Important dates from 1534 to 1801

  • 1506

    Beginning of the Scottish reformation

    Beginning of the Scottish reformation
    the Scotland establish the Scottish parliament ( cancelled the pope’s authority)
    •John Knox= key character in this reformation
  • Period: 1509 to 1547

    Henry VIII's reign

    some of his acts:
    -Acts of Appeals (1533): people could not appeal to the pope overturn Henry’s rulings o the church= power in the politic +the religion
    - Act of Succession (1534): Henry’s marriage with Catherine is void+child Mary illegitimate.
  • 1534

    act of supremacy

    act of supremacy
    recognized Henry VIII as the «  supreme head of the church of the england », England become protestant.
  • Period: 1534 to

    an important period in the British history

    1534: England become Protestant ( started run from catholicism) = reformation
    1801: Reunification —> United Kingdom
  • 1536

    dissolution of the monasteries and redistribution of monastic property

    dissolution of the monasteries and redistribution of monastic property
    For Henry VIII it’s a lot about religion but also about financial game too. ( 1536-1540)
  • 1539

    Great Bible went into mass production

    Great Bible went into mass production
    henry VIII ordered that a copy of the Bible in English be placed in every parish church.To meet this demand, they had to get lots of English bibles printed
  • 1539

    The Six Articles of Faith

    The Six Articles of Faith
    It reasserted in many ways traditional Catholic doctrine as the basis of faith for the English Church
    These articles shocked the reformers who called it a “whip with six strings”
  • 1543

    act for the Advancement of true Religion

    act for the Advancement of true Religion
    Edward repeals it and now everyone is allowed to read the Bible
  • 1543

    Henry VIII restricts the reading of the Bible

    Henry VIII restricts the reading of the Bible
    the catholic faith was criticized because the service were in latin meant that the laypeople did not understand it.
    But after encouraging the reading of the Bible for all. Henry VIII restricted the reading of the Bible to a privileged few.
  • Period: 1544 to 1551

    rough wooing

    expedition to kidnap Mary so she goes to France and marry Francis to run away from Henry VIII
  • Period: 1547 to 1553

    Edward VI's reign

    The last survivors child of Henry VIII with his 3rd wife. He became king while he was still a child ( 9 years old)
  • 1549

    act of uniformity

    act of uniformity
    protestants rites for church services + a book for every pope in the entire country (of a common prayer)
    The book of common prayer was a way of achieving religious unity by making the rites of the anglican liturgy uniform.
  • Period: 1553 to 1558

    Bloody Mary's reign

    she was the legitimate heir, but she was declared as a « bastard », but because of Henry VIII’s act of succession, she was supposed to become the queen after Edward VI. So she “took back her place “
    she burns 300 radical protestant
    = Time of the “Marian persecutions“
  • Period: Jul 10, 1553 to Jul 19, 1553

    lady Jane Grey's reign

    Edward VI died in 1553. His will indicated that he wished for lady Jane Grey to be his heir :The nine days’ protestant queen ( ruled for 9 days)
  • 1554

    back to Catholicism

    back to Catholicism
    reunification with Rome

    Mary’s 1550’s subjects were not all radical Protestants but were closer to the traditional Catholics faith
  • Jun 7, 1557

    a war with France

    a war with France
    due to her marriage with Philip II of Spain, she declared war with France because he was already engaged in a war with France.
  • 1558

    act of supremacy ( Elizabeth I)

    act of supremacy ( Elizabeth I)
    it declares the queen = supreme governor of the church
  • Period: 1558 to

    Elizabeth I's reign

    Bloody Mary died in 1558 and Elizabeth I becomes queen.
  • 1559

    Elizabeth religious settlement

    Elizabeth religious settlement
    she wanted to unify the church: she reinstated the protestant prayer book of Edward VI ( new version in English+latin)= compromise between protestant and catholic
    + act of uniformity =people must attend church services one a week and use the book of common prayer
  • 1569

    northern rising

    northern rising
    The Earls of Northumberland and Westmorland rebel in an attempt to replace Elizabeth I with Mary, marry Mary to the Duke of Norfolk and restore Catholicism but they are quickly defeated.
  • 1570

    Queen excommunicated

    Queen excommunicated
    Elizabeth I is excommunicated by the pope for heresy
  • Babington plot

    Babington plot
    the 3rd key plot against the life of Elizabeth , Anthony Babington sends a letter to Mary asking for her approval and advice to dispatch the usurping competitor ( Elizabeth)
  • Execution of Mary, Queen of Scots

    Execution of Mary, Queen of Scots
    Mary, Queen of Scots, is executed in Fotheringhay Castle at the age of 44 after being implicated in the Babington Plot.
    And she was wearing a bright red dress, the colour of Catholic martyrs.
  • the defeat of Spanish Armada

    the defeat of Spanish Armada
    Philip II supported many plots against Elizabeth
    At the same time, Elizabeth supported the Dutch Revolt against Spain so the Spain tried to invade the England and they failed
  • Period: to

    James I's reign

    • Was king of Scotland before, was the son of queen Mary = reunificated under the same government for the first time. -James has a radical vision of monarchy “ divine rights of god “
  • Conference of Hampton Court

    Conference of Hampton Court
    James gets the puritans too have a face-off with the bishops ( leading the Protestant church )= find a compromise
  • The Gunpowder plot

    The Gunpowder plot
    was a failed assassination attempt against King James I by a group of provincial English Catholics led by Robert Catesby who sought to restore the Catholic monarchy to England after decades of persecution against Catholics.
  • The Addled Parliament ( 2nd)

    The Addled Parliament  ( 2nd)
    Lasting only two months and two days, it saw no bills pass and was not even regarded as a Parliament by its contemporaries= not pass any rules
  • The Holy Bible

    The Holy Bible
    James created a new bible because Puritans thought the Bishop Bible's translation ( 1568) bad.
    It is the base of English poetry
  • first folio edition of William Shakespeare's plays

    first folio edition of William Shakespeare's plays
    kind of important to add to the the timeline because during the Elizabethan period ( sort of gold age)the poetry, painting, music were very present and liked
  • Period: to

    Charles I's reign

    • he married the Bourbon princess Henrietta Maria of France.(catholic) -Charles and Henrietta-Maria were the main art patrons of the realm and their reign coincided to the coming of age of a new generation of artists.
  • petition of Rights

    petition of Rights
    deals with the individual rights, against the king’s provocative. All taxation have to be approved by the Parliament
  • Period: to

    The Personal Rule

    dissolution of the Parliament
    • “the eleven years tyranny“
  • Laudianism movement

    Laudianism movement
    created by William Laud ( appointed as Archbishop of Canterbury) who had controversial ideas and religious reforms: replacing wooden communion tables by stone altars ( feature of Catholic Churches ) and parishioners were forced to kneel to receive the sacrament= To protestants Laud’s ideas were a return to Catholicism.
  • The Short Parliament

    The Short Parliament
    -tensions escalate because William Laud and Charles I try to enforce religious uniformity in Scotland = basically control Scottish church
    -Bishop’s war => Charles summons a Parliament to ask for money
  • Period: to

    The Long Parliament

    = Charles needed another Parliament because of the Bishop’s War --> this parliament ruled after C1’s death
  • The Grand Remonstrance

    The Grand Remonstrance
    was a list of grievances presented to King Charles I of England by the English radical Parliament

    • bigger version of the Petition of Right
  • Period: to

    1st Civil War

    the supporters of King Charles I against the supporters of the Long Parliament
    Cause: Charles’s personal mistakes between 1640 and 1642, constitutional issues but above all, religion
  • Charles I declares the war

    Charles I declares the war
    to his own people at Nottingham
  • The Battle of Edgehill

    The Battle of Edgehill
    Oliver Cromwell first took command of Roundhead army
  • Solemn League Covenant

    Solemn League Covenant
    an agreement between the Scottish Covenanters and the leaders of the English Parliamentarians
  • A Directory for The Public Worship of God, Throughout the Three Kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland

    A Directory for The Public Worship of God, Throughout the Three Kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland
    Together with an Ordinance of Parliament for the taking away of the Book of Common-Prayer:
    And For establishing and observing this present Directory throughout the Kingdom of England, and Dominion of Wales
  • Marstoon Moor

    Marstoon Moor
    Parliamentary army wins at Marston
  • Battle of Naseby

    Battle of Naseby
    The Parliamentarian New Model Army, commanded by Sir Thomas Fairfax and Oliver Cromwell, destroyed the main Royalist army under Charles I and Prince Rupert.
    =the “new model army“ won
  • Putney debates

    Putney debates
    a series of discussions over the political settlement that should follow Parliament's victory over Charles I in the First English Civil War
  • Agreement of the people

    Agreement of the people
    was a series of manifestos, published between 1647 and 1649, for constitutional changes to the English state
  • Period: to

    2nd Civil War

    the supporters of King Charles I against the supporters of the Long Parliament
    a revolve of the Provinces against centralization and military rule
  • Battle of Preston

    Battle of Preston
    Cromwell's army defeated the Royalists at Preston, on August 17-19, 1648
  • Period: to

    The Commonwealth

    England entered a new political field: became a Republic.
    Monarchy was abolished and the House of Lords and the Anglican Church were suppressed.
    + governed by the Rump Parliament
  • The execution of Charles I

    The execution of Charles I
    The execution was the culmination of political + military conflicts between the royalists and the parliamentarians in England during the English Civil War, leading to the capture and trial of Charles I,
  • Period: to

    The 3rd Civil War

    the supporters of King Charles II against the supporters of the supporters of the Rump Parliament
  • Battle of Dunbar

    Battle of Dunbar
    the first major battle of the 1650 invasion of Scotland.
    English troops, commanded by Oliver Cromwell, defeated the Scottish army.
  • Period: to

    Oliver Cromwell's “ reign“ = The Protectorate

    head of state, lord protector during the commonwealth
  • The Restoration

    The Restoration
    When the House of Stuart monarchy was restored under the reign of Charles II:
    The sudden and unexpected deliverance from political chaos was interpreted as a restoration of the natural and divine order
  • Period: to

    Charles II's reign

    come to the throne, was nicknamed “ Merrie Monarch >Charles opposed parliamentary attempts at a wide punishment of the enemies of monarchy
  • Declaration of Breda

    Declaration of Breda
    <> was a proclamation by Charles II of England in which he promised a general pardon for crimes committed during war
    = the Declaration promised that, that religious toleration would be respected
  • Indemnity and Oblivion Act

    Indemnity and Oblivion Act
    "An Act of Free and General Pardon, Indemnity, and Oblivion"
    <> was a general pardon for everyone who had committed crimes during the English Civil War
    ->only men who had voted regicide would be prosecuted.
  • Corporation Act

    Corporation Act
    imposed that all corporation members would have to swear the Act Of Supremacy
  • The Royal Declaration of Indulgence

    The Royal Declaration of Indulgence
    was Charles II of England's attempt to extend religious liberty to Protestant nonconformists and Roman Catholics, by suspending the execution of the Penal Laws that punished recusants from the Church of England.
  • Act of Uniformity

    Act of Uniformity
    = restored the old Church.
    As a result, about one in five of the clergy were ejected by the end of 1662, and many began to organize themselves outside the church
  • 1673 Act

    1673 Act
    all officers had to take the Oath of Supremacy (= swear allegiance to the monarch as Supreme Governor of the Church of England ) as well as subscribe to a declaration against transubstantiation.
  • 1678 Act

    1678 Act
    law was extended to all peers and members of the House of Commons. They had to subscribe to a declaration against transubstantiation, invocation of saints, sacrifice of mass = all 3 Catholic articles of faith.
  • Period: to

    The Exclusion Crisis

    Part of Parliament tried to impose parliamentary ban on the accession of James.
    Earl of Shaftesbury introduced a bill in the House of Commons with the intention of excluding James from the succession.
  • Period: to

    James II's reign

    • The parliament that had been summoned in 1685 on Charle’s death was mostly Tory and favorable tot he new king= hence its name of “ Loyal Parliament “.
    • his agressive attitude towards the Anglican Church was tolerated only because it was clear tool that at 52
  • The Declaration of Indulgence

    The Declaration of Indulgence
    -Also known as the Declaration for Liberty of Conscience,
    - It suspends the discriminatory penal laws and revokes the required Protestant oaths in civil and military offices.
  • The Glorious Revolution

    The Glorious Revolution
    refers to the events when King James II of England was deposed and succeeded by one of his daughters and her husband.
  • The Toleration Act

    The Toleration Act
    "to unite their Majesties Protestant subjects in interest and affection".
    It allowed most dissenters – though not all – the freedom to worship publicly.
  • The Bill of Rights

    The Bill of Rights
    Parliament passed “ the Bill of rights under the formal title of an Act Declaring the Rights and Liberties of the Subjects and Settling the Succession of the Crown“. It condemned James II’s supposedly illegal acts but went further by pretending that the deposed king had in effect abdicated, leaving a deserted realm no alternative but to seek the protection of the House of Orange.
  • Treaty of Limerick

    Treaty of Limerick
    put an end to the Irish rebellion
  • The Act of the Settlement

    The Act of the Settlement
    reinforcing the Bill of Rights agreed by William and Mary in 1689. The main aim of this legislation was to ensure a Protestant succession to the English throne
  • Period: to

    The War of Spanish Succession

    main event of Anne’s reign occurred away from England
    =opposed France and Spain .
  • Period: to

    Queen Anne's reign

    Even before she became Queen, Anne and the English knew that after her the crown would go to the Electress of Hanover or her own heirs.
    = Anne’s reign was one of a limited withdrawal o the sovereign from the affairs of the kingdom. -> reign marked by a fierce competition between Tories and Wigs
  • The Act of Union

    The Act of Union
    The Scottish Parliament and the English Parliament united to form the Parliament of Great Britain
  • The Treaty of Utrecht

    The Treaty of Utrecht
    is a peace agreement signed between England and France to end a war that began in Europe in 1701.