Humanities 201

  • Jan 1, 1185

    Pilgrimage of Ibn Jubayr

    Spanish muslim who traveled to Mecca. His travels illistrate the beginning of the melding of economies and cultures in the Atlantic world as depicted by his influence on the gold market.
  • Jan 1, 1260

    Mongols invade Syria

    Cuts sugar off from Europeans who then must go to Mediterranean islands for sugar. Depicts the first demands for slaves, in this example, natives of the islands.
  • Oct 1, 1291

    Fall of Jerusalem

    Fall of last Crusader state. Change in focus on relious wars with muslims to the spread of colonies and imperialism.
  • Oct 1, 1324

    Pilgrimage of Mansu Musa

    shows power of African kingdoms, particullarly the Mali. This illistrates that the Europeans did not in fact "civilize" Africans as was thought for many years. The African's already had economies, trade systems, and family structures in place.
  • Oct 1, 1325

    Mexica build Tenochtitlan

    shows power of Mexica empire. The empire was mighty before Cortez reached the Americas. This shows the tearing down of another already mighty empire by Europeans. This marks one of the first major conquests in the Americas.
  • Period: Oct 1, 1348 to Oct 1, 1400

    Bubonic Plague

    killed half the population of Europe
  • Jan 1, 1434

    Gil Eanes

    departed Lisbon, Portugal for the northwest coast of Africa. Helped to discover trade routes around Africa and to advance (inadvertently?) the slave trade.
  • Oct 1, 1434

    Beginning of Atlantic Slave Trade

  • Oct 1, 1439

    Portugese settle Azores

  • Oct 1, 1453

    Constantinople captured by Mehmed II

    Shows the power of the Ottoman Empire. A power often downplayed in European and American minds.
  • Jan 1, 1479

    United Spain

    Isabella and Ferdinand marry, making Spain a superpower. Which allows them to support many explorers to the new world.
  • Jan 1, 1492

    Christopher Columbus

    met the Taino in the Carribean
  • Period: Oct 1, 1492 to Oct 1, 1504

    Columbus voyages

    Spanish path through Caribbean
  • Period: Oct 1, 1511 to Oct 1, 1514

    Conquest of Cuba

  • Oct 31, 1517

    Martin Luther 95 Theses

    95 These nailed to door in Wittenberg. Protestant Reformation brings about religious and political turmoil which changes thoughts in Europe.
  • Oct 1, 1518

    Hispaniola and Small Pox

    first recorded small pox outbreak in natives
  • Jan 1, 1519

    Hernando Cortez

    meets the Aztecs and conquers them
  • Period: Oct 1, 1520 to Oct 1, 1570

    Golden age of Catholic church in Americas

  • Oct 1, 1521

    Edict of Worms

    Luther is suppose to appologize but instead burns things as he always does
  • Period: Oct 1, 1524 to Oct 1, 1572

    American focus

    109 books published about the Americas
  • Oct 1, 1534

    Henry VIII head of church of England

    as declared by Parliament
  • Oct 1, 1537

    Jesuit Order Founded

    new religious order in Catholic church
  • Oct 1, 1554

    Birth of Sir Walter Ralegh

  • Dec 16, 1555

    First Istanbul coffee house

    (Rung Lecture) first coffee house from Arabs. Men only, seen as a place to discuss ideas apart from the church, which lead to protests (Muslims in this area) who saw the coffee house as a place to cause mischief.
  • Oct 1, 1556

    Philip acceded the Spanish throne

  • Oct 1, 1558

    Queen Elizabeth assumes English throne

  • Oct 1, 1565

    Catholic Irish Rebellion

  • Oct 1, 1571

    Mediterranean Naval battle

    Spanish stop Ottoman expansion
  • Aug 1, 1572

    St. Bartholomews Day

    France, massacre of Hugenots
  • Oct 1, 1580

    Annexation of Portugal by Philip II

  • Ralegh in Guiana

    first time a courtly man had made the trip to the New World
  • Ralegh beheaded for treason

  • New Atlantis

    written by Francis Bacon that depicts the mechanistic view of society becoming popular at this time. Mechanism degraded the role of women by taking the life out of nature.
  • Sugar, Coffee, and Tobacco

    Around 1650 there was a growing demand for coffee, sugar and tobacco in Europe, all products they had to import. This can be seen since the opening of the first London coffee house in 1652. With these demands came demands for slaves in the America's. The Europeans greed for these products propogated the increase in population and popularity of the slave trade. Sugar plantations needed many slaves to work and Europeans supplied millions of slaves over the next 200 years for this work, until 1888.
  • Barbados Slave Act of 1661

    This was the first code set up to determine how slaves would be treated. Many more followed (Code Noir, Ordanacoes Filipinas). These showed some restraint toward the harsh punishments toward slaves and demonstrate the protests some Europeans expressed against slavery at the time.
  • Period: to


    a series of interlocking and sometimes warring problems and debates about the origins and technologies of power, rationality, universal truth, morality and tolerance that unfolded differently in different contexts throughout the eighteenth century. There debates resulted in the consolidation of a range of positions on these topics, from entirely secular to entirely religious. They also involved articulating visions of social reform and improvement through new communities, new projects (Whitmer)
  • Great Awakening

    A religious movement that re inspired Christianity in the America's. It had implications for the natives as well. With the conversion of more natives came greater literacy of natives and the ability to participate in the "legal culture" of the colonies.
  • New York Slave Revolt

    This is an example of the many revolts taking place at the time. The revolts were small and accomplished little. They were not as large as revolts to come later and did not further the cause of independence, though they tried.
  • French officially begin 7 years war (French and Indian War)

    This war lead to the removal of French colonists from the 13 colonies and most of North America. It also created massive debt, payed for my taxpayers in Britain. During this war Cuba was taken into British control as well.
  • Peace of Paris

    A treaty organized by Spain, England and France. The treaty was meant to bring peace from the 7 years war, but instead stirred up new controversies with the Indians and Colonists. Natives wanted seperation from the colonies and Colonists wanted the same respect granted other British.
  • Sugar Act

    The Sugar Act made colonists think about the foreign government taxing them and wether they had the right to tax colonists. Many stood against such taxes which lead to protest in the colonies. The Stamp Act and Tea furthered this disent, leading to protests such as the Boston Tea Party and the Boston Massacre.
  • Intolerable Acts

    Included Quartering, Justice Act, and Boston Port Act. These punishments lead many colonists to question the power of the king to take away their rights. It also lead to the 1st and 2nd Continental Congresses and the American Revolutionary War.
  • Common Sense

    published by Thomas Paine. This pamhplet expressed the concerns of the colonists against the king and also helped garner support from colonists who were not sure about the conflict. This increased support for the war by expressing the ideals, such as liberty over suppression, that the colonists were fighting for.
  • Period: to

    Liberal Phase of the Revolution

    French Revolution. Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen,Abolished special privileges distinguishing commoners from nobility, Full citizenship for religious minorities, Distinction between active and passive citizens, Restrictions on who can serve in legislatures
  • Period: to

    Radical Phase of Revolution

    Reign of Terror, Anger at the disenfranchisement of the so called passive citizens, Anger over high food prices, Election for a new legislative assembly, War (Moser)
  • Jefferson vs. Francis C. Gray Debate

    This debate on the state of the nature and racist environment of negroes depicts the charge in racism that appeared in this time. When things such as "blood" and it's perccentages white or black are debated in order to subjugate negroes as inhumane.