The outbreak of bubonic plague in the mis-fourteenth century that killed from 25 to 50 percent of Europe's population.
Jan 1, 1350
1350-1500.Transition period between the Medieval era to the Modern era. The word means “revival” or “rebirth”.
Jul 6, 1415
John Hus' death
1415-1417.Coucil of Constance burns Hus and ends Great Schism.
Jan 1, 1450
1450-1600. “Age of Discovery” is focused on the ground breaking discoveries of the 15th century.
Oct 19, 1453
End of 100 Years War
Fall of Constantinople was on May 29,1453 and the end of 100 Years War was October 19,1453.
Jan 1, 1455
Printing Press is invented
Johannes Gutenburg inventes the printing press.
Oct 12, 1492
Discovery of America
Columbus encounters America on October 12,1492; completion of reconquista in Spain on January 2,1942.
Jan 1, 1500
Early Modern Society
1500-1700. Protestant and Catholic religious groups sought to unify the power each had in its own respective regions and sought to destroy anything that got in the way of that goal. Women were specifically looked at because they were considered the root of all evil.
Jan 1, 1501
Protestant and Catholic Reformations
1501-1600. The Protestant Reformation was a European movement aimed to reform the practices and beliefs of the Roman Catholic Church. The Catholic Reformation was a counter to the Protestant Reformation.
Jan 1, 1501
1501-1600. Refers to the high rate of inflation that characterized the period across Western Europe. It is thought to have been caused by the large influx of silver and gold from the New World at the time.
Oct 31, 1517
Luther posts 95 Theses
Jan 1, 1519
Fall of the Aztecs
Cortez conquers Aztecs
Jan 1, 1520
1520-1650.A series of religious wars in Europe caused by the religious change and the conflict and rivalry between religion and politics it produced.
Jan 1, 1534
Creation of Anglican Church
Act of Supremacy in England creates Anglican Church
Jan 1, 1536
Calvinism is born
Calvin establishes reformed faith in Geneva.
Jan 1, 1543
Heliocentric Theory is published
Copernicus publishes heliocentric theory.
Jan 1, 1543
1543-1687. Refers to the movement that began in Europe and then spread to other countries where scientists started applying the Scientific Method to discover the laws of nature as well as invented new scientific tools such as the telescope.
Dec 1, 1545
Council of Trent is established
Council of Trent opens.
Jan 1, 1550
Dutch Commercial Dominance
1550-1650. Refers to the time when the Dutch had enough naval power to rival the British as a result of superior skills in shipbuilding, manufacturing, and management.
Jan 1, 1550
Age of Crisis
1550-1650.In many European countries at the time Protestants and Catholics fought for political and religious control.
Sep 25, 1555
Peace of Augsburg
Peace of Augsburg ends religious war in Germany; Charles V abdicates.
Jan 1, 1580
1580-1680. Refers to the time when different was deadly. Anyone who did not fit the religious standards of the time were considered witches and were condemned. It often happened to single women and old ladies, who were referred to as “hags”.
Spanish Armada is defeated
Defeat of the Spanish Armada by England.
Edict of Nantes
Edict of Nantes ends French religious wars.
Dutch East Indian Company
Dutch East Indian Company is founded.
1600-1750. A type of art style in which painters sought to portray emotion,variety, and movement by appealing to the senses. It was mostly seen in Catholic reform areas.
1601-1800. Refers to the time period of European economic expansion, colonialism, and mercantilism. It was succeeded by the Industrial Revolution and increased the general commerce. It started with the Crusades and continued with new discoveries of trade routes and the development of economic theories and ideas.
Stuart line begins
Stuart monarchy begins in England.
Conflict Between Parliament and King in England
1603-1689. Refers to the time period when the king of england who believed in absolute monarchy failed to use Parliament and even had them disbanded. This among many grievances led to war in which the monarchy was over ruled in the end as the king was beheaded and his family was forced out of England.
Age of Louis XIV
1643-1715.Refers to the time period of Louis XIV also known as the 'Sun King". He gained absolute power by taking away the French nobles' power and independence and kept a sharp eye on them by keeping them at the palace of Versailles and making them do chores.
Peace of Westphalia
Peace of Westphalia ends Thirty Years' War.
Charles I is excuted
Charles I is excuted in England.
1650-1750. Term that referred to some European monarchs in the 17th century through the 19th century as they transferred from feudalism to capitalism.
1650-1763. Refers to the time period when there was growth in commercial capitalism and countries started to use mercantilism. Basically major countries tried to one up each other by making money.
Rise of Prussia
1650-1763. Refers to the time period when Prussia became a strong military power under the reign of Frederick the Great.
Principia Mathematica is published
Newton publishes Principia Mathematica.
Rise of Russia
1689-1815. Refers mostly to the time period of Peter the Great as he made Russia into a strong military power and great state by modernizing and westernizing it.
Glorious Revolution was on February 13, 1689; Peter the Great's reign began in Russia in the year 1688.
Bank of England
Bank of England is founded
1701-1800. Refers to the time period when massive and rapid increase in agricultural productivity could be seen as well as improvements in farm technology. Examples include the invention of the plow and moldboard and seed drills.
Rise of the Middle Class
1701-1800. Refers to the the time period when the middle class has gained more education therefore allowing them to receive better jobs and acquire more money. Some also imatated the nobility's lavish style and others faked it.
1701-1800. Refers to the time period when man decided to leave "his self- caused immaturity." The age of questions with few answers.
Peace of Utrecht
Peace of Utrecht put an end to the war for Spanish Succession.
Death of Louis XIV
Louis XIV of France died of gangrene.
1720-1760. Type of art that emphasized grace and gentle action. It used light colors; and it is here that emotion-specifically facial expressions can be seen. Rococo art also rejected geometrical patterns that Baroque art stressed.
War of Ausrian Succession begins
War of Austrian Succession began because Charles VI, the Habsburg emperor of Austria, was unable to produce a male heir to the throne. Although he did have a daughter, named Maria Theresa.
1750-1850. A period of great change as new industries developed rapidly as a result of new inventions and the way products were produced. As well as the way people lived and worked changed rapidly because of these developments.
Treaty of Paris
Treaty of Paris ends Seven Years' War.
American Revolution-the Declaration of Independence is signed on July 4,1776;Smith publishes Wealth of Nations sometime in that year.
Age of Revolutions
1789-1848. Refers to a time in which a number of significant revolutionary movements that occurred in Europe and the Americas;Absolute monarchies changed to constitutional states and republics.
French Revolution beganbecause of the "Conquest of Bastille".
1790-1980.Mary Wollstonecraft is considered by most the founder of feminism and her ideas are used as the base for many feminist arguments. The movement was renewed in the 1960's because once again women decided to voice their right for equality.
Rise of Nationalism
1790-1914. A political creed that had risen during the French Revolution in the French people's emphasis on brotherhood (fraternite) and solidarity against other peoples. It involved a unique cultural identity of a people based on a common language,religion, and national symbols.
Beginning of the feminist movement
Wollstonecraft begins the feminist movement with Vindication of Rights of Women.
The reign of Napoleon began
Napoleon comes to power in France.
1800-1850. A movement that involved a revolt against convention and authority as well as a search for a freedom in personal, political, and artistic life.
Abdication of Napoleon
Napoleon abdicated in favor of his son after a crushing defeat at Waterloo; Congress of Vienna.
Rise of Liberalism
1830-1870. An ideology that took form throughout the Enlightenment and both the French and American Revolutions. It made rapid strides during the Industrial Revolution as the developing industrial middle class adopted it as their own.It began with the beleif that people should be free from restraint as possible.
1830-1831. French Revolution was response to Charles X's July Ordinances and it forced him to abdicate the throne on August 2nd to Louis-Philippe. The Revolution was for three days; it began on the 27th of July and ended on the 29th. It's French name is French Revolution de Juliet. Belgian and Greek gain independence.
Revolutions of 1848
Revolutions of 1848; Marx and Engels publish Communist Manifesto.
Unification and Nation-Building
1850-1875. Terms to describe the unitement of parts of a country into a whole one. One example is Europe which became the European Union.
Realism and Materialism
1850-1875.New views and beliefs that came about as a result of the Scientific Revolution. After the Scientific Revolution people shifted from the Romanticism view to a more realistic view-hence realism. Materialism is the belief that everything mental,spiritual,or ideal was the result of physical forces.
Second Industrial Revolution
1850-1914. Electricity became the primary source of power for factories, farms, and homes. Mass product of consumer goods were produced. Electronic began entering the marketplace. United States, Russia, & Japan began industrializing. Transportation increases due to automobiles, railroads, and airplanes.
Rise of Modern Society
1850-1900. Refers to the "Age of Progress" and the development of new products, industries, the Industrial Revolution, the organization of the working class,population growth, and more.
1850-1914. Refers to empire-building and gaining land though territorial conquest as well as establishing political and economic conquest of other nations. Example would be the original 13 colonies.
Modern ideas and Science
1850-1920. Basically refers to the period when a lot of inventions used for singing were invented. Example the phonograph.
Crystal Palace Exhibition
Crystal Palace Exhibition in Britain commemorated the industrial dominance of Britain.
Britain directly rules India
Briatain establishes direct rule of India.
Origin of the Species is published
Darwin publishes Origin of the Species.
Italy unified;Russian serfs emanicipated.
1870-1920. Refers to the period of time when different type of art was invented. Some of which include: Futurism, Cubism, Expressionism,Fauvism, Post Impressionism, Symbolism, etc.
Unification of Germany; Paris Commune and Third Republic in France.
1884-1885. Berlin Conference over imperialism in Africa.
Interpretation of Dreams is published
Freud published Interpretation of Dreams.
relativity theory is published
Einstein publishes relativity theory ; Revolution of 1905 in Russia.
WW1 began because of the assasination of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria.He was murdered on Jun 28,1914. But no one actually declared war on anyone until July 28,1914. So there is much speculation as to when the war actually began.
1914-1945. Refers to the time period when historians classify two long wars that took place in several countries around the world as the world split into two superpowers that originally had reasons to fight but over time it became too costly to lose. WW1 was from July 28,1914 to November 11,1918. WW2 was from September 1, 1939 to September 2, 1945.
Bolshevik Revolution in Russia
Bolshevik Revolution in Russia began.
Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles ends WW1.
1920-1945.Refers to the time period when certain ruler like Hitler and Stalin had complete control over their people and country.
Fascism comes to power in Italy
Fascists and their leader Mussolini come to power in Italy.
The Great Depression begins
The Great Depression began when the Wall Street Stock Market crashed on October 28,1929.
Hitler's reign begins
Hitler comes to power in Germany.
Munich Confrence-height of the appeasement.
WW2 began when Germany invaded Poland.
1945-1991. It began after WW2 when the USSR began breaking its promises. Basically the USSR and the US were then on bad terms and they started an arms race that ended when the Berlin Wall fell and communism was over in Russia.
1945-2015. Refers to the time period when European countries began to unite. And finally did with the elimination of the Berlin Wall.
WW2 ends when Japan surrendered to the US; United Nations is founded.
NATO is formed
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) contained 12 countries-Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Great Britain, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal and the United States.
ECSC is formed
European Coal and Steel Company is formed.
Stalin dies of a massive heart attack.
Khrushchev's de-Stalinization speech;hungary revolt was from the 23rd of October to the 10th of November.
EEC is formed
Treaty of Rome creates European Economic Community( EEC); Sputnik is launched.
Fifth Republic in France
Fifth Republic in France under DeGaulle.
Berlin Wall ceated
Erection of the Berlin Wall began.
Second Vatican Council
Second Vatican Council began.
Missile Crisis in Cuba
Cuban Missile Crisis began bring the US and the Soviet Union to the brink of nuclear conflict.
Students revolts;Czech "Prague Spring"revolt.
Helsinki Accords-height of detente.
A new pope is elected
John Paul II elected pope.
Soviet Union attacks Afghanistan
Soviet Union attacks Afghanistan;Thatcher elected prime minister of Britain.
Solidarity in Poland
Solidarity founded in Poland.
Gorbachev comes to power
Gorbachev comes to power in Soviet Union.
Berlin Wall falls
Berlin Wall falls and collapse of communism.
Break-up of the Soviet Union
Break-up of the Soviet Union;Balkan conflicts begin in former Yugoslavia.