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French Revolution Sherbrooke history Class

By Rawwwh
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    The French Revolution

    Over the long years of the revolution france went though many crisises and social upheavals.
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    Area of study 1

    The fall of the Monarchy.
  • Jacques Necker, Minister of Finance

    Jacques Necker the Director-General of Finances (1776-1781), later to become an important figure during the revolution, reports for the last time to the King on the financal situation of France. Necker inherited a dire situation and he did what he thought best, believing that new taxes would be a waste of time and that the current taxes would be sufficient. Necker juggled the accounts of the Kingdom, making it appear that France had a 10 million revenue.
  • Joly de Fleury

    -is the newly appointed Minister of Finance
  • July's Tax Annoucement

    King imposes a third additional tax on the Third Estate for the years 1783-1786
  • Treaty of Versailles

    France signs the Treaty of Versailles, ending the conflict with Britian over the American colonies. (The American Revolution)
  • Calonne, Minister of Finance

    Calonne is appointed to the position of Controller-General (Minister of Finance)
    In the period of 1783-1787 Calonne as Minister of Finance tried to reform the tax system but was unsuccessful with approaching the Assembly of Notables.
  • Diamond Necklace Affair Part 1

    The Queen Marie-Antoinette is involved in with the Diamond Necklace affair, where the queen was allegedly involved in a plot to defraud the crown jewellers of the cost, (in short it was made but not paid for). Cardinal de Rohan was in love with the queen and conviced she loved him as well, but another Jeanne de Saint-Rémy de Valois a con artist, had tricked de Rohan into thinking another woman was the queen.
  • Diamond Necklace Affair Part 2

    He decided to buy the diamond necklace for the queen, and claimed to have her authorisation to pay in installments.
    But the signature was a forgery and when he thought he gave the necklace to the queen it was actually secreted away to London, to be broken and sold in seperate peices. The king was furious, the queen was furious but relatively blameless, but the public thought that the queen was involved and enjoyed the notion that she used several of the guilty parties to her own ends.
  • Diamond Necklace Affiar Part 3

    These events tarnished the reputation of the Queen Marie-Antoinette, and the effect of the scandal hurt the publics belief in the royal family.
  • Finance

    Necker, no longer the minister of Finance has published his veiws on Frances need to have a financial reform but Necker was not the first minister to see the monachy's financial crisis. Turgot a previous Minister of Finance suggested to the king that France should not get involved with the American Revolution, he said 'The first shot, will drive the State to bankrupcy.' He was right, but too late, as it was at the end of his term.
  • Calonne

    Minister of Finance Calonne proposes financal reforms to the King, they are to create 'land taxes' paid by all Estates, the removal of tax farming, new loans and the riddance of old taxes. To pass these taxes Calonne tries the Assembly of Notables, made up from mainly noblemen and clergy, but is unsuccessful. The Assembly agrees with the theory but blocks the land tax until he is dismissed.
  • Assmebly of Notables

    The king convenes the Assembly of Notables to discuss fiscal (tax) reform. They close on the 25th of May, after Calonne's dismissal.
  • 8th April

    The king dismisses the finance minister Calonne, afer his failure to pass new taxes and appoints Brienne in his place.
  • The Parlements

    Brienne attempted to negotiate with the Assembly but failing that he moved on to the Parlements, by now the nation was aware of the financial problem. He stuggled with the parlements and the King was forced to install authoritarian measures that allowed Brienne the time he needed to negotiate with the parlement.
  • The Disaster of the Royal Session

    The negotiations were going well and Brienne had the majority in favour of his new laws that could have saved the French monarchy. But the King in an ill considered move ordered the parlement to register Brienne's laws, in shock they did, but after the King left they reversed them.
  • The Beginning of the Revolution, starting with the nobles

  • King Vs Parlement

    After the royal session the King returned authoritorian rule, the Parlement states that the King has a duty to submit new laws to the parlement and that only with the Estates-Generals agreement to new taxes can they be inplemented. The also call him a despot and King Louis claims they have gone beyond the scope of their power.
  • King Vs Parlements, beginning of the Noble Revolt

    King Louis decides to strip the parlements of all power, and give that power to plenary court made up of loyal nobles, he then ordered all parlemens to close.
  • Aristocratic Revolt

    The first phase to the revolutionis often referred to as the 'aristocratic' or noble revolt, refrencing thre fact that the first resistance came from the Assembly of Notables and the parlements. However even at this early stage other social groups began to resist the King. When the parlements were closed urban groups gathered in the parlements support, as the courts continued to defy the King the people continued to favour the jugdes.
  • August

    The King having no choice calls for the Estates-General to meet in May 1789. 16th Aug- The royal treasury suspends payment, France has slid into bankruptcy and people do not get paid. 24th Aug- Brienne resigns as Finance Minister and the more popular Necker is recalled.
  • The King reopens the parlements

    The king repoens the parlements and they demand theat the Estates-General be called and vote by order. (Meaning one vote for each Estate/class)
  • October to Decmeber

    The Assmebly of Notables meet to discuss the organisation of the Estates-General. 27th December- There is a concession, allowing the Third Estate to have double the amount of deputis in the Estates-General but is reletively meaningless as they are still voting by order (one vote per estate)
  • Formal Call for the Estates-General to meet.

  • February

    February- the publication of Abbe Sieyies' "What is the Third Estate?" Which defines the Third Estate as the nation and is wildly popular. Feb-May- The election of deputies to the Estates-General take place at Versailles, and the drafting of the Books of Grievances take place. The first and second estates had simple processes to draft the books but the Thrid Estate had to rely on the more educated bourgeois to write and represent them, and most of the grievances were tailored to the bourgeois
  • 5-6 October

    The October Days- King, royal family and Assembly move to Paris.
  • Crowds attack and destroy a factory

    The hungry crowds are spoiling for a fight and because of a misunderstanding they attack and destroy a Reveillon factory
  • May

    5th May- the opening of the Estates-General, tradition is mantained by the King and he forces the Third Estate to enter via the servant corridors. 6th May- There is controversy over whether they should vot by head or by order, the Third Estate demands by head. 20th-22nd- Clergy and noblility accept principle of equality in taxation.
  • June Part 1

    Some parish priests join the Third Estate. 17th June The second stage of the revolution is loosely referred to as te bourgeois revolt, referring to the fact that the deputies of the Third Estate stepped forward and claimed a new consitutional role for themselves. Note that liberal nobles and priests supported the Thrid Estate in it's declaration that it was virtually the nation and declares itself the national assembly.
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    Part 2

  • The Tennis Court Oath

    Having declared themselves as the national assembly the Third Estate have virtually alienated themselves from the king. When they go to meet after their declarations the assembly hall is locked. Taking that as an attack against them they meet in an indoor tennis court, the only place big enough to have them, and refuse to come out until a new constitution has been passed.
  • June Part 2

    The National Assembly defies the royal court to return to discussion by order. 25th- A deputation of nobles joins the Third Estate. 27th- The three Estates unit. 30th- The King orders troops and mercenaries into Paris.
  • 2nd to 10th

    20, 000 Troops in Paris, against popular protest the King refuses to withdraw, parisian crowd wants to fight and they release 10 soldiers that refused to fire on crowd from a provincial prison. Soon after the mob learns how strong they were against the Kings authority.
  • 11th to 13th

    Paris is ground zero, the King dismisses Necker in favour for an authoritorian by the name of Bretanill, people are not happy. The radical bourgeois stir up the people, convicing them to take up arms and attack the tax wall and customs houses. The Council of Electors declare themselves to be the provincional goverment and bourgeois set up ther national guard to protect their property.
  • The Capture

    The royal symbol of oppression the Bastille, thought to have a stockpile of weaponry. On the 14th 30, 000 looters raid the Les Invalides (a military hospital) and the army just lets them. The King has lost all Military power. The mob target the Bastille and are aided by 60 defectors of the French Guard, the commander of the Bastille surrenders but not after 98 deaths have occured.
  • 16 July

    King withdraws his troops and finance minnster Necker is recalled
  • Late July

    The peasant revolt- Gradual escalation of rumour and fear in country areas lead to rural rebellions. (the Great Fear)
  • Murders of rolay officals, Foulon and Berthier

  • 4-11 August

    August Decrees, The Assembly intially abolishs feudalism outright but later refines the reforms
  • Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen

  • September

    Assembly votes to give King suspensive veto and not to have a two house parliament.
  • Nationalisation of Church property

  • abolition of religious orders apart from teaching and medical services

  • Rationalistion of France into 83 administrative departments

  • Assembly demands that priests swear oath of loyalty to Civil Constitiution of Clergy

  • Creation of the municipal 'sections' of Paris

  • Abolition of Nobility and all other honorific distinctions

  • The Civil Constitution of the Clergy is decreed

  • Lafayette's Festival of Federation

  • August

    Reorganisation of judiciary; abolition of parlements.
  • 4-6 September

    Assembly assumes control of national treasury, abolishes law courts of old regime.
  • Checking of oath of clergy

  • Abolition of guilds and corporations

  • The Pope condemns the Civil Constitution of the Clergy

  • The crowd violently prevents the royal family from leaving Paris for Saint-Cloud

  • 20-21 June

    The Flight of Varennes of the royal family.
  • Royal family returned to Paris, but Assembly only suspends the king

  • KIng is reinstated

  • Petition, demonstration and massacre on the Champ de Mars

  • European nations forn a coalition against revolutionary France

  • Rebellion of slaves in French colony of Saint-Domingue

  • Declaration of Pillnitz

  • 13-14 September

    The king approves the constitution (1791) and swears loyalty to the nation. The first parliment, the National Constituent Assembly, is dissolved.
  • Meeting of the second parliament, the Legislative Assembly

  • Brissot first suggests revolutionary war

  • Assembly orders emigrated nobles to return or lose their property

  • Assembly decees Committees of Surveillance

  • Assembly renews order to refractory priests to take the oath of loyalty

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    Part Three