AP European History Timeline

  • Period: to

    Britain's Industrial Revolution

    With new inventions and urbanization, England begins to industrialize and becomes a leading textile power.
  • Concordat of 1801

    Concordat of 1801
    The Concordat of 1801 was an agreement between Napoleon and Pope Pius VII, signed on 15 July 1801. It solidified the Roman Catholic Church as the majority church of France and brought back most of its civil status. Napoleon needed a united nation and that included united religion. He couldn't have the state waging war on the Church.
  • British Abolishes Slave Trade

    British Abolishes Slave Trade
  • Battle of Leipzig

    Battle of Leipzig
    Napoleon is defeated by Grand Coalition (Austria, Prussia and Russia), and is sent into exile to Elba.
  • Congress of Vienna

    Congress of Vienna
    The Congress of Vienna was a conference of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens Wenzel von Metternich, and held in Vienna from September 1814 to June 1815. The objective of the Congress was to provide a long-term peace for Europe by settling critical issues arising from the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars. The goal was not simply to restore old boundaries, but to resize the main powers so they could balance each other off and remain at peace.
  • Period: to

    Italian Unification

    Italian unification was the political and social movement that agglomerated different states of the Italian peninsula into the single state of the Kingdom of Italy in the 19th century. Despite a lack of consensus on the exact dates for the beginning and end of this period, many scholars agree that the process began in 1815 with the Congress of Vienna and the end of Napoleonic rule, and ended in 1871 when Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy.
  • Napoleon Defeated at Battle at Waterloo

    Napoleon Defeated at Battle at Waterloo
    The defeat at Waterloo officially ended Napoleon's political and military career, and also ended his Hundred Days out of Exile.
  • Congress of Aix-La-Chapelle

    The Quadruple Alliance didn't want to PUNISH France, but wanted to make sure it couldn't wage war like Napoleon did again. France succeeded in its goal of reducing the obligations imposed by the Treaty of Paris of 1815, which involved stationing an Allied army in France and reparations. They decided France had paid its debts and withdrew armies. France joined the alliance afterwards.
  • Peterloo Massacre

    Peterloo Massacre
    The Peterloo Massacre occurred when the government's soldiers fired upon demonstrators in Manchester who were protesting the Corn Laws. While short term the "massacre" resulted in the conservative government further repressing the people by passing acts such as the Six Acts restricting assembly and speech (feared more violence) but long term the Peterloo Massacre demonstrated the determination of the people to have a government which would look after their needs and interests.
  • Decembrist Revolt

    Decembrist Revolt
    The Decembrist revolt or the Decembrist uprising took place in Imperial Russia on December 26, 1825. Russian army officers led about 3,000 soldiers in a protest against Nicholas I's assumption of the throne after his elder brother Constantine removed himself from the line of succession.
  • English Factory Act

    Children (ages 14–18) must not work more than 12 hours a day with an hour lunch break. Note that this enabled employers to run two 'shifts' of child labour each working day in order to employ their adult male workers for longer. Children (ages 9–13) must not work more than 8 hours with an hour lunch break. Children (ages 9–13) must have two hours of education per day. Outlawed the employment of children under 9 in the textile industry. Children under 18 must not work at night.
  • TOC: Opium War

    TOC: Opium War
    Chinese officials destroyed a shipment of British opium resulting in a British blockade of Chinese ports, besieged Canton, and occupied Shanghai. The Treaty of Nanking ended the war. The First Opium War was fought between Great Britain and China over their conflicting viewpoints on diplomatic relations, trade, and the administration of justice for foreign nationals. Prior to the conflict Chinese officials wished to end the spread of opium.
  • Revolution In Italy

    The 1848 revolutions in the Italian states were organized revolts in the states of the Italian peninsula and Sicily, led by intellectuals and agitators who desired a liberal government. As Italian nationalists, they sought to eliminate reactionary Austrian control. A desire to be free from foreign rule, and the conservative leadership of the Austrrians, led the Italian people to stage revolution in order to drive out the Austrians.
  • Revolution in France

    Revolution in France
    The 1848 Revolution in France, was one of a wave of revolutions in 1848 in Europe. On 23 June 1848, the people of Paris rose in insurrection, which became known as June Days Uprising - a bloody but unsuccessful rebellion by the Paris workers against a conservative turn in the Republic's course.
  • Revolution in Hapsburg Empire

    From March 1848 through July 1849, the Habsburg Austrian Empire was threatened by revolutionary movements, which often had a nationalist character. The empire, ruled from Vienna, included Austrians, Hungarians, Slovenes, Poles, Czechs, Croats, Slovaks, Ukrainians/Ruthenians, Romanians, Serbs and Italians, all of whom attempted in the course of the revolution to either achieve autonomy, independence, or even hegemony over other nationalities.
  • Revolution in Hungary

    Revolution in Hungary
    Hungarian patriots organized mass demonstrations in Pest and Buda which forced the imperial governor to accept their 12 points of demands. This resulted in Klemens von Metternich, the Austrian prince and foreign minister, resigning. In turn, Emperor Ferdinand promised Hungary a constitution, an elected parliament, and the end of censorship. The revolution grew into a war for independence from the Austrian Empire. Later, they were placed under brutal martial law.
  • Revolution In Germany

    Revolution In Germany
    The "March Revolution" in the German states took place in the south and the west of Germany, with large popular assemblies and mass demonstrations. Led by well-educated students and intellectuals, they demanded German national unity, freedom of the press, and freedom of assembly. The states attempted to unite, but ultimately failed.
  • National Assembly at Frankfurt

    The National Assembly opened its session in St. Paul's Church. This was an attempt to create a provisional executive power, but it did not get very far since most states failed to fully recognize the new government. The National Assembly lost reputation in the eyes of the German public when Prussia carried through its own political intentions in the Schleswig-Holstein question without the prior consent of Parliament. It failed in the end.
  • Louis Napoleon as President

    Louis Napoleon as President
    Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873) was the first President of the French Republic and, as Napoleon III, the Emperor of the Second French Empire. He got rid of all liberal officials and replaced them with ultra-conservatives and monarchists, and disbanded the National Assembly. He marked a shift from the middle class opinion to the right.
  • Period: to

    TOC: Most Prosperous Period For Britain

    Marked with unprecedented economic growth, free trade and new fields of expansion, i.e. ship-building from wood to iron. Britain's carrying trade enjoyed a monopoly by the 1870s.
  • Crimean War Begins

    Crimean War Begins
    France and Britain officially declare war on Russia, as Russia had expanded to become a great military power. Britain was afraid of Russia's expansion into the Mediteranean, and Russia was upset that France tried to force their soveriegn authority upon the Ottomon Empire and the Holy Land.
  • TOC: Peace of 1856

    TOC: Peace of 1856
    In 1855, Austria under pressure from Britain and France sent an ultimatum to Russia (Nicholas I had died, succeeded by son Alexander II). Alexander II who had always been opposed to the war withdrew Russia and signed the Peace of 1856. It settled the Crimean War between Russia and an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, the British Empire, French Empire, and Sardinia. The treaty made the Black Sea neutral territory. The treaty marked a severe setback to Russian influence in the area.
  • TOC: Darwin Publishes "On the Origin of Species"

    TOC: Darwin Publishes "On the Origin of Species"
    A work of scientific literature by Charles Darwin which is considered to be the foundation of evolutionary biology. As Darwin was an eminent scientist, his findings were taken seriously and the evidence he presented generated scientific, philosophical, and religious discussion. The notion of "survival of the fittest" is used as a basis for imperialism.
  • TOC: Second Industrial Revolution Begins

    TOC: Second Industrial Revolution Begins
    Inventions are much more science based, and is also known as the Technological Revolution.
  • Emancipation of Serfs

    22.5 million serfs were emancipated in 1861 under Alexander II of Russia.
  • Austro-Prussian War

    Austro-Prussian War
    The Austro-Prussian War or Seven Weeks' War was a war fought in 1866 between the German Confederation under the leadership of the Austrian Empire and its German allies on one side and the Kingdom of Prussia with its German allies and Italy on the other, that resulted in Prussian dominance over the German states. The result of the war was a shift in power among the German states away from Austrian and towards Prussian hegemony, and impetus towards the unification of all of the northern Germany.
  • TOC: Reform Act of 1867

    TOC: Reform Act of 1867
    The Representation of the People Act 1867, 30 & 31 Vict. c. 102 was a piece of British legislation that enfranchised part of the urban male working class in England and Wales for the first time.
  • Franco-Prussian War

    Franco-Prussian War
    The Franco-Prussian War was a significant conflict pitting the Second French Empire against the Kingdom of Prussia and its allies in the North German Confederation. The conflict emerged from tensions regarding German unification. Some Germans considered a war against France necessary to unite the North German Confederation and the independent southern German states, while France was preoccupied by the emergence of a powerful Prussia. The result was German victory.
  • TOC: Battle of Sedan and End of Second French Empire

    TOC: Battle of Sedan and End of Second French Empire
    The Battle of Sedan was fought during the Franco–Prussian War on 1 September 1870. It resulted in the capture of Emperor Napoleon III and large numbers of his troops and for all intents and purposes decided the war in favour of Prussia and its allies, though fighting continued under a new French government.
  • TOC: Third French Republic Declared

    TOC: Third French Republic Declared
    The Franco-Prussian War of 1870–1871 resulted in the defeat of France, and the overthrow of Emperor Napoleon III and his Second French Empire.
  • Period: to

    TOC: La Belle Epoque

    Era of great materialism, urbanization and cities, and included migration from Europe and a second Industrial Revolution.
  • TOC: Unification of Germany

    TOC: Unification of Germany
    The process of German Unification began as early as 1834, when the Zollverein (Prussian led economic union) was formed. Then in 1848 the Frankfurt Assembly reinforced the concept of a united Germany. In 1861, Willhelm I mounted the Prussian throne, and in 1862 Bismarck was appointed Prime Minister. The unification occurs under Wilhelm II at the end of the Franco-Prussian War.
  • TOC: The Bloody Week

    TOC: The Bloody Week
    The Paris Commune was a revolutionary and socialist government that briefly ruled Paris from 18 March until 28 May 1871. The killing of two French army generals by soldiers of the Commune's National Guard and the refusal of the Commune to accept the authority of the French government led to its harsh suppression by the regular French Army, beginning on 21 May 1871. Debates over the policies and outcome of the Commune had significant influence on the ideas of Marx and Lenin.
  • TOC: Employers and Workmen Act

    The Act purported to place both sides of industry in equal footing allowing all breaches of contract to be covered by civil law. Prior to the Act, employers were subjected to civil law which could result in a fine while employees could be subjected to criminal law which may have led to a fine and imprisonment. Disraeli commented, "We have settled the long and vexatious contest between capital and labour" and hoped this would "gain Conservatives the lasting affection of the working class."
  • TOC: Treaty of Berlin

    TOC: Treaty of Berlin
    The treaty formally recognized independence of the de facto sovereign principalities of Romania, Serbia and Montenegro, together with the autonomy of Bulgaria, though the latter de facto functioned independently and was divided into three parts: the Principality of Bulgaria, the autonomous province of Eastern Rumelia, and Macedonia, which was given back to the Ottomans, thus undoing Russian plans for an independent—and Russophile—"Greater Bulgaria".
  • TOC: First Boer War in South Africa

    TOC: First Boer War in South Africa
    The trigger for the war came when a Boer named Piet Bezuidenhout refused to pay an illegally-inflated tax. Government officials seized his wagon and attempted to auction it off to pay the tax on 11 November 1880, but a hundred armed Boers disrupted the auction, assaulted the presiding sheriff, and reclaimed the wagon. The war began when Transvaal formally declared independence from the UK.
  • Berlin Conference

    Berlin Conference
    The Berlin Conference of 1884–85, regulated European colonisation and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period, and coincided with Germany's sudden emergence as an imperial power. Called for by Portugal and organized by Otto von Bismarck, first Chancellor of Germany, its outcome, the General Act of the Berlin Conference, can be seen as the formalization of the Scramble for Africa.
  • TOC: 1884 Reform Bill

    TOC: 1884 Reform Bill
    In the United Kingdom, the Representation of the People Act 1884 (informally as the Third Reform Act) and the Redistribution Act of the following year were laws which further extended the suffrage in Britain to include agricultural workers. Taken together, these measures extended the same voting qualifications as existed in the towns to the countryside, and essentially established the modern one member constituency as the normal pattern for Parliament.
  • Boulanger Affair

    Boulanger was perceived as a hero of the people, largely through propaganda. As the Minister of War he led troops against strikes and pushed through army reforms. A plot to overthrow the government and establish him in power was backed by the monarchists who hoped to restore an authoritarian government. It was entirely possible such a plot would have been successful but his hesitation resulted in failure of the plot and Boulanger fled due to charges of treason.
  • TOC: Paris Exposition

    TOC: Paris Exposition
    The Exposition Universelle of 1889 was a World's Fair held in Paris, France from 6 May to 31 October 1889. It was held during the year of the 100th anniversary of the storming of the Bastille, an event considered symbolic of the beginning of the French Revolution. The fair included a reconstruction of the Bastille and its surrounding neighborhood, but with the interior courtyard covered with a blue ceiling. The main symbol of the Fair was the Eiffel Tower.
  • TOC: Panama Canal Scandal

    TOC: Panama Canal Scandal
    The Panama scandals was a corruption affair that broke out in the French Third Republic in 1892, linked to the building of the Panama Canal. Close to a billion francs were lost when the government took bribes to keep quiet about the Panama Canal Company's financial troubles, in what is regarded as the largest monetary corruption scandal of the 19th century.
  • TOC: Sino-Japanese War

    TOC: Sino-Japanese War
    Revealed Japan's intention to become a major imperial power. Japan fought Russia over the territories of Korea and Manchuria. Fought between Qing Dynasty China and Meiji Japan, primarily over control of Korea. After more than six months of continuous successes by the Japanese army and naval forces, as well as the loss of the Chinese port of Weihai, the Qing leadership sued for peace in February 1895.
  • Dreyfus Affair

    The Dreyfus affair was a political scandal that divided France from the affair's inception in 1894 until its resolution in 1906. The affair began in November 1894 with the conviction for treason of Captain Alfred Dreyfus, a young French artillery officer of Alsatian Jewish descent. Sentenced to life imprisonment for allegedly having communicated French military secrets to the German Embassy in Paris, Dreyfus was found guilty for a crime he did not commit.
  • First Zionist Congress

    The First Zionist Congress was the inaugural congress of the Zionist Organization (ZO) held in Basel, Switzerland, from August 29 to August 31, 1897. It was convened and chaired by Theodor Herzl, the founder of the modern Zionism movement. The Congress formulated a Zionist platform, known as the Basel program, and founded the Zionist Organization.
  • TOC: Boxer Rebellion

    TOC: Boxer Rebellion
    The Boxer Rebellion, Boxer Uprising or Yihetuan Movement was a violent anti-foreign and anti-Christian movement which took place in China towards the end of the Qing dynasty between 1898 and 1900. It was initiated by the Militia United in Righteousness (Yihetuan), known in English as the "Boxers", and was motivated by proto-nationalist sentiments and opposition to foreign imperialism and Christianity. The Great Powers intervened and defeated Chinese forces.
  • TOC: Russo-Japanese War

    TOC: Russo-Japanese War
    The Russo-Japanese War (8 February 1904 – 5 September 1905) was "the first great war of the 20th century." It grew out of rival imperial ambitions of the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over Manchuria and Korea. The major theatres of operations were Southern Manchuria, specifically the area around the Liaodong Peninsula and Mukden; and the seas around Korea, Japan, and the Yellow Sea. Japan expands its territory, encroaching on Russia control; fight over Port Arthur.
  • TOC: The Parliament Act of 1911

    TOC: The Parliament Act of 1911
    The 1911 Act was a reaction to the clash between the Liberal government and the House of Lords, culminating in the so-called "People's Budget" of 1909. The Chancellor of the Exchequer David Lloyd George proposed the introduction of a land tax based on the ideas of the American tax reformer Henry George. This new tax would have had a major effect on large landowners, and was opposed by the Conservative opposition. Conservatives believed that money should be raised through tariffs on imports.
  • TOC: Russian Revolution

    TOC: Russian Revolution
    The Russian Revolution is the collective term for a series of revolutions in Russia in 1917, which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the creation of the Russian SFSR. The Emperor was forced to abdicate and the old regime was replaced by a provisional government during the first revolution of February 1917.
  • TOC: Women's Party in UK Formed

    TOC: Women's Party in UK Formed
    The Women's Party was a minor political party in the United Kingdom. It was founded by Christabel and Emmeline Pankhurst when they dissolved the Women's Social and Political Union in November 1917.
  • TOC: Representation of the People Act

    TOC: Representation of the People Act
    The Representation of the People Act 1918 was an Act of Parliament passed to reform the electoral system in the United Kingdom. It is sometimes known as the Fourth Reform Act. This act was the first to include practically all men in the political system and began the inclusion of women. All women over 30 could vote.
  • TOC: Reformation Act of 1928

    TOC: Reformation Act of 1928
    The Representation of the People Act 1928 nwas an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. This act expanded on the Representation of the People Act 1918 which had given some women the vote in Parliamentary elections for the first time after World War I. It widened suffrage by giving women electoral equality with men. It gave the vote to all women who paid rates to the local government on the same terms as men. This meant they had to be over 21 years old, regardless of property ownership.