History timeline (1450-1800)

  • 1450

    The Caravel was developed

    The Caravel was developed
    In the fifteenth century, many technological advances were developed; including the caravel. The caravel was developed by the Portuguese; it is a smaller and faster ship that allows for going fast and safely at the same time. The caravel was the best ship at the time because of its durability and speed. The caravel led to more explorations to further places.
  • 1454

    Johannes Gutenberg put the Printing Press to Work

    Johannes Gutenberg put the Printing Press to Work
    The Printing Press was an important technological device because it helped get out information quicker. Martin Luther's 95 theses exploded because all of the people could see it because of this press. Overall, the Printing Press was a revolutionary item that allowed for quickness and mass production.
  • Period: Nov 1, 1478 to

    When the Spanish Inquisition took place

    The Spanish Inquisition was a group of people that tortured out people who were Protestants in Spain. They tried to combat heresy in Spain, but it ended up making the power in Spain stronger.
  • Period: Aug 22, 1485 to

    The Tudors ruled England

    The Tudors' reign started with Henry VIII. He turned England into an Anglican country because of the annulment with his wife. He put Thomas Cranmer as the main pope of the church. He had three important children: Edward VI, Mary I, and Elizabeth I. After his death, Edward VI became the king. Thomas Cranmer and Edward created the Book of Common Prayer. Mary I became the queen after he died in 1553. Mary was a Catholic and convinced all of the priests to become Catholic.(continued on next slide)
  • Period: Aug 22, 1485 to

    The Tudors ruled England (continued)

    She tortured them until they switched. She had a terrible relationship with Thomas Cranmer and burned him to death at the cross. Elizabeth I came into power after Mary's treacherous reign. Elizabeth was Anglican, but couldn't turn all of England Anglican again or there would be a lot of conflicts. She allowed religious tolerance, which put Anglicanism as the main religion, and Catholicism could be practiced. Elizabeth did not have any kids, so the Tudors' reign ended after her.
  • Feb 3, 1488

    Bartolomeu Dias rounded the Cape of Good Hope

    Bartolomeu Dias rounded the Cape of Good Hope
    In 1488, Dias rounded the tip of South Africa to try to find the source of Eastern trade goods. This was an important discovery by Portugal because it meant it opened a sea route from Europe to Asia. This exploration also led to increased trade with India and Asia.
  • Oct 12, 1492

    Christopher Columbus finds the America's

    In 1492, Columbus found America for Spain. This was a huge discovery because it allowed European countries to colonize and utilize new lands. Then, trade was established between the Americas and Europe.
  • Jun 7, 1494

    The Treaty of Tordesillas was signed

    The Treaty of Tordesillas was signed
    The Treaty of Tordesillas was an imaginary line on the map that separated what land was Spain's and what was Portugal's. The pope drew the line so that Spain had all the land to the West and Portugal took the land to the East. This line was created so that Spain and Portugal would not argue over whose land was whose and all disputes could be settled.
  • Apr 22, 1500

    Pedro Cabral Discovered Brazil

    Pedro Cabral Discovered Brazil
    Pedro Cabral was on the way towards India but ended up going too far Southwest before turning around Africa. He accidentally discovered Brazil and claimed this land for Portugal. After this discovery, many merchants were attracted to the land because of the red dye and brazilwood.
  • Oct 13, 1517

    Martin Luther publishes the 95-theses

    Martin Luther publishes the 95-theses
    Martin Luther believed that actions wouldn't help people get into heaven, only faith would; he also believed that the church was being unfair to the people. He felt so strongly about this that he published the 95-theses. The 95-theses was a list of 95 corrupt problems with the church. This writing was responsible for kicking off the Protestant Reformation and Luther's ex-communication.
  • Jul 1, 1519

    The Spanish took over the Aztecs

    The Spanish went to the New World during the Age of Exploration where they discovered the Aztecs. The Aztecs had a lot of gold in their village and Spain wanted it along with their land. In July and August, they were trying to conquer the Aztecs to take over their wealth and land.
  • Apr 17, 1521

    The Diet of Worms

    The Diet of Worms
    The Diet of Worms was when Martin Luther had to meet Charles V and the political leaders to talk about Luther's actions. They tried to convince Luther to take back what he said about the church, but he wouldn't. They banned Luther's writings and declared him an enemy of the state, or a heretic.
  • Sep 6, 1522

    Ferdinand Magellan's Crew Circumnavigated the World

    Ferdinand Magellan's Crew Circumnavigated the World
    Ferdinand Magellan was from Portugal, but then ran away with Portugal's maps to Spain and started sailing for them. He wanted to prove that all of the Earth was West of the Line of Demarcation. This then would allow Spain to "own" the whole world. Magellan got killed on this journey, but his crew ended up finishing the voyage. Not much changed after this exploration because the Pope just drew another line on the opposite side of the world that separated Spain and Portugal.
  • Nov 16, 1532

    The Spanish took over the Incas

    Francis Pizarro, a Spanish Explorer, sprang a trap on the Inca Emperor, Atahualpa. Pizarro led them into a trap of the Incas coming to have a feast with the Spanish, but then Spain started firing shots at them. The rest of the Incas' died from the smallpox disease that Spain had given them.
  • May 23, 1533

    Henry the Eight got annulled with Catherine

    Henry the Eight got annulled with Catherine
    Henry VIII had a daughter with Catherine, but he wanted a son so that his son could take over the throne. He was not happy that he had a daughter so Henry decided to get annulled with Catherine. The Pope wouldn't grant him an annulment so Henry created his own church and cut out the Pope. Then, Henry puts Thomas Cranmer as the main Pope; who grants Henry his annulment. England became an Anglican country. Finally, Henry had a son, Edward, who took over the throne.
  • 1534

    The Jesuits started spreading Catholicism

    Ignatius of Loyola founded the Society of Jesus, otherwise known as the Jesuits. All of the Jesuits took a vow of absolute obedience to the Pope. Jesuits used education to express their message. They were very successful in restoring Catholicism to eastern Europe, parts of Germany, and other parts of the world.
  • Jun 9, 1534

    Jacques Cartier looked for Asia through a NW passage

    Jacques Cartier was the most famous French explorer. He looked for Asia through a northwest passage so that France could gain wealth and power. He ended up finding Quebec, Canada, and colonized it for France.
  • Period: Dec 13, 1545 to Dec 4, 1563

    The Council of Trent met

    The Council of Trent was started by Pope Paul III. It was made up of the most influential Catholic leaders. They went through all of the complaints that all the people had. They decided that some of the practices were corrupt. One of these was indulgences; indulgences are a way for the church to make money by "getting rid" of one's sins.
  • Jan 15, 1549

    The Book of Common Prayer was Created

    The Book of Common Prayer was Created
    Thomas Cranmer and Edward VI created the Book of Common Prayer in 1549. This is the service book for all of the Anglican churches. It forms how the Anglicans worship and what they believe in. The book of Common Prayer is still known as the official prayer book in England.
  • Sep 25, 1555

    The Peace of Augsburg

    The Peace of Augsburg ended the religious struggles between Lutherans and Catholics. It made Christianity permanent within the Holy Roman Empire, but allowed rulers to choose either Lutheranism or Catholicism as the official religion of their state.
  • Jan 16, 1556

    Charles V abdicated the throne

    In 1556, Charles V abdicated the throne. He stepped down because he had to deal with too many things. First of all, he ruled the Holy Roman Empire, Spain, Netherlands, and parts of Italy and America. He had to deal with the wars in the New World, Rebellions from the Dutch, Protestant activity in the Holy Roman Empire, and the Hapsburg Jaw was affecting him. His land was also next to the Ottomans and he was afraid they would attack. After he abdicated, Phillip II took over the throne.
  • Mar 21, 1556

    Mary Tudor kills Thomas Cranmer

    Mary Tudor kills Thomas Cranmer
    Mary Tudor changed England back into a Catholic country. She forced all of the Anglican priests to leave the country. Later she made them turn to Catholicism or they were to be executed. She despised Thomas Cranmer because he was the person that allowed her mom and dad's marriage to be annulled. Because of this hatred, she arrested him and made him watch all of the executions. She tortured him and then sentenced him to death. She ended up burning him at the stake.
  • Feb 1, 1559

    Elizabethan Compromise declared

    After Mary Tudor's reign, most people are Catholic. Elizabeth is Anglican, but she can't make everyone be Anglican or that would be chaos. She turned England into an Anglican nation that tolerates Catholicism. No Catholic services were allowed in church; only private services were allowed. People were allowed to convert to Anglicanism. The only problem with this compromise was that only one religion could be correct, so it kind of allowed heresy.
  • Aug 24, 1572

    St. Bartholomew's Day massacre

    St. Bartholomew's Day massacre
    St. Bartholomew's Day massacre was a massacre when the Huguenots got targeted and killed. It started when someone tried to murder Admiral Gaspard de Coligny. Then, the King ordered a group of Huguenot leaders to be killed. About 15,000 Huguenots were killed during this massacre.
  • The Spanish Armada set sail for England

    The Spanish Armada set sail for England
    After having their fleet destroyed by Francis Drake in 1587, the Armada set sail for the Netherlands in 1588. When they arrived in the Netherlands their army wasn't ready for them. One night, England stuffed eight boats with tar, lit a match, and sent the fireboats toward the Spanish Armada. Spain tried to cut their anchors to get away, but the wind was too strong and Spain hit two storms on the way home. Only about 1/8 of the Armada made it back to Spain.
  • The Edict of Nantes was signed

    The Edict of Nantes was signed
    After St. Bartholomew's Day massacre all of the Huguenots were furious. King Henry IV, having previously been a Huguenot, signed the Edict of Nantes. The Edict of Nantes was one of the first steps towards centralization. It was an agreement that allowed Huguenots to worship in their house, not be disturbed, and finally live in peace. Signing this document would not allow for something such as St. Bartholomew's Day massacre to happen again.
  • The Dutch East India Company was Established

    The Dutch East India Company was one of the most profitable companies. It was the first time average people could invest in a company and was one of the first companies with shareholders. The money that people invested in was then used to fund expeditions, which led to new discoveries. People would invest in trips that they believed they could make a profit from. The Dutch East India Company led to many ideas and is very similar to the stock market that we have today.
  • Period: to

    The Stuarts ruled England

    Starting with James I and ending with James II, the Stuarts reigned England for about 90 years. James I believed in the Divine Right of Kings. He had conflicts and problems with Parliament that then led to his successor, Charles I. Charles I despised Parliament and never called on them because he also believed in the Divine Right of Kings. Charles eventually had to call on Parliament because he needed money. (continued on next slide)
  • Period: to

    The Stuarts ruled England (continued)

    Parliament issued the Petition of right, which stated that there would be no prerogative courts and that only Parliament could levy taxes. He accepted this agreement, but then he ignored it. In 1640, when he needed money again, he called on Parliament. This time they wrote the Root and Branch agreement. This stated the same things as it did in the Petition of Right, plus that Parliament had to meet every three years, and they dissolved the meetings. (continued on next sheet.)
  • Period: to

    the Stuarts ruled England (continued...AGAIN)

    These arguments led to the English Civil War, which was between the supporters of the King and Parliament's supporters. Parliament ended up winning and England went into the period of Commonwealth. After this break, Charles II came into power. His successor was James II. James was a Catholic; and because he was the next Catholic monarch after Bloody Mary, nobody was fond of him. The Glorious revolution began, which was a revolt against James. He ended up abdicating and not one person died.
  • Period: to

    The Thirty-Years War

  • The Petition of Right was signed

    The Petition of Right was a document that stated there were no prerogative courts and only Parliament could levy taxes. Charles I accepts this, but he ignores the petition after he signs it.
  • The Root and Branch agreement was signed

    Charles needed money again so he called Parliament. They issued the Root and Branch agreement, which was a document that stated all of the conditions listed in the Petition of Right, Parliament has to meet every three years, and that they vote to dissolve from meetings. The King gets mad at Parliament so he invades them. This leads to a civil war between Parliament and the King.
  • The English Civil War began

    After the King invaded Parliament, the English civil war began. It was between the Cavaliers and Roundheads. The Cavaliers were supporters of the king and the Roundheads were the supporters of Parliament. The Roundheads ended up winning and then the country went into a period of Commonwealth that lasted for 11 years.
  • Louis XIV inherited the throne

    Louis XIV inherited the throne
    In 1643, Louis XIV inherited the throne. But once he was 22, he truly gained power. He wanted to run everything; as he stated, "1 king, 1 law, 1 religion". He made a hunting lodge his palace, gave nobles incentives to stay at his palace so he could gain more power, and expelled 200,000 nobles. His reign led to a decline in wealth and along the way he made a lot of enemies.
  • Period: to

    The Commonwealth of England

    After the English Civil War between the Roundheads and Cavaliers, England went into a Commonwealth period. Because the Roundheads, or Parliament's supporters, won the monarchy got executed. During Commonwealth, the state religion turned to Calvinism, the monarchy became a Republic, and it got rid of the House of Lords. It was held for eleven years and was led by Oliver Cromwell.
  • The Glorious Revolution

    Because James II was a Catholic, England did not want him in power. England's Parliament called on the Dutch to come to invade England. Parliament was Calvinist and so was the Dutch, so if they then ruled, it would be the religion Parliament favored. England knew that the army wouldn't fight alongside a Catholic King, so there wouldn't be much fighting to do. This ended up happening and so James II abdicated the throne. It is referred to as the Glorious Revolution because no one died in it.