The leader of the Haitian Revolution. His leadership eventually led to the establishment of the independent black state of Haiti. In 1802 he was forced to resign by forces sent by Napoleon Bonaparte to restore French authority in the colony. He was deported to France where he died in 1803. The Haitian Revolution continued under his lieutenant, Jean-Jacques Dessalines, who declared independence in 1804.
Period in which agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology changed greatly, Began in England and spread across muc hof the world. Inventions include the steam engine, spinning jenny, cotton gin, atomatic reaper, etc.
Seven Years War
Driven by antagonism between the British Empire and the Bourbons. Resulted in Britain annexing Canada and Bengal, and Florida. France transfered Louisiana to Spain.
Watt's Steam Engine
Improved the design of the Newcomen engine. Watt's engine dramatically increases fuel efficency, and made the use of the steam engine much more common and useful in industry.
Invention created by James Hargreaves in England. It made yarn easier to produce; a worker could make 8 or more spools at once, and later this increased to 120 spools.
Name of the spinnning frame after it became powered by moving water (such as a river). Invented by Richard Arkwright.
Whitney's Cotton Gin
A machine the seperate the seeds from cotton. Made it unnecessary for this task to be done by hand (a very hard and labor intensive task). One cotton gin could generate up to 55 pounds of cleaned cotton daily.
Britain outlaws Slave Trade
Abolished the Salve trade in the British empire; but not slavery itself.
End of Atlantic Slave trade
Britains abolition of slavery prompted many other nations to follow suit and impose stiff fines for any slave found aboard an incoming ship. Nations to pass laws that contributed to the end of the Atlantic slave trade include: Britain, Brazil, United States of America, Portugal, and parts of Africa.
Armed conflict between the people of Mexico and the Spanish colonial authorities. Mexico emerged victorious and independent.
War for Brazil's independence from Portugal, fought on land and at sea. Both sides were composed of regular forces and civilian militias. About 6000 died. Brazil became independent.
Greek war of independence from the Ottoman Empire. Greece won and became independent. Greeks were helped by many European powers. Many massacres occured on both sides, and tens of thousasnds of Greeks and Ottomans were killed.
Dissolution of the Jainissaries
The dissolution of the janissaries included the events of the Young Turk Revolution and the establishment of the second constitutional era.
Afrikaners' Great Trek
An eastward and north-eastward migration away from British contol in the Cape Colony by Boers. Migrants were descended from mostly Europe. Led to the founding of numerous Boer republics, the Transvaal being the most notable.
Invention of the Telegraph
Samuel Morse and Alfred Vail created an electric telegrph that could transmit signal far distances using poor quality wire. Together the developed Morse code.
First Opium War
Dispute over trade between the British Empire and China under the Quing dynasty. British began trading more opium with China to increase trade, by addicting people. China was angered by the outflow of silver and increasing addiction. Resulted in war which the British easily won and ended in the treaty of Nanking. It was very unfair, but good for the British.
A series of loosely coordinated protests and rebellions in Germany and Austria which sought to challenge the status-quo. The revolutions emphasised popular discontent with the traditional autocratic political structure of the German confederation.
This revolution in the Kingdom of Hungary grew into a war for independence from the Habsburg rule. Many of its leaders and participants are the most highly respected and reveered persons in Hungarian history.
Organized revolts in the state of italy led by intellectuals and agitators who desired a liberal government. As Italian nationalists they sought to eliminate reactionary Austrian control.
The Austrian empire was threatened by revolutionary movements. Much of the revolution was of a nationalist character. Included many different nation-states and their strive for independence. The revolutions ultimately failed, basically because of conflicting goals.
A widespread civil war in southern China led by heterodox Christian Hon Xiuguan against the Qing Dynasty. 20 million people died.
Commodore Mathew Perry in Japan
Embarked to Japan seeking a Japanese trade treaty. His actions at this crucial juncture were informed by a careful study of Japan's previous contacts with Western ships and what could be known about the Japanese hierarchical culture. He was met by representatives of the Tokugawa Shogunate who told him to proceed to Nagasaki.
A Conflict between the Russian Empire and an alliance of the French Empire, the British Empire, the Ottoman Empire, and the Kingdom of Sardinia. European countries wanted influence over the declining Ottoman Empire. First tactical use of railways and the telegraph. Ended byt the Treaty of Paris.
Second Opium War
A second conflict between Britain and China about the Opium trade in China. Ended with the Treaty of Tianjin.
Britain take over India
By 1856 India was taken over by the British East India Company, they tried to rebel, but ultimately failed. As a result India was broughd under the direct rule of the British Crown.
Sepoys rebelled against the British East India Company's army in May, sparking many other rebellions throughout India. It threatened Company power, and was contained with the fall of Gawlior.
Emancipation of the Russian Serfs
The first and most important of liberal reforms effected during the reign of Alexander II. The reform amounted to the liquidation of serf dependence previously suffered by peasants of the Russian empire. Serfdom was abolished earlier in some parts.
A chain of events that restored imperial rule to Japan in 1868. The Restoration led to enormous changes in Japan's political and social structure, and spanned both the late Edo period (often called Late Tokugawa shogunate) and the beginning of the Meiji period.
An artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea. Allows water transportation between Europe and Asia without navigation around Africa.
Imperialism in Africa
A process of invasion, attack, occupation, and annexation of African territory by European powers during the New Imperialism period. Met with resistance from many already founded parts of Africa, but the Europeans, who were supported with the products of an industrial revolution, prevailed.
A proto-nationalist movement in China opposing foreign imperialism and Christianity. Arose from grievances, varying from opium traders, to political invasion, and economic manipulation.
A gravity masonry buttress dam on the Nile River in Aswan, Egypt. was built to reduce flooding and to support population growth in the Lower Nile.
Overthrow of the Quing Dynasty
The Wuchang Uprising succeeded on October 10, 1911, which led to the creation of the new central government, the Republic of China.
African National Congress
South Africas governing left-wing party. Founded in order to increase the rights of the black South African population. It has been the ruling party of post-Apartheid South Africa on a national level.
A ship canal in Panama that joins the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean, that is very important international maritime trade. Idea was started by the French, dropped, then picked up and finished by the US.