Enlightenment and Revolution timeline.

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    Enlightenment and Revolution timeline.

  • Galileo Determined Planets

    Galileo Determined Planets
    In contrast to the prior belief that the planets, including the sun, rotate around the earth, Galileo discovers through the invention of the telescope that the planets revolve around the sun. Galileo was given a life sentence for his work since it was deemed heretical. In 1992, the Church acknowledged the error in the sentencing.
  • 30 Years War

    30 Years War
    Inter-Catholic and inter-Protestant conflict erupts in violence. The Holy Roman Empire was mostly used to represent Catholics. Apart from Britain, the conflict swept through Europe. With the signing of the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, the conflict came to a conclusion and the Holy Roman Empire was divided in half. Much of their German holdings were lost.
  • Louis XIV Ruled France

    Louis XIV Ruled France
    Upon the passing of Mazarin, Louis the XIV became the next monarch of France. He created the idea that he was the Sun God, the source of all light in France. The Versailles Palace was built by him. In addition, he worked against Protestants and tried to depose nobles.
  • Peace of Westphalia

    Peace of Westphalia
    The Thirty Years War was ended by the Treaty of Westphalia. There were two of them, penned in May and October of 1648. For many, it marked the start of the modern era. It was permitted for each state to select its own religion. In all participating states, people had the freedom to adhere to any Christian denomination they chose. The option to choose independence was provided to numerous German states. The Holy Roman Empire began to decline as a result.
  • Charles I Overthrown

    Charles I Overthrown
    After growing tired of King Charles I's tyranny, the English Parliament joined forces to depose him. During the Second English Civil War, he lost. Charles I was tried, and those who backed the king were expelled from Parliament. A month after his conviction and death, he was executed. For starting the Second Civil War, he was found guilty.
  • Restoration

    Charles II took the throne of England following Oliver Cromwell's demise. A military dictatorship led by Cromwell presided over the government before. Charles II was crowned king when the populace made the decision to restore the monarchy. When Cromwell abruptly dismissed Parliament, he reinstated it.
  • Thomas Hobbes Published "Leviathan"

    Thomas Hobbes Published "Leviathan"
    In "Leviathan," by Thomas Hobbes, the idea of a social compact was described in its infancy. According to him, a person in a position of ultimate power should be in charge of a country and be in charge of making sure that his people are safe and flourishing. The political unrest that was then overtaking England inspired him to come up with his ideas.
  • Peter the Great Became Czar of Russia

    Peter the Great Became Czar of Russia
    The Czar of Russia was appointed as Peter the Great. The Westernization of society was his principal objective. He wished that the cities of Western Europe might match the sophistication of Russia. Peter was also interested in advancing education. He had a good deal of success. He founded the city that would later bear his name, St. Petersburg.
  • The Glorious Revolution

    The Glorious Revolution
    King James II of England disapproved of Parliament. Also a Catholic, he. The daughter of James II was then invited by Parliament to attempt to depose her father. They did succeed in returning. They were made king and queen by Parliament, who also gave the Crown and Parliament equal power.
  • English Bill of Rights

    English Bill of Rights
    The English Bill of Rights was approved by the English parliament on December 16, 1689. Before being appointed as such, William and Mary, the King and Queen, had to sign it as well. It made it impossible for the Crown to impose taxes without the approval of parliament. It helped England transition to being an unitary state.
  • Spanish Succession

    Spanish Succession
    Charles II of Spain surrendered his country to a Louis XIV descendant, uniting France and Spain under a single government. The problem was that a lot of people disliked the union. To divide the two countries, England and Holland engaged in war. The Union was broken up by the Treaty of Utrecht, which put an end to the fighting and saw the grandson give up his right to rule France.
  • Charles VI Death

    Charles VI Death
    When Charles VI, the Austrian emperor, passed away, Maria Theresa received the throne as his heir. Frederick II of Prussia attempted to take advantage of this by attacking Austria and taking control of the province of Silesia. As a result, the War of Austrian Succession began, lasting until 1748, and Prussia ultimately succeeded, gaining Silesia.
  • Montesquieu Wrote "Spirit of the Laws"

    Montesquieu Wrote "Spirit of the Laws"
    A political writer, Montesque. His main publication, "Spirit of the Laws," was about the division of powers. He held the opinion that no one branch of government should have control over the rest of the nation. Additionally, he thought that dictators should control huge states, monarchies should rule medium-sized states, and republics should rule tiny states.
  • Diderot Wrote "Encyclopedia"

    Diderot Wrote "Encyclopedia"
    Diderot penned 28 volumes of his "Encyclopedia" in the span of 27 years. It lauded enlightenment principles. It resembled an encyclopaedia in many ways. Diderot ultimately had to go into hiding to complete the final few volumes. He was in danger because the powerful Catholic Church disliked him, as it did many other enlightenment thinkers. It had a significant impact on the French Revolution as well.
  • Voltaire Published "Candide"

    Voltaire Published "Candide"
    "Candide," Voltaire's best-known work, is published. It is a sarcastic plot that centres on a man who starts off enthusiastic but has numerous setbacks that prove his enthusiasm was misplaced. Because it mocked governmental and religious institutions, it was widely banned.
  • Catherine The Great Czarina of Russia

    Catherine The Great Czarina of Russia
    Despite being a German native, Catherine the Great wed Peter the Great's grandson. Finally, she and a number of nobles became tired of her husband's control and overthrew him, placing Catherine as ruler. Catherine promoted Westernization and the arts, as well as education.
  • Joseph II Came Into Power

    Joseph II Came Into Power
    In 1764, Joseph II of Austria succeeded to the throne. He was among the time's most forward-thinking emperors. He put an end to torture and executions. He provided food for the needy and made the nobility pay them for their labour. Even the Jews and Protestants in his country were permitted by Joseph II.
  • Adam Smith Published "The Wealth of Nations."

    Adam Smith Published "The Wealth of Nations."
    One of the earliest men to support capitalism based on free markets was Adam Smith. In his book "The Wealth of Nations," he gave an explanation of this. According to this, those who participate in markets would get richer and, to a smaller extent, the government, if they were not regulated by the government. 
  • Estates-General

    King Louis XVI called an assembly known as the Estates-General to find solutions to France's financial problems. It was formed up of the priesthood, nobility, and commoners, each of which had a representative. They fought on until the Commoners, the Third Estate, initiated the French Revolution.
  • Revolutionaries Storm Bastille

    Revolutionaries Storm Bastille
    On this day, the Bastille, which at the time stood for French power, was attacked. The French Revolution officially began with this, the National Constitutional Assembly's first act of violence. The Batsille was a notorious state jail that housed the King's inmates.