Historic timiline

From The Schism to The American Revolution - A Timeline from 1534 to 1801:

  • 1534

    Henry VIII's Excommunication:

    Henry VIII's Excommunication:
    Henry VIII annuled his marriage with Catherine of Aragon and married Ann Boleyn in 1533.
    Thus leading to the Act of Succession which made Ann Boleyn a legitimate Queen of England in 1534.
    In the same year, the Pope declared that this marriage was fictitious
    and excommunicated Henry VIII
  • Period: 1534 to 1558

    The Genesis of the Church of England:

    From Henry VIII Schism and Edward VI the Young King to Mary I's Catholic Restoration.
  • Aug 31, 1534

    Henry VIII's Act of Supremacy:

    Henry VIII's Act of Supremacy:
    It was in 1534 that the Church of England was created, this is when the Schism happened.
    The Act of Supremacy made Henry VIII “Supreme Head of the Church of England”.
  • 1536

    The Pilgrimage of Grace:

    The Pilgrimage of Grace:
    In 1536, Henry VIII dissolved most of the smaller monsteries which to rebellions, they lasted around 6 months from 1536 to 1537 and were called: "The Pilgrimage of Grace".
  • 1547

    Edward VI - The Young King:

    Edward VI - The Young King:
    In 1547, Henry VIII dies and his son Edward VI becomes the King of England.
    However, he was only 9 when this happened so Edward Seymour, his elderest uncle, becomes Lord Protector.
    Most of the measures took during his reign shifted England towards Protestantism.
  • 1553

    Mary I's Catholic Restoration:

    Mary I's Catholic Restoration:
    In 1553, Edward VI dies of tuberculosis at the a age of 15, England is virtually bankrupt and Mary I inherits this debt by succeding Edward VI.
    She would restore Catholicism in only 18 months but her actions were harsh and cost the life of over 200 protestants, her popularity quickly declined and she was called "Bloody Mary".
  • 1558

    Mary I's Death and the Rise of Elizabeth I:

    Mary I's Death and the Rise of Elizabeth I:
    Many people rejoiced over the death of Mary I, and Elizabeth I inherits the throne.
    She needed to prove herself as a queen as well as calming down tensions between Catholics and Protestants.
  • Period: 1558 to

    The Elizabethan Golden Age

    While the Elizabethan Golden Age had its few setbacks such as leading both Catholics and Protestants dissatisfied and a rise in poverty; Most historians think it is a Golden Age of England because of the fact that she managed to secure the position of England as a powerful country as well as successfully managing to impose Protestantism.
  • 1559

    Elizabeth I's Act of Supremacy:

    Elizabeth I's Act of Supremacy:
    It is in 1559 that Elizabeth I would create the Second Act of Supremacy, thus following in Henry VIII's footsteps.
    She would also make the Act of Uniformity, in an attempt to unite Catholics and Protestants.
  • 1570

    The Persecution of Catholics:

    The Persecution of Catholics:
    In 1569, there was the Northern Rebellion led by Mary, Queen of Scots and Catholics.
    In 1570, Elizabeth I got excommunicated by the Pope.
    These two events led to the start of the Persecution of Catholics by Elizabeth I and the Protestant Authorities.
  • 1581

    The 1581 Act:

    The 1581 Act:
    The Act to retain the Queen’s Majesty’s Subjects in their due Obedience or 1581 Act is the contiuation of Persecution of Catholics.
    Being Catholic was now illegal and the sentence would be the Death Penalty.
  • The Execution of Mary, Queen of Scots:

    The Execution of Mary, Queen of Scots:
    It was in 1587 that Mary, Queen of Scots was executed for treason.
    The reason for this execution is that Elizabeth I found out that Mary, Queen of Scots was behind the Babington Plot of 1586.
  • The Defeat of The Spanish Armada:

    The Defeat of The Spanish Armada:
    Philip II of Spain wanted to invade England because Elizabeth I supported the Dutch Protestant Revolt against Spain.
    The war between England and Spain only lasted 2 months from July to September due to a new type of fleet that Elizabeth I made.
    This victory against Spain made Elizabeth I seem like a powerful force that people needed to be cautious of.
  • The End of The Elizabethan Golden Age:

    The End of The Elizabethan Golden Age:
    It was in 1603 that Elizabeth I died, thus making James VI of Scotland the heir to the throne as James I of England.
  • Period: to

    The Events leading to the Civil War:

    After the death of Elizabeth I, a series of events would lead to a Civil War in 1642.
    These events were caused by religious and economical problems that would continue to worsen over the years until the Civil War.
  • The Gunpowder Plot:

    The Gunpowder Plot:
    James I's reign was calm in term of changes compared to his predecessors, this heavely displeased some Catholics who had faith in him because he was Mary, Queen of Scots' son.
  • The Great Contract:

    The Great Contract:
    James I would often spend a lot of money, so to prevent further economic damage, the Parliament tried to call a vote to pass the Great Contract which would give a fixed sum of money to the King so that he would not ask for money to the Parliament anymore.
    However the Great Contract did not pass because some members feared that the King would not call the Parliament anymore for important decisions.
    James I then dismissed the Parliament.
  • The Start of the Thirty Years' War:

    The Start of the Thirty Years' War:
    In 1621, James I asked for some money for a war against Spanish forces but the Parliament was unsure about the King's tactics about the war, this angered James I who dissolved the Parliament.
    In 1624, the Parliament finally agreed to finance the war against Spain.
  • James I's Death and Succession by Charles I:

    James I's Death and Succession by Charles I:
    Just after James I's death; Charles I successed to the throne and led the army during the war.
    He would soon start controversy with the English population by being Arminian (A minority of the Anglicans/Protestants.) and by marrying the French Princess Henrietta Maria who was an Absolutist and Catholic.
  • The Petition of Rights:

    The Petition of Rights:
    During the years up to 1628, King Charles I illegally added some taxes and sent people to prison without trial. Thus, the Parliament made the Petition of Rights; A document that stated that what the King has done was illegal and that he did not have unlimited power.
    Charles I reluctantly signed it but was furious and suspended the parliament seating.
  • The Three Resolutions and The Personal Rule:

    The Three Resolutions and The Personal Rule:
    The Parliament declared whoever that practices “Popery or Arminianism” was an enemy of the Kingdom, this was an act of open defiance as the King himself is Arminian.
    Charles I imprisoned some members of the Parliament and that there would be no more parliaments which led to what we call: The Personal Rule.
  • The Scottish Crisis:

    The Scottish Crisis:
    In 1637, Charles I introduced the "New Prayer Book" which infuriated the Scottish population.
    The next year, the Scots made a petition against Charles I's religious policy: The Scottish National Covenant.
  • The Treaty of Ripon:

    The Treaty of Ripon:
    In 1640, Charles I called the Parliament to raise money to fight the Scots, however Charles I dissolved quickly the Parliament because they would address their grievances to him.
    In October of the same year, Charles I would lose against the Scots and had to sign the Treaty of Riton which stated that he would pay the cost of the Scots' army.
    Charles I would then call the Parliament again, this time it would last around 20 years.
  • The Grand Remonstrance of 1641

    The Grand Remonstrance of 1641
    In 1641, A rebellion formed in Ireland and they massacred 4000 protestants settlers from England.
    That same year, The Parliament passed the Grand Remonstrance: A Document that stated that the Parliament would be able to choose the King's ministers; Control any army sent to Ireland and reform the Church.
  • Period: to

    The Civil War in England:

    On August 22, 1642: King Charles I declared war on the Parliament.
    From now on to 1649, England would suffer from a Civil War.
  • Conflict inside the Parliament:

    Conflict inside the Parliament:
    In 1646, the King surrendered to the Scots who delivered them to the Parliament.
    Since the war against the King was over, the Parliament stopped paying the army, however that led a mutiny in 1647.
    They seized Charles I but he managed to escape, he made an alliance with the Scots by promising to introduce Presbyterianism into England.
  • The Execution of Charles I:

    The Execution of Charles I:
    In 1648, King Charles I was captured and tried for treason.
    The following year, Charles I would be executed, Monarchy and the House of Lords would be abolished and England would become a republic.
  • Period: to

    The Interregnum:

    England was now a Republic (Commonwealth) and they would start experimenting with different kinds of dovernments, however; This would jeoperdize the stability of the regime.
  • End of the Commonwealth:

    End of the Commonwealth:
    It is in 1653 that the Commonwealth would stop and that the Protectorate would start under Cromwell.
    Under the Protectorate, people now needed money in order to vote.
  • The Death of Cromwell:

    The Death of Cromwell:
    In 1658, Cromwell would die and his son Richard would take his place but for only 6 months which led to a period of Anarchy until 1660 where Monarchy was restored with the Declaration of Breda.
  • Charles II and the Parliament:

    Charles II and the Parliament:
    Charles II became the King of England in 1660, he wound being not really well liked because of events that happened outside of his control.
  • Period: to

    The Restoration and Glorious Revolution:

    The new King under this restored Monarchy is Charles II,
  • The Exclusion Crisis:

    The Exclusion Crisis:
    The Parliament attempted to debar James II from the succession to the English throne, which led to Charles II dissolving the Parliament.
  • Charles II's Death and James II's Problems:

    Charles II's Death and James II's Problems:
    It is in 1685 that Charles II dies and that James II sits on the Throne, however James II's reign will be short lived.
  • The Glorious Revolution:

    The Glorious Revolution:
    James II had now a son, however; that heir was Catholic, which was a threat to Protestantism.
    Thus, the Parliament asked Charles II's son in law (William of Orange) to invade England and seize the crown.
    He managed to succeed without shedding much blood.
    And so, he became King William III of England.
  • The Bill of Rights:

    The Bill of Rights:
    The Bill of Rights is a Document that lists James II's misdeads and that fixes limitations on the King's power.
    It is a key political text that will set the base for the American Bill of Rights a century later.
  • The Act of Settlement:

    The Act of Settlement:
    King William III and his wife Mary II had no surviving children and all the other heirs to the throne were Catholics of the Stuart branch.
    It was in that situation that the Act of Settlement was made.
    The Act of Setllement prevented any Catholic Heir to access the Throne.
  • The end of William's III reign and start of Anne's:

    The end of William's III reign and start of Anne's:
    In 1702, William III died after 14 years of reign, he was followed by Anne.
  • The Act of Union:

    The Act of Union:
    1707 marks the year where England and Scotland get unionized together with the Act of Union.
  • The Start of the Georgian Era:

    The Start of the Georgian Era:
    In 1714, Anne died and George I was now on the Throne.
  • Period: to

    The Georgian Era:

    The Georgian Era starts when George I inherits the Throne in 1714 and ends in 1830 with the Death of George IV.
    Some believe that the Georgian Era ends in 1837 as the King after George IV had a Georgian Era-esque reign.
  • The Seven Years' War:

    The Seven Years' War:
    1756 marks the begging of the Seven Years' War.
    It is in 1763 that Britain won the war against France and Spain and gained what is now Florida and a part of Canada.
  • The American War of Independance:

    The American War of Independance:
    In 1775, the settlers on New England (America) declared war against Britain in order to claim their independance.
    The settlers won the war in 1783 and created the United States of America.
  • The Second Act of Union:

    The Second Act of Union:
    In 1801, The Second Act of Union was now effective.
    It was passed in 1800 and consists of the Union between Ireland and the Kingdom of Britain (Composed of England and Scotland).