French Revolution Period G

  • Social Causes of the French Revolution Part 2

    Social Causes of the French Revolution Part 2
    Meanwhile, Enlightenment philosophers Voltaire, Rousseau, and Locke helped spread ideas of reform for this time in society. The ideas they brought to the table was a positive as it brought into view new models for France's new government. All social causes were building blocks for the French Revolution.
  • Social Causes of the French Revolution

    Social Causes of the French Revolution
    The three social factors of the French revolution were France's large population, the unbalance of France's societal structure, & the rising cost of bread. France's population increased by another 8 to 10 million leading to the disease and food shortages. The third estate of France's society was responsible for paying up to 60% in taxes leading to economic crisis.Bread, France's staple food rose by 88% causing bread riots. These causes led to harsh conditions and starvation for France's people.
  • General Meets

    General Meets
    It was called by King Louis XVI to help him solve the financial crisis of France. He summoned nobles, church officials, and common people. But when everyone came together, everyone fought over who had power. In the end of the Estates General many member formed themselves into a National Assembly which triggered the start of the French Revolution.
  • General meets part 3

    General meets part 3
    their own hand, and in doing so they began revolting against the king and ended up storming and destroying the Bastille.
  • General meets part 2

    General meets part 2
    A negative consequence of the estates general was that it helped ignite the start of the French Revolution which would end up be costly for everyone who would partake in it. A positive effect of the estates general was that the people formed a National Assembly which became powerful and the king created a constitution for all people to abide by. It was negative that came from the Estates General was that people were getting riled up from the National Assembly that they decided to take matters in
  • Tennis Court Oath

    Tennis Court Oath
    France was facing a financial crisis and therefore called together the Estates General to discuss various reforms. Hwne the members of the Third Estate arrived, they discovered, much to their dismay that the doors to their assigned meeting hall were locked. They knew that the other estates were behind it. Refusing to give up, they simply relocated to a nearby tennis court to host their meeting. They found a solution to the unequal balnce of power and this became known as the Tennis Court Oath.
  • Storming of the Bastille

    Storming of the Bastille
    The Storming of the Bastille took place in the summer of 1789. It lasted from July 11th to the end of 1789. The bastille was a French fortress that was used as a prison by French Kings. The bastille fell when food was running low in France and the peasants started to riot throughout the city. Other causes included overtaxing and overbearing on the citizens. The citizens also attacked the fortress because it was a place of royal authority and they wanted to weaken the government. On July 14th 17
  • Storming the Bastille Part 2

    Storming the Bastille Part 2
    On July 14th 1789 peasants stormed the Hotel des Invalides and took all of their weapons and headed for the bastille. The peasants resisted for 4 hours until the soldiers surrendered for the sake of their lives and gave up the fortress. The peasants then destroyed the bastille. A negative consequence that came from the storming of the bastille was that Louis was unable to reverse the revolutionary movement and he ended up being beheaded.
  • Storming the Bastille Part 3

    Storming the Bastille Part 3
    A positive effect from the storming of the bastille was that Louis took away the military occupation of Paris and the people.
  • Great Fear

    Great Fear
    The fall of Bastille on July 14, 1789 in the French Revolution led to a major series of revolts from peasant families and other citizens against wealthy nobles and aristocrats called the Great Fear or Grande Puer. This period of panic and riots was caused by the previous economic and political difficulties that seemed to only negatively affect the lower class. As peasants and even some well-off people grew increasingly angered by the power o the nobles and aristocrats, large groups had gathered
  • August Decrees

    August Decrees
    The August Decrees were a set of laws that were established during the French Revolution to restore peasant versus noble relationships. Massive riots and revolts that took place, called the Grande Puer or the Great Fear. To help abolish these revolts and restore peace to France, on the night of the 4th August, the Assembly decided to reform the current social pattern of the country in order to pacify the enraged peasants. They concocted the August Decrees to abolish the entire feudal system. Ba
  • Declaration of the Rights of Man

    Declaration of the Rights of Man
    The Declaration of the Rights of Man was a document that stated how all men are born free and equal. It was one of the most valuable writings on human liberty in history. What it mainly does is it defines the rights of the individual. The Declaration was written in 1789 and was written by the National Assembly, but it was mostly created by some of the great thinkers of The French Enlightenment, such as Rousseau and Montesquieu.
  • Declaration of the Rights of Man Part 2

    Declaration of the Rights of Man Part 2
    It specifically says that “men are born free and remain free and equal in rights.” And that the rights that men have are “liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression.” One negative is that the laws did not apply to everyone. Women, however, were not included within the limits of this document. One positive of the document is that it eventually became the French’s preamble and it has changed the rights of every individual.
  • Women's March to Versailles Part 1

    Women's March to Versailles Part 1
    When King Louis XVI rejected the idea of abolishing feudalism and the Declaration of the Rights of Man, mobs of angry women began to gather at the Parisian markets on October 5, 1789. The women marched to Hotel de Ville, ordering that officials look to their objections. Women also began to protest against the bad economy, especially the rise in bread prices and the shortage of bread. They also demanded that the government end the efforts to block the National Assembly, which is the assembly of t
  • Women's March to Versailles Part 3

    the National Assembly.
  • Women's March to Versailles Part 2

    Women's March to Versailles Part 2
    the people, and for the King Louis XVI and his family to relocate to Paris. However, the women received unacceptable responses from the officials.They began to march to Versailles to take matters directly to the king. Twenty thousand of the National Guards supported them. The women stormed into the palace and killed many of the palace guards. Eventually, the women got their way and the royal family relocated to Tuileries Palace in Paris on October 6, 1789. Also, King Louis XVI finally legalized
  • Women's March to Versailles

    The women were fishmongers - therefore they were used to heavy lifting and could take a cannon to Versailles, 10 miles outside of Paris.
  • The Civil Constitution of the Clergy

    The Civil Constitution of the Clergy
    The Civil Constitution of the Clergy was a law that passed in France in 1790, while the revolution was occurring. This law was an effort to reconstruct the authority and land of the Roman Catholic Church in the entire nation of France. At that time, the French government needed money and land so the National Assembly took over much of the Church's land. This was actually a positive because the French government was able to gain more wealth and land for the nation and help the economy.
  • The Civil Constitution of the Clergy Part Two

    The Civil Constitution of the Clergy Part Two
    A huge negative of the Civil Constitution of the Clergy was that the National Assembly would now be able to assign clergy to the Church which made the Church technically run by the government. This caused a split within the Church in France and as a result, a large number of strongly religious Catholics began to dislike and turn against the revolution.
  • Escape to Varennes

    Escape to Varennes
    On June 21, 1791, Louis XVI and his wife, Marie Antoinette, attempted to flee Paris because their fate as monarchs were threatened by the Revolution. This plan completely failed, because the word spread that they was trying to escape. They were captured just outside of Germany, in Varennes -- thus the name. Unfortunately Louis’ attempt to flee the country increased the power of the radical leaders in the government, though some might argue this was a positive because their inadequacy as monarchs
  • The three interest groups for the Legislative Assembly

    The three interest groups for the Legislative Assembly
    The Legislative body formed in September of 1791 and was divided into teams called Radicals, Moderates, and Conservatives. Conservatives were to the right and desired absolute monarchy. Radicals were on the left, argued the king, and supported a republic. Moderates sat in between, wanted a constitutional monarchy, and fought for peace. The groups were good because they expressed different ideas and didn’t force anyone to make a decision but it was also bad because it became very segregated.
  • Constitution of 1791 part Two

    Constitution of 1791 part Two
    The Assembly was split in two, one was the Feuillants and the other was the Montagnards. The Feuillants were constitutional monarchists and the belief that the king wanted to convert back to absolutism were Montagnards. The king and Assembly went on to have a war. King Louis XVI wanted Austria and Prussia to win so that he could establish what he wanted and the Assembly wanted to reunite the country under the new constitution.
  • Constitution of 1791 Part One

    Constitution of 1791 Part One
    The first legislature was the Assembly and French history's first time that the king was not the only person who could rule the nation's budget, and accept treaties. Within the Assembly, King Louis XIV and the majority of representatives always clashed in ideas. The representatives did not trust Louis's intentions and to Louis, the constitution was a violation of his authority.
  • Constitution of 1791 Part Three

    Constitution of 1791 Part Three
    June 1792, the tension between the Assembly and Louis was high; soon the Assembly could not do anything and could not carry out government issues. The Paris National Guard forced Louis to get help from the Assembly, on October 10, 1792. Louis was suspended from his duties and ordered elections to choose a body to make a new constitution, by the Assembly. In 1791, it was France's first time to attempt to make aconstitutional monarchy.The Constitution was very successful. Its end was Sept 20,1792.
  • War with First Coalition

    War with First Coalition
    The war with the First Coalition was a war between France and the First Coalition: Austria, Prussia, Spain, Portugal, the United Provinces and Great Britain. It began on April 20 of 1792 when France announced war because of the Declaration of Pillnitz, written by Austria and Prussia. The first battle was in June of 1794 in central Europe. Prussia gave up and signed the First Treaty of Basel in 1795 and Austria surrendered in 1797 by signing the second treaty. Over 200,000 men were lost total
  • Storming of Tuilleries Part 4

    and started official trial of the king. After six weeks of chaos, death, and imprisonments the people of France finally had overthrown their king and ended the absolute monarchy and replaced the Legislative Assembly in France.
  • Storming of Tuilleries

    Storming of Tuilleries
    At 10 in the morning on a bright day in France, a mob of 30,000 French people unhappy with their government stormed to the Palace of Tuileries to capture their king, Louis XVI. Many events led up to the happening. In June of that year several crowds traveled to Tuileries in attempt to convince the king that the government, society, and economy of France was in dire need of change. On the contrary, nothing changed. At this time France was engaged in a war with Austria and Prussia, and as these
  • Storming of Tuilleries Part 2

    Storming of Tuilleries Part 2
    forces drew nearer to the city, and homelands of the citizens of Paris. The French believed that their king or queen were giving inside information to these powers and again, stormed to the Palace of Tuileries. On August 9, 1792 the decision was made and the citizens attacked Tuilleries. Louis XVI heard of this attack and he, his family, and 300 soldiers fled to the legislative assembly. With no given orders the guards had no clue of what to do. They thought to surrender the palace just as they
  • Storming of Tuilleries Part 3

    Storming of Tuilleries Part 3
    did previously, but no orders came. When the mob came the guards tried to defend the palace with the little people they had. When the people found no king inside they took vengeance servants cooks, kitchen boys, door attendants, maids, women and children, and all people involved with the King, no one was spared. The Paris Mob then moved onto the Legislative Assembly building only to find Louis and his family hiding there. They were arrested and this event signified the end of the monarchy and
  • September Massacres

    September Massacres
    For a span of five days, an angry mob led by citizens of Paris acted out of fear, due to rumors of a counterrevolution within Paris. So the mob took arms and sought to eliminate any potential traitors or rebels, especially the clergy and the nobilities. The clergy were the people that supported the king most, and the nobilities were suspects because of their lack of effort on the attack of Verdun. The Parisians gained comfort in who was on their side, but a lot of people died and thats bad.
  • Period: to

    The September Massacres

  • Execution of Louis XVI

    Execution of Louis XVI
    Louis XVI inherited the throne during a time of French economic crisis. Louis married Marie Antoinette, an Austrian foreigber, whom citizens blamed the crisis on. In 1788, the National Assembly restricted Louis's powers. By mid July 1799, people felt a power shift,eading to the imprisonment of Louis's family. Louis tried to escape, but was captured in Varennes and taken back to Paris where he ws convicted of counterrevolution. Louis XVI was beheaded on the guillotine on January 21, 1793.
  • Constitution of 1793

    Constitution of 1793
    The Constitution of 1793 is also known by other names. It is sometimes referred to as the Constitution of the Year I and also the Montagnard Constitution. (The Montagnards were radical deputies of the National Convention during the French Revolution.) This Constitution was put into place by the Montagnards and by popular referendum during the French Revolution on June 24, 1793. The idea of the Constitution was to give men democratic freedoms. Among these freedoms were the right to vote, the righ
  • Economic Causes of the French Revolution

    Economic Causes of the French Revolution
    Leading up to the French Revolution, the economy in France was a disaster. One of the reasons was that France had participated in the American Revolution. This had been a costly effort, and it drove the government to the brink of bankruptcy. In the mean time, the rising middle class, also called the bourgeoisie, were made up of commoners who were becoming wealthier because they were merchants, manufacturers, and professionals. They were upset because they were contributing to the economy, but th
  • Charlotte Corday Kills Marat Part Two

    Charlotte Corday Kills Marat Part Two
    Soon after the murder, Charlotte Corday was arrested, tried, convicted, and executed. A negative side to the murder was that even though Corday's actions lead to her death, it had very little impact on the French Revolution's course and the killings of Girondists did not stop. However, there was a positive side. Corday put fear into the rival party that the Girondists would not tolerate their treatment.
  • Charlotte Corday Kills Marat

    Charlotte Corday Kills Marat
    Jean Paul Marat was a prominent French leader and political thinker that helped spread the ideas of the French Revolution. He was part of the Jacobin party, a political party of France. His ideas included executing member of the Girondists, an opposing political party. In 1793, a Girondists named Charlotte Corday decided that she would kill Marat. She brought a knife made of wood and came to see Marat. When she arrived, Marat was in his bathtub when Corday stabbed him to death.
  • Levee En Masse

    Levee En Masse
    Due to the war and the potential danger that it could put society in, the Committee of Public Safety created a conscription or the levee en masse, which figuratively means mass conscription, and started training 800,000 soldiers in a little bit under a year. The conscription put everyone to work, it turned almost all of the land into a warzone. A good thing is that they became stronger due to the attention given to war, however little attention was given to all the other necessities.
  • Cult of the Supreme Being

    Cult of the Supreme Being
    On May 7, 1794, Maximilien Robespierre spoke to the French, saying that a Deist God exists. After being a strong Catholic nation for years, France rejected this religion. However, the Cult of Reason later formed. Robespierre, who supported a cult with a Deist God and believed in creating a state religion of France, overthrew this cult. As a result of the mess, a revolt started. Napoleon later banned this cult. Robespierre’s intentions were initially good but ended up worse than he wanted.
  • Thermidorian Reaction

    Thermidorian Reaction
    Maximilien Robespierre began to gain power as he took position as the leader of the Committee of Public Safety which lead to a dictatorship in France, known as the Reign of Terror. He guillotined his fellow radicals who threatened his position, which caused many members of the National Convention to fear their own safety. They eventually insisted on his execution, marking the end of the Reign of Terror. His death was a positive for the people because inflation went down and order was restored.
  • Coup D'etat of Fructidor

    Coup D'etat of Fructidor
    The Coup D’etat of Fructidor was where the French Council tried to gain more power on September 4, 1797. Charles Pichegru was then elected President of the Council of 500, the lower house of the legislature, while Napoleon led the army to battle. Some deputies were executed. Many priests were either put in jail or sent to die also. The government limited most of its power, not wanting to upset anyone. A negative outcome of this war was that, so people basically had no rights what so ever.
  • Constitution of 1795 Part 2

    property rights and social and economic matters would be equal. It reduced the power of the legislature, which would have been a negative outcome for them, and split it into two houses by adding the Executive Branch.
  • Constitution of 1795

    Constitution of 1795
    People were dissatisfied with the Constitution of 1793 and they wanted to end the revolution. A positive effect of the new constitution was that stated that the government would keep the wars at a good level of spending that wouldn’t affect the country’s economy. It also said that the social class level would be based on people’s individual property rights and
  • Napoleon Victories in Italy

    Napoleon Victories in Italy
    Napoleon had many victories in Italy from 1796-1797. He gained most of the north part of Italy and he became commander of the French army. His main focus was to conquer all of northern Italy and Lombardy so that the Austrians would have to move south. Another order for Napoleon was to capture the Pope Pius VI and the pope died during imprisonment from “illness”. Then five years later the Treaty of Campo Formio was made as a peace settlement. The treaty ended Napoleon’s Italian campaign comp
  • Battle of Aboukir

     Battle of Aboukir
    The Battle of Aboukir took place between July 25, 1799 and March 8, 1801. The Battle of Aboukir was Napoleon Bonaparte's absolute victory against Seid Mustafa Pasha's Ottoman troops during when the French invaded Egypt. British forces to end Egypt from French rule. hoping the Ottomans were neutral.
  • Coup D'etat of Brumaire Part 3

    Coup D'etat of Brumaire Part 3
    de of life under the French Directory, but he was hungry for power and transformed the government into a dictatorship. This marked the end of the French Revolution.
  • Coup D’etat of Brumaire Part 1

    Coup D’etat of Brumaire Part 1
    The Coup d’etat of Brumaire is was revolution on November 9, 1799 in which the French Directory was overthrown and Napoleon rose to power. Napoleon was military campaigningin foreign lands for France. Meanwhile, the French people were becoming unsatisfied with the French Directory. Napoleon returned home, to receive a message from the Council of Ancients that Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès and his alliances were plotting against him and recommended that he move to Château de Saint-Cloud. The next day
  • Coup D'etat of Brumaire Part 2

    Coup D'etat of Brumaire Part 2
    , Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyes and his alliances resigned as directors, due to embarrassment and shame of their plotting. By then, there was almost no one left in the Directory. Two other directors kept on fighting but Napoleon’s army forced them to stop. Then, Napoleon replaced the French Directory with the French Consulate. Therefore, the French people honored him. This became the foundation of Napoleon’s rule and power. The French citizens looked to Napoleon for support after their long, harsh deca
  • Concordat of 1801

    Concordat of 1801
    The Concordat of 1801 was an agreement between Pope Pius VII and Napoleon. It made the Roman Catholic Church the official church in France. It stated that the Papacy could remove bishops from their position at any time; clergy had to swear to an oath of allegiance to the State, and received higher salaries. The Concordat balanced the relation of church and state, also called Separation Law. The positive is that this helped Napoleon stay in the good graces of Catholics in France so that he st
  • The Treaty of Amiens

    The Treaty of Amiens
    The Treaty of Amiens was a peace treaty that ended hostility between the United Kingdom and the French Republic during the French Revolutionary Wars. Under the treaty, all of England’s conquests were given to France.. Only six months after the treaty was signed war broke out again between France and Britain. It was good for France because they gained territory but the treaty in the end was not very effective.
  • Louisiana Purchase

    Louisiana Purchase
    Louisiana was a big state back in the 18th century. The United States wanted to buy Louisiana from France because they wanted trade control. Napoleon had little use for Louisiana. Napoleon also needed funds to support his military because. Napoleon had no choice but to offer up Louisiana for sale to the United States. On April 30, 1803, The United States purchased Louisiana by a treaty. It was good for France because they made a lot of money but they lost a colony and upset Spain.
  • Napoleon Crowns Himself Part 3

    Napoleon Crowns Himself Part 3
    he had a great number of goals to help improve France. He only wished for the best. However the great vastness of the empire he was not able to hold on and in 1812 his empire quickly fell to pieces, caused by his actions.
  • Napoleon Crowns Himself Part 2

    Napoleon Crowns Himself Part 2
    consul, three years later he was made consul for life and then in 1804 he became emperor. He dressed in splendid velvet robes and walked down the aisle of Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris. At the end of the aisle, the pope waited for him with a glittering crown to bestow upon his head. Thousands watched as napoleon signaled for the pope to place the crown upon his head. Symbolizing he was more powerful than the church. Napoleon wished to take control Europe and reassert French power to the America
  • Napoleon Crowns Himself

    Napoleon Crowns Himself
    In the cold of December Napoleon Bonaparte crowned himself the emperor of France. In 1796, Napoleon was made commander of the French army in Italy where he made peace with Austria and its allies. Two years later he conquered Ottoman-Egypt trying to strike at the British trade routes. When all the fighting and war finished Napoleon returned to Paris, a government catastrophe. Then in November of 1799 Napoleon was promoted to become first consul, three years later he was made consul for l
  • Battle of Austerlitz Part 1

    Battle of Austerlitz Part 1
    The Battle of Austerlitz was Napoleon’s greatest achievement. Even though he only had 68,000 soldiers, and was going up again Russia and Austria’s 90,000, This victory to the French brought them out of the Third Coalition. The positives of this war were that France came out in victory and even though outnumbered, took home a win. Napoleon took control of the Holy Roman Empire, which was now non-existent. This victory strengthened the French Empire.
  • Battle of Austerlitz Part 2

    Battle of Austerlitz Part 2
    Along with all these positives, there was also some negative. This war did not establish peace. Prussia worried about France’s success going into Central Europe. This problem turned into the war of the Fourth Coalition.
  • Invasion of Russia

    Invasion of Russia
    Since Russia's economy was being hurt by Napoleon's ban on trade with England, many Russians simply ignored the ban. In order to keep the Russians in line, Napoleon gathered a huge army of more than 500,000 men, and charged right through the Russian border. Napoleon made it as far as Moscow, but Russian forces and brutal weather reduced French numbers immensely. Napoleon was forced to return to France.
  • Restore Louis XVIII to French Throne

    Restore Louis XVIII to French Throne
    Louis 18th regained the throne through what is known as the Bourbon Restoration in 1814 . Louis restoration to the throne was largely due to former Prime Minister, Talleyrand influence. France enjoyed a moderate regime after the Bourbons were restored. Louis XVIII changed government by issued a Charter, providing a two-house legislature. Elections were made through a system of restricted suffrage. Louis XVIII maintained a constitutional monarchy during his reign. He brought France peace.
  • Congress of Vienna

    Congress of Vienna
    The Congress of Vienna was an assembly that was held to remake Europe after Napoleon’s final loss. It was held in Vienna, Austria from September 1814 going through June 1815. The main goal of the meeting was to make a balance of power that would keep peace throughout. Austria, Russia, Britain and Prussia were the most involved in taking Napoleon down form the throne. France lost all land conquered by Napoleon.
  • Concert of Europe Part 1

    Concert of Europe Part 1
    The Concert of Europe started in 1815 and ended in 1914. It was also known as the Congress system in Europe at that time. The Concert of Europe was created mainly to establish a balance of power. It was also to try and maintain peace in their countries. It was formed by Prussia, Austria, Russian Empire, and the United Kingdom, later joined by France.
  • Concert of Europe Part 2

    Concert of Europe Part 2
    It was the consensus of European monarchs who mainly wanted to preserve their countries and their legacies. The main positive accomplishment of the Concert was securing independence for Greece and Belgium. A negative result of the Concert was that when they met, they had no written rules so basically anything could be done.
  • Hundered Days Part One

    Hundered Days Part One
    The Hundred Days event occurred during the dates of March 20, 1815- July 22, 1815 (Battle of Waterloo). Louis was hated, because the people were tired of war. The people wanted the Bourbons to be their ruler, because they were sure to guarantee land. The peasants liked Napoleon. Napoleon was in exile during this time, but he escaped from Elba on February 26, 1815 as soon as he heard of the dissatisfaction. He arrived in France on March 1st. After this he entered Paris and restored his empire.
  • Hundred Days Part Two

    Hundred Days Part Two
    Napoleon found that his former followers, followed liberalism. Napoleon tried to establish absolutism but failed, the only government that worked was a parliamentary system. To get rid of Napoleon, the government put a ship in Rochefort. Instead of the British being allies with Napoleon, they imprisoned him in St. Helena. Napoleon being imprisoned was good because he cannot come back and was bad, but it was bad because people that like him missed him. Napoleon finally died on May 5, 1821.
  • Battle of Waterloo

    Battle of Waterloo
    France was up against the Seventh Coalition and Prussian soldiers. France was defeated. This war ended Napoleon’s tyrant rule in France. A negative of this war was that many states were against Napoleon, and these states joined together to form the Seventh Coalition. Napoleon was forced out of rule. A positive out of the war was that Europe began to repair the country back to peace and prosperity.
  • Holy Alliance

    Holy Alliance
    The Holy Alliance was an alliance established between Russia, Prussia and Austria in 1815, after the Napoleonic wars. The Signing took place in September of 1815 by Alexander I, Francis I and Frederick William II along with other countries. The group spread Christian values throughout Europe and fought for each other. It ended in 1825 after the death of Alexander I. This led to the falling of many countries. The idea of certain governments interacting is still used today.