal Palace

    Building in Hyde Park, London, for the Great Exhibition of 1851. Made of iron and glass, it was a symbol of the industrial age but was burned into the ground by a fire.
  • Period: to

    Camiloo du Cavour premier of Piedmont-Sardinia

    -He was under King Victor Emanuel II
    -Wanted unification but didn't like building a Republic
  • Period: to

    Crimean War

    -Russia against the turks over the Balkan Peninsula.
    -Britain and France joined on the side of the Ottomans because they ddin't want Russia expanding its territorial holdings
    -Cavour joined Piedmont-Sardinia into it so Napoleon would become buddies with Cavour. It was for the main goal of war against Austria to gain some Italian territory.
  • Period: to

    William I of Prussia reign

    -wanted to enlarge the army and Prussia back to its former glory.
  • Homestead Act

    Result of the American Civil War that gave western land to settlers, reinforcing the concept of free labor in a market economy
  • Austro-Prussian War

    Lasted for 7 weeks and resulted in a Prussian victory & Austria permanently excluded from German affairs
  • Freeing of Russian serfs

    Russian serfs became free due to Alexander the II
  • Reform Bill of 1867

    working class finally wins
    -British wanted to expand the elctorate again
    -working class had become more respectable
    -conservative ministry introducted this bill
    -huge step towards democracy. almost all of working class amles could now vote.
  • Augsgleich compromise

    -Francis Deak succeeded Louis Kossouth to be leader of Magyars.
    -Magyars were too big foR Franz Joseph to ignore. Compromise was a dual monarchy. made Hungarians happy
  • Period: to

    Czar Nicholas II in Russia

    -weak and incompetent
    -inherited country during an industrial revolution
    -riots and strikes in 1917. Soldiers refused to fire.
    -March 1917 - He abdicated. Dumas inherited a provisional gpvernment because of the WWI alliance
  • Franco-Russian War

    -military coup deposed the Bourbon king in 1868 in Spain. Hohenzollern took his place.
    -French ambassador asked Wilhelm to stay out of the conflict. The Prussian, however, asked Bismark to declare war.
    -By September, Napoleon was captured.
  • Examination in Civil service

    Done by the Great Minitry of the Liberals after conservatives voted out anD Gladstone of the Liberals was in until 1874
    -limitewd aristocracy and opened to lower levels of society.
  • Education Act of 1870

    government westablished elementary schools without religious ties
  • 3 Emperors League

    Germany, Austria-Hungary, Russia (Alexander III of russia).
    [-collapsed due russo-austrian tennsions
  • Period: to

    Bismarcks alliance

    -convolutewd relationships lead to WWI being a Europe-wide war
    -motives explained using the mnemonic MAIN (Militarism, Alliances, Imperialism, Nationalism)
  • Labor and Housing reforms of 1875

    -Public health act - inspections and public health education
    Artisan dwelling act - tore down slums and made government housing for workers.
  • Congress of Berlin

    England & Austria forced Russia to rewrite treaty. rteduced Russia's spoils by 2/3 and gave it Austria-Hungary (Bosnia)
  • Alliance between Germany and Austria

  • Period: to

    Europes Scramble For Africa

    Wanted Africas resources to enrich their own economic gains
    European Powers participated in the scramble
  • Renewal of 3 Emperors' League

    -spearheaded by Bismark
    -said each country would remain neutral in case of attack. Also formally annexed Bosnia
  • Italy Joins Dual Alliance

    OBviously, it is now a secret Triple Alliance between Germany, Italy, and Austria. Italy would have to later decide between Germany or GB & France in WWI because of this behind the scenes treaty
  • Berlin Conference

    -countries met to decide who would claim what in Africa
    -decided one had to et up a gov't to claim the land
  • 3 Emperors' league falls appart

    due to revolts in Balkans; Austria & Russia start fighting. League falls apart.
  • Period: to

    Kaiser Wilhelm II over Germany

    -was a divine right ruler
    -He wanted equality with Britain (GB had an unmatched navy)
  • Dreyfus Affair

    A case in which Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewsih captain in the French army was falsey accused and convicted of treason.
  • Bloody Sunday

    Troops attacked and killed hundreds of unarmed workers who had gathered in St Petersburg to present a petition to the tsar.
  • Revolution in Russia

  • October Manifesto

    The result of a great general strike in October 1905, it granted full civil rights and promised a popularly elected duma (parliament) with real legislative power
  • Peoples Budget

    People's Budget proposed after the liberal party came to power in England in 1906 and vetoed by the lords, it was designed to increase spending on social welfare issues
  • Triple Entene

    Russia joins after Brtian settled differences marking those two.
  • Bosnian Crisis

    Controlled by Austria-Hungary and Ottomans
    -most people were Slavic and very nationalistic so looked to Serbia as the leader.
    -A-H & Russia were worried about Ottomans gaining power. Rusia supported the Bosnia annex in exchange for war ship passage in the Dardanelles on the Blakan peninsula
    -Serbia got mad at "mother Russia" (slavs) & hated Austria anyway. GB & France didn't back Russia up on this
  • 2nd Morroccan Crisis

    -France sent an army to put down a rebllion which was incited in the first place due to germany.
    -So, Germany sent gun-boats to "protect its citizens"
    -GB sent warships in response.
    War was averted after Congo was given up to Germany and Germany formally recognized Morrocco as french colony.
  • Italy Gains Libya

  • Balkan War

  • 2nd Balkan War

    Turkey, Romania, Grrece, Montenegro, and serbia allied against Buglgaria.
    Serbia starts dominating Albania. A-H gave an ultimatum and Serbia withdrew
  • Archduke Assinated

  • Period: to

    WWI

    -Schlieffen Plan:= oF Germanty vs Russia: occupy luxumbourg
    -Germany marched into Belgium. GB declared war on Germany to protect Belgium.
    -Triple Enrtente was better financed but the Central powers were closer together, had better communication, and mobilized quickly
  • Submarine Warefare

  • Paris Peace Conference

    Clean up time. Led by Wilson, British PM David Lloyd george, French Premier George Clemenceau, and Italy's Vittorio Orlando.
    -Wilson had his 14 points to everyone to jsut call peace and go home.
    -Europeans had lost too many lives to just let Germany go.
    -also too many groups wanted too many new countries.
    -on the slightly brighter side, Poland was back on the map.
    AH was broken up - Czechoslovakia and Ugoslavia created
  • Zimmerman Telegraph

    Germany asks Mexico for an alliance
  • Women gets Suffrage in England

    Result of the election. All men over 21 and women over 30 had the vote.
    In 1928, women over 21 got the vote.
  • Treaty of Versailles

    Ends WWI
  • Ernest Rutherford Splits the Atom

  • First Major Radio Broadcast in US & England

  • Soviet Union Arises

    w-ar communism used wheere government stole a lot of land
    -Lenin said there would be a soviet elite
  • Period: to

    Benito Mussolini reign

    -initially a socialist but broke from party in WWI because it didn't support the war
    -anti-ethnicity, anti-democratic, anti-marxist, single-party dictatorship
    -became more of a Nationalist than a socialist
    set up Fasci di Combattimento (Bands of Combat)
    -Formed 'Black shirts" to disrupt socialist activities
    -Economy:started public works projects and protective tariffs
    -By late 1930s though, Italy was no better off
  • Kellogg-Briand Pact

  • The Beginning of an Industrilized Russia

  • Nuremberg Laws

    Stripped jews of citizenship and their rights
  • Radar System in England

  • Pearl Harbor

    Japanese attack on US naval base
    US enters WWII
  • Period: to

    The Holocaust

    Mass killing of Jews by Hitler
  • DDay

    Normandy Invasion that eventually led to Allies victory i WWII
  • United Nations formed

    -before the end of war in Europe
    -peace keeping forces added
    -permanent security council created
  • Yalta Conference

    US wanted Russia to attack Japan in pacific. Dive Germany & Berlin into four zones of Britain, France, US, and USSR
  • FDRs death and Trumans take over

  • Potsdam Conference

    FDR had died and Clement Attlee had replaced Churchill who wasn't suited to lead the country in peace.
    -Reparatoins decided. They wouldn't be as strict as after WWI
  • Hitler commits suicide

  • U.S Drops Atomic Bomb on Japan

  • Marshall Plan

    Aimed for Peace
  • Brussels Pact

    -Belgium and Luxembourg, GB, and France had mutual cooperation of economic & military matters
  • Berlin airlift

    Constitution convention was held. Stalin walked off and blockaded the capital city. So, US just air dropped supplies to keep the inhabitants alive.
  • Start of Chinas Communism

  • Period: to

    Korean War

    Russian-backed North Korea invaded US-backed South Korea
    -US came in to help and pushed the enemy lines back into N Korean territory.
    -General Douglas McArthur went out of control and pushed all the way into China. The country threatened war.
  • European Coal and Steel Community

    France, West Germany, Italy, and Benelux
    It was a way to secure free trade and have no tariffs.
  • Stalins death

  • Suez Crisis

    1952- king in Egypt overthrown
    -Egyptian nationalist put in place
    He sought to take Suez canal for Egypt
    GB threatens eEgypt. They go to USSR for help
    -everyone eventually backs down
  • Period: to

    Kruschev comes into power

    -came in after Stalin died.
    -denouned his policies of censorship & political prisonershio
    in '64, he was forced to resign by the Soviet Party.
  • Treaty of Rome

    European Coal & Steel Community became European Economic Community - expanded beyond coal and steel
  • Russian Satelliate in Orbit

  • Paris Summit Conference

    -In 1958, negotiations to limit testing of nuclear weapons
    -recognize east germany
    -went nowhere for 2 yrs.
    -Just before Paris summit conference would be held, USSR shot down a spy plane & the conference fell apart
  • Berlin Wall goes up

  • Russian Cosmonuat first to orbit globe

    Part of the Space Race
  • Russian Serfs Emancipated

  • JFK elected

    JFK led the U.S through the Cold War and Space Race
  • Beginning of Cold War& Bay Of Pigs

    CIA agents sent to Cuba to rid of Castro which fails and Cubas relations with Russia tighnents as a result
  • JFK Assassinated

  • Period: to

    Breshnev in power

    -he oversaw much of the detente
    -economy didn't improve much.
    -contuned censorship, polital and jewery opression, and collectivation of agriculture
    -it also ended towrads the end of his regime. In 1980, US boycotted the olympics and stopped grain shipments
  • Student Rebellion in France

  • First Man on The Moon

    And he was American :)
  • Collapse of the postwar moetart system

  • Fidel Castro as President of Cuba

    Revolutionary figure in Cuba and had dislike for the U.S
    Part of the cause of the Cold War
  • Soviets In Afghan

  • Period: to

    Margraret Thatcher

    -conservative
    -cut spending and taxes
    -IRA cropped up into a problem
  • Period: to

    Mikhail Gorbachev came in

    wanted to reinstate detente
    -ended up overseeing the collapse of the Soviet Union
    -allowed a bit more open elections
    -Glastnost - meant "openess" - sought an end to cultural repression and censorship
    -Perestroika - more agricultural and consumer goods. Bureaucracy restructured to strengthen local governments
  • INF Treaty

    reduced amount of armed warheads
  • Economic Crisis in Poland

  • Berlin Wall destroyed

  • Soviet Union Ends

  • 9/11

    Terrorist attack on U.S
  • War on Afghan

    President Bush declares Afghans orginization Al-Queada responsible for the attacks of 9/11 and declares war