Apeh1

AP European History - Interactive Timeline

  • Jan 1, 1348

    Black Death

    Black Death
    1348-1351
    Beginning in Italy, and meaning "rebirth", the Renaissance was a time where there was a development of new ideas that went against the norm of society such as the revival of Classical culture, the "perfecting of an individual", secularism, rationalism, and humanism.
  • Jan 1, 1350

    Renaissance

    Renaissance
    1350-1550
    Beginning in Italy, and meaning "rebirth", the Renaissance was a time where there was a development of new ideas that went against the norm of society such as the rivival of Classical culture, the "perfecting of an idividual", secularism, rationalism, and humanism.
  • Jan 1, 1415

    Council of Constance burns Hus and ends Great Schism

    Council of Constance burns Hus and ends Great Schism
    1415-1417
    Throughout these years, the Council of Constance met to make critical decisions that would affect the future of the church. At this time, the notion of conciliarism became popular and through the work of this group, the Great Schism ended. However, the Council functioned so that it would be the most powerful of all the church's governing bodies and thus, causing the death of John Hus who was burned at the stake for heresy.
  • Jan 1, 1450

    Exploration

    Exploration
    1450-1600
    The Exploration in Europe included the voyages of Columbus, Dias sailing around the tip of Africa, the Portuguese’s seize of Malacca and their arrival in Japan, the Spanish conquest of parts of South America, and the beginning of the Slave Trade. The discovery of a New World in turn led to political and economic advances allowing a growth in Europe.
  • Jan 1, 1453

    Fall of Constantinople; end of Hundred Years' War

    Fall of Constantinople; end of Hundred Years' War
    The Fall of Constantinople marked the beginning of the Ottoman Empire, which later, proved to be an extremely powerful enemy to much of Europe. The end of the Hundred Years' War also had repercussions such as a newly found sense of nationalism in both counties (England and France), it centralized France, and it showcased advancements weaponry.
  • Jan 1, 1455

    Invention of the Printing Press

    Invention of the Printing Press
    The invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg helped increase productivity and literacy in society. More importantly, it helped increase the sharing of new ideas, especially the spread of different religious views.
  • Jan 1, 1492

    Columbus encounters America; completion of Reconquista in Spain

    Columbus encounters America; completion of Reconquista in Spain
    The discovery of the Americas by Christopher Columbus benefited all of Europe because it led to a larger international trading system called the Columbian Exchange. This resulted in the discovery of new foods, new animals, and diseases (for the Native American especially). Meanwhile, the Reconquista in Spain led to all the Muslims being forced out of the country and for all the citizen of Spain to convert to Christianity.
  • Jan 1, 1500

    Protestant and Catholic Reformations

    Protestant and Catholic Reformations
    1500-1599 (16th century)
    The Protestant reformation started when Martin Luther wrote a theses condemning the church. The new religion then gained many followers, some of whom, created their own religions with similar beliefs; such as Zwinglianism, Calvinsm and Anabaptism. Catholicism also experienced renewal when new religious orders were brought back, a changed and revived papacy was created, and the Council of Trent was made affirming traditional Catholic doctrines.
  • Jan 1, 1500

    Early Modern Society

    Early Modern Society
    1500-1700
    Europe’s three major developmental centuries where there was an immense amount of intellectual venturesomeness. Society became more secularist. During this time Europe came to dominate the world due to its rapid advancements in all aspects of society.
  • Jan 1, 1500

    Price Revolution

    Price Revolution
    1500-1599 (16th century)
    This was when Europe had a dramatic rise in prices due to the influx of gold and silver that came from the New World. This caused an economic collapse in Spain.
  • Jan 1, 1517

    Luther posts 95 Theses

    Luther posts 95 Theses
    This theses, created by Martin Luther, started the Protestant Reformations which also caused more religious reforms in the future. This 95 theses was a list of points that condemned the church for being corrupt. This caused many people to see the errors in the actions of the church, especially in indulgences.
  • Jan 1, 1519

    Cortez conquers Aztecs

    Cortez conquers Aztecs
    This Spanish conquest led to the spread of diseases such as smallpox and measles, which essentially wiped out the Native Americans. This caused a loss of culture and the beginning of enslavement on the Native Americans.
  • Jan 1, 1520

    Religious Wars

    Religious Wars
    1520-1600
    Due to the tensions between the two religions, Catholicism and Protestantism, a series of wars including the French Wars of religion, the revolt of the Netherlands against Phillip II of Spain, the Thirty Years' War, and the conflict between Phillip II and Elizabeth of England (which led to the defeat of the Spanish Armada). These conflicts ultimately resulted in the acceptance of Calvinism in France and freedom for the German states to choose their own religion.
  • Jan 1, 1534

    Act of Supremacy in England creates Anglican Church

    Act of Supremacy in England creates Anglican Church
    This Act stated that the king of England would be the head of the church for England creating a whole new religion called the Anglican Church. This caused many people to lose faith due to all the conflicts and confusion this brought.
  • Jan 1, 1536

    Calvin establishes reformed faith in Geneva

    Calvin establishes reformed faith in Geneva
    This changed Geneva into a Christian community where firm regulations were instilled upon the actions of the people. This form of Christianity actually gained popularity and eventually spread to England and France, and became a significant religion in Europe.
  • Jan 1, 1543

    Copernicus publishes heliocentric theory

    Copernicus publishes heliocentric theory
    The heliocentric model believed that the sun was the center of the universe. What was normally thought at this time was that the earth was the center of the universe. This new theory went against the church and it was rejected by many.
  • Jan 1, 1543

    Scientific Revolution

    Scientific Revolution
    1543-1687
    This was the new transition from non-secular ideas to secular, rational ideas. There was an increase in skepticism and the work of great philosophers were spreading in this time period. These include Newton, Descartes, and Bacon.
  • Jan 1, 1545

    Council of Trent opens

    Council of Trent opens
    This group reformed the Catholic church and reaffirmed the doctrines of Catholicism which include the seven sacraments, the role of the papacy as the head of the church, and Latin as the language of the church.
  • Jan 1, 1550

    Dutch Commercial Dominance

    Dutch Commercial Dominance
    1550-1650
    This was the time period in which the Dutch became the top trading nation of the world and Amsterdam as the financial center of Europe. During this age of prosperity, the Dutch East India Company was founded.
  • Jan 1, 1550

    Age of Crisis

    Age of Crisis
    1550-1650
    This is the time in Europe after an economic growth were it fell in to hard times, including more wars, unexpected changes in climate, and more revolts due to food shortages.
  • Jan 1, 1555

    Peace of Augsburg ends religious war in Germany; Charles V abdicates

    Peace of Augsburg ends religious war in Germany; Charles V abdicates
    This allowed German princes to choose their own religion. However the only religions available were Catholicism or Lutheranism. Charles V abdicating resulted in the Holy Roman empire being further divided.
  • Jan 1, 1580

    Witchcraft Scare

    Witchcraft Scare
    1580-1680
    This was when a large amount of people were being accused for being witches. This was due to the new phenomena stating that witches were heretical because they associated with the devil. This placed a great fear for people especially ones that were religious.
  • Defeat of Spanish Armada

    Defeat of Spanish Armada
    This defeat placed England at the top in Europe in regards to Naval power. This defeat was a result of a conflict between Phillip II of Spain and Elizabeth of England.
  • Edict of Nantes ends French religious wars

    Edict of Nantes ends French religious wars
    This allowed French Protestants to have religious tolerance, thus creating the first acknowledgement by a European monarchy that two religions were acceptable.
  • Dutch East India Company founded

    Dutch East India Company founded
    This was a trading company that took over the spice trade in the East Indies from the Portuguese. This group was one reason why the Dutch Republic was so prosperous.
  • Baroque Art

    Baroque Art
    1600-1750
    This was an artistic movement in Europe that hold the belief that to appeal to ones emotions, an artist must use dramatic effects. It also reflected the search for power that was present at the time.
  • Commercial Revolution

    Commercial Revolution
    1600-1799 (17th and 18th century)
    During this time, mercantilism and capitalism were key to the economic prosperity of a country. This era was filled with the development of new entrepreneurs and new industries.
  • Stuart monarchy begins in England

    Stuart monarchy begins in England
    Resulting in the English Civil War and the Glorious Revolution in England, stuart monarchs believed that their power is granted to them from God and that they have the right to be the only leader of their state.
  • Conflict between Parliament and King of England

    Conflict between Parliament and King of England
    1603-1689
    This was when Charles I was king and he raised his royal standard. This caused the king and the Parliament to be very divided allowing the English Civil war and the Execution of Charles I. Afterwards Oliver Cromwell Became the new leader but he acted like a dictator furthering the oppression on the English people.
  • Age of Louis XIV

    Age of Louis XIV
    1643-1715
    During this time, France was the center of diplomatic exchange due to its absolutist leader, Louis XIV. As a result to of all his extensive and lavish reforms, however, France was in an extremely large debt.
  • Peace of Westphalia ends Thirty Years' War

    Peace of Westphalia ends Thirty Years' War
    This peace gave Sweden more land, recognized the United Provinces of Netherlands, established the sovereign authority of the German states, and allowed the practice of Calvinism.
  • Charles I executed in England

    Charles I executed in England
    This was due to the English Civil War where he was against the Parliament. Once he died, Oliver Cromwell became to new leader and, although he promised a commonwealth, the new government was more like a dictatorship.
  • Absolutism

    Absolutism
    1650-1750
    This was a growing phenomenon that believed that a ruler has absolute power, along with the “divine right of kings”. One of the most known absolutist, King Luis XIV of France, ruled during this time.
  • Commercial Wars

    Commercial Wars
    1650-1763
    Commercial Wars were wars based on economics. They were conflicts over resources, trade, and access to resources.
  • Rise of Prussia

    Rise of Prussia
    1650-1763
    With the help from its strong leader, Frederick William I, Prussia became an incredibly strong country, especially in regards to its military.
  • Newton publishes "Principia Mathematica"

    Newton publishes "Principia Mathematica"
    This book, being extremely advanced in math and science, gave a single mathematical law of universal gravitation, and a mathematical formula describing celestial and terrestrial motion.
  • Glorious Revolution; Peter the Great's reign begins in Russia

    Glorious Revolution; Peter the Great's reign begins in Russia
    1688-1689
    The Glorious Revolution resulted in the Bill of Rights which regulated the power of the English monarchy. Peter the Great modernized Russia and expanded their army.
  • Rise of Russia

    Rise of Russia
    1689-1815
    When the absolutist, Peter the Great, began rulling Russia, it was a different type of monarchy from anywhere. Russia became the dominant power on the Baltic Sea.
  • Bank of England founded

    Bank of England founded
    The Bank of England functioned as the government's accountant and debt-manager. It eventually became a financial center in Europe and affected economic activity in England.
  • Rise of the Middle Class

    Rise of the Middle Class
    1700-1799 (18th century)
    The rise of the middle class, resulted different levels of people. There was now a middle class with occupations including bankers, merchants, and artisans. Before it had many poor people and very few rich people.
  • Enlightenment

    Enlightenment
    1700-1799 (18th century)
    The Enlightenment brought about famous philosophes such as Diderot, Voltaire, and Montesquieu. It brought new ideas and emphasized reason, natural laws, toleration, and liberty.
  • Agricultural Revolution

    Agricultural Revolution
    1700-1799 (18th century)
    The Agricultural Revolution led to advancements in the way people produce crops. During this time, innovations such as enclosed fields, open field systems, continuous crop rotation, and using manure as fertilizer increased the amount of food in Europe greatly.
  • Peace of Utrecht; death of Louis XIV

    Peace of Utrecht; death of Louis XIV
    1713-1715
    This peace stopped Louis XIV from trying to take over all of Europe. It also granted England land in modern day Canada and it allowed them to provide slaves to the Spanish. When king Louis XIV died, he left France in a huge debt because he used all of the money to pay for his lavish reforms.
  • Rococo Art

    Rococo Art
    1720-1760
    Rococo art was an artistic movement where lightness, charm, and grace was emphasized. It used pastels.
  • War of Austrian Succession begins

    War of Austrian Succession begins
    This was when the French and Prussians fought the English and Austrians. It resulted from the confusion of who would take the throne after the father of Maria Theresa of Austria died.
  • Industrial Revolution

    Industrial Revolution
    1750-1850
    This was the transition from human and animal power to mechanical power. The Industrial Revolution brought many new inventions that were created to make the textile, coal, and railroad industries more productive.
  • Treaty of Paris ends Seven Years' War

    Treaty of Paris ends Seven Years' War
    This treaty resulted in some countries, who participated in the war, obtaining land in some way. The British acquired land in Canada and America, France got to keep land, and Prussia kept its possession of Silesia.
  • American Revolution; Smith publishes "Wealth of Nations"

    American Revolution; Smith publishes "Wealth of Nations"
    The American Revolution resulted with the thirteen winning their freedom for Britain and Britain losing a large amount of land in the Americas. The "Wealth of Nations" by Adam Smith brought up the notion of "laissez-faire" an economical belief that states that the people should have freedom when it comes to how they will make money.
  • French Revolution begins

    French Revolution begins
    The French Revolution, resulting from a number of problems in their society, led to the Legislative Assembly in France. This war failed to give women the right to vote and It also showcased the guillotine.
  • Age of Revolutions

    Age of Revolutions
    1789-1848
    During this time there were a large amount of civil conflicts creating revolutions all over Europe. These include the French Revolution, the American Revolution, Revolutions in Belgium, and Revolutions in the Austrian Empire.
  • Feminism

    Feminism
    1790-1980s
    Throughout the era of Feminism, many women and men worked to achieve equality of genders. During this time, many women began to participate in the sciences and look for jobs. Women gradually achieved the right to vote.
  • Rise of Nationalism

    Rise of Nationalism
    1790s-1914
    During this time, people gained a sense of pride for their nation thus allowing the unity of each nation to come together and fix problems.
  • Wollstonecraft begins feminists movement with "Vindication of Rights of Women"

    Wollstonecraft begins feminists movement with "Vindication of Rights of Women"
    Mary Wollstonecraft’s work "Vindication of Rights of Women" attacks the beliefs of Enlightenment intellectuals such as Jean Jacques Rousseau who believe that women cannot participate in matters involving reason and logical thinking.
  • Napoleon comes to power in France

    Napoleon comes to power in France
    Napoleon takes over France when it was already in a crisis. He took out democracy and changed the government of France. The newly free country was no longer free under his rule.
  • Romanticism

    Romanticism
    1800-1850 (First half of the 19th century)
    This was an artistic movement in which a freedom of feeling, thought, and action was desired greatly. This movement influenced not just art but religion, music, and philosophy as well.
  • Abdication of Napoleon; Congress of Vienna

    Abdication of Napoleon; Congress of Vienna
    Napoleon's Abdication led to France no longer being led by a dictator and it was now free again. The Congress enacted a settlement that created a balance of power in Europe until the German unification.
  • Rise of Liberalism

    Rise of Liberalism
    1830s-1870s
    This time period held the beliefs of natural rights and the role of the government to protect these rights. These natural rights also included civil liberties such as the freedom of assembly, and religion. All this support for natural rights in turn led to the desire for "laissez-faire".
  • Revolution in France; Belgian and Greek independence

    Revolution in France; Belgian and Greek independence
    1830-1831
    In the revolution in France Louis Philippe became a "citizen king" and moved to attend to the business of France. Meanwhile, Belgium became a neutral state and Greece became an independent state.
  • Revolutions of 1848; Marx and Engels publish "Communist Manifesto"

    Revolutions of 1848; Marx and Engels publish "Communist Manifesto"
    The revolutions of 1948 created a new age of political transformation. England avoided these revolts through peaceful reforms. "Communist Manifesto" caused people to rethink government. The book spoke of the process of thesis, antithesis, and synthesis and argued that women were exploited by men and capitalists.
  • Realism and Materialism

    Realism and Materialism
    1850-1870
    These ideas disagreed with Romanticism. They criticize industrial life and emphasize the lives of common people such as workers and peasants.
  • Modern Ideas and Science

    Modern Ideas and Science
    1850-1920
    This time period includes the discoveries of bacterial revolution, the theory of revolution, mass politics, and women's rights. This all led to a better comprehension of society.
  • Imperialism

    Imperialism
    1850-1914
    This was the time period in which much of the other continents besides Europe were being controlled by European countries. All of these European conquests led to intense rivalries between the countries and the destruction of native cultures.
  • Second Industrialism Revolution

    Second Industrialism Revolution
    1850-1914
    This was when new inventions were created in the industries of electricity, petroleum, and steel. These inventions then opened the door for more inventions in the industries of communication and transportation.
  • Unification and Nation-Building

    Unification and Nation-Building
    1850-1875
    This is when new countries were emerging and more nations were now becoming states.
  • Rise of Modern Society

    Rise of Modern Society
    1850-1899 (Second Half of 19th Century)
    During this time there were changes in society as a whole. For example: views on politics and women were changing. Everything now was urbanizing and the population of the world was growing.
  • Crystal Palace Exhibition in Britain

    Crystal Palace Exhibition in Britain
    This exhibition allowed Britain to display its immense amount of intellectual people. The exhibition showed the economic, industrial, and military superiority of Great Britain.
  • Britain establishes direct rule of India

    Britain establishes direct rule of India
    Here, India fell under control of Great Britain. This allowed India to obtain some British culture and infrastructure, and Great Britain to gain resources.
  • Darwin publishes "Origin of the Species"

    Darwin publishes "Origin of the Species"
    This was the discovery of the theory of evolution that suggest that humans had evolved from apes. This was a huge deal because it proposed a way for people to have been created that does not necessarily have to do with religious beliefs. It also was parallel to other theories at the time, further supporting its validity.
  • Italy unified; Russian serfs emancipated

    Italy unified; Russian serfs emancipated
    This was when Italy had contrasting economic status with Northern Italy (rich) and Southern Italy (poor). Also, Italy was in major debt from unification. Meanwhile, the Russian serfs were emancipated, however, they still could not own land and they were still in oppression.
  • Modern Art

    Modern Art
    1870-1920
    This was the time when art was evolving and new techniques were being used such as cubism and impressionism.
  • Unification of Germany; Paris Commune and Third Republic in France

    Unification of Germany; Paris Commune and Third Republic in France
    The unification of Germany created a new balance of power in Europe. As Germany industrialized quickly, it became a strong rival to Great Britain. The Third Republic in France did not last very long and while it functioned, much of France was confused.
  • Berlin Conference over Imperialism in Africa

    Berlin Conference over Imperialism in Africa
    1884-1885
    The Berlin Conference divided Africa among European countries and it placed rules for all countries to follow in regards to the African territories.
  • Freud publishes "Interpretation of Dreams"

    Freud publishes "Interpretation of Dreams"
    Through this work by Sigmund Freud, much of what we know about dreams and psychology derived from his studies. He studied and collected research both through clinical and experimental trials.
  • Einstein publishes relativity theory; Revolution of 1905 in Russia

    Einstein publishes relativity theory; Revolution of 1905 in Russia
    Einstein's work was a new perspective on the subjects of motion, time, and space. Meanwhile in Russia, this revolution led to strikes, and massacres demanding for change. This eventually resulted in the election of the Russian Parliament.
  • World War I begins

    World War I begins
    World War I resulted from the search for balance of power. Many countries were making alliances to make sure that one country did not have more power than the rest and thus creating a domino effect once one country is threatened by another.
  • World Wars

    World Wars
    1914-1945
    The World Wars were critical events that changed history forever. These were times of major conflicts of balances of power and the burden of alliances. The results of these wars were the League of Nations and the United Nations.
  • Bolshevik Revolution in Russia

    Bolshevik Revolution in Russia
    This revolution resulted in Treat of Brest-Litovsk and Russia loosing lots of land and people.
  • Treaty of Versailles ends World War I

    Treaty of Versailles ends World War I
    This treaty did little to end the tensions between the European countries after the war; in fact, it could have contributed to the beginning of World War II. In the treaty, Germany had to sign a war-guilt clause and pay for war damages, France received land back, Austrian-Hungary separated into different countries, and the League of Nations was created.
  • Totalitarianism

    Totalitarianism
    1920s-1945
    In the efforts to create loyal citizen, totalitarianism controlled the lives of the citizens, and censored information people received.
  • Fascists and Mussolini come to power in Italy

    Fascists and Mussolini come to power in Italy
    During this time, all political parties were condemned and outlawed except for the fascists. Mussolini controlled the corporations in Italy.
  • Great Depression begins

    Great Depression begins
    This event was very unexpected because the 1920 were so happy and prosperous but then stock prices dropped and many suffered, This event called for more governmental actions in the economy
  • Hitler comes to power in Germany

    Hitler comes to power in Germany
    Hitler cunningly persuaded the people of Germany to follow him. Once in power he created a totalitarianist state and controlled what everyone did. He also ruthlessly decides to invade other countries just to conquer them
  • Munich Conference-height of appeasement

    Munich Conference-height of appeasement
    This was a conference that discredited the British policy of appeasement and gave Sudetenland to Hitler.
  • World War II begins

    World War II begins
    World War II happened manly because of the actions of Hitler and how he wanted to control all of Europe. During this time, the Holocaust also happened which was a mass murdering of Jews. This whole war resulted in the creation of the United Nations.
  • World War II ends; United Nations founded

    World War II ends; United Nations founded
    Once America joins the war, Hitler is finally defeated and he commits suicide. This War resulted in the creation of the United Nations, which is an international organization where countries come together to avoid conflicts such as the World Wars.
  • European Unity

    European Unity
    1945-present
    This was the unification of the European countries after the World Wars.
  • Cold War

    Cold War
    1945-1991
    This was a conflict between the US and the Soviet Union. It is called the "Cold" War because there were no battles. Much of it was verbal or letters. These international agreements include the Warsaw Pact and NATO,
  • NATO formed

    NATO formed
    This was a supranational organization in which the US, Canada and 26 other countries from Europe and North America, formed an alliance to protect each other.
  • European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) formed

    European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) formed
    This was an alliance not for protection purposes such as NATO, but an alliance for economic benefits. These European countries came together to decide that the transportation of coal and steel between these countries would be tax-free.
  • Stalin dies

    Stalin dies
    With Khrushchev as the proceeding leader, the death of Joseph Stalin brought up a mixture of emotions in the Soviet Union. In one hand, he was oppressive however people still wept greatly after his death with fear of the future of their country.
  • Khrushchev's de-Stalinization speech; Hungary revolt

    Khrushchev's de-Stalinization speech; Hungary revolt
    The de-Stalinization speech was incredibly important for the people of the Soviet Union. This speech stated that government was now going to be less oppressive and the future will be peaceful due to the government's new adoption of the belief in peaceful debate and not war. The Hungary-revolt was stopped by the Soviets thus highlighting the limitations of American's power in Eastern Europe.
  • Treaty of Rome creates European Economic Community (EEC); Sputnik launched

    Treaty of Rome creates European Economic Community (EEC); Sputnik launched
    The EEC eliminated trade barriers between its members and caused West Europe to be more economically integrated. The launching of Sputnik symbolized the growth of the Soviet Union and its technological advancement compared to the rest of the world.
  • Fifth Republic in France under DeGaulle

    Fifth Republic in France under DeGaulle
    With the Fifth Republic of France under DeGaulle, a series of events happened including Algeria becoming independent, Great Britain being denied entry to the EEC, advancements in weaponry in France, and the withdrawal of French troops from NATO.
  • Berlin Wall erected

    Berlin Wall erected
    This wall functioned as a barrier to stop refugees from the communist East Germany from fleeing to the democratic West Germany.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis

    Cuban Missile Crisis
    This was when leaders of the U.S. and the Soviet Union participated in a crisis over the installation of nuclear-armed Soviet missiles in Cuba that lasted 13 days. This crisis caused US citizens to be worried and scared. However, through an agreement brought up by the US, nuclear war was avoided.
  • Second Vatican Council begins

    Second Vatican Council begins
    This Council caused many reforms in the Church. These include changes in the way clergy would be trained, the Church would be separated from state and government, and no longer could they issue war.
  • Student revolts; Czech "Prague Spring" revolt

    Student revolts; Czech "Prague Spring" revolt
    The student revolts were calls for reformation in education. This happened mainly in France and many were against the changes that DeGaulle created. The "Prague Spring" revolts returned Czechoslovakia to a communist state. It ended with a Soviet invasion, the removal of their party leader and an end to reform within Czechoslovakia.
  • Helsinki Accords-height of detente

    Helsinki Accords-height of detente
    This marked the high point of the Cold War. The countries who signed this recognized people's basic human rights.
  • John Paul II elected pope

    John Paul II elected pope
    John Paul II proved to be the most influential pope as he traveled the most and new many languages. He worked extensively to provide for the Church. He wrote many books too.
  • Soviet Union invades Afghanistan; Thatcher elected prime minister in Britain

    Soviet Union invades Afghanistan; Thatcher elected prime minister in Britain
    This invasion proved be harmful to the economy and society in the Soviet Union. Meanwhile, with Thatcher elected prime minister she reformed London to become a financial center and she caused the right for people to buy a council house to be granted.
  • Solidarity founded in Poland

    Solidarity founded in Poland
    This was when the people of Poland peacefully elected their own leader over the communist leaders already in place. This new leader supported solidarity.
  • Gorbachev comes to power in Soviet Union

    Gorbachev comes to power in Soviet Union
    Gorbachev was a major reformer in the Soviet Union and he encourage the citizens to participate in trying to create a better country. His leadership resulted in a new economic system and democratization.
  • Berlin Wall falls and collapse of communism

    Berlin Wall falls and collapse of communism
    This was when Germany was no longer split and it became a parliamentary democracy, marking the end to the Cold War in Eastern Europe.
  • Break-up of Soviet Union; Balkan conflicts begin in former Yugoslavia

    Break-up of Soviet Union; Balkan conflicts begin in former Yugoslavia
    The break-up of the Soviet Union consisted of ethnic groups fighting for their independence because they no longer feared the communist government The Balkan conflicts resulted in the separation of Yugoslavia into different states now with unified nations.
  • Maastricht Treaty creates European Union (EU)

    Maastricht Treaty creates European Union (EU)
    The European Union was created for economical purposes and it is now the largest economical market with its own bank governing the money flow in Europe.
  • Euro currency introduced

    Euro currency introduced
    This showed the European countries finally coming together and becoming one under the governing of the European Union. This also made economy in Europe easier with everyone using the same currency.
  • Terrorist attacks on United States

    Terrorist attacks on United States
    These attacks on the US created a tension between them and the Middle Eastern countries, causing fear in the citizens of both countries and creating tighter restrictions on border and airport control in the US.