Enlightenment Age

By barlowg
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  • Galileo Determines Planets Rotate Around Sun

    Galileo Determines Planets Rotate Around Sun
    Galileo determines through his invention of the telescope that the planets revolve around the sun, opposed to the earlier viewpoint that they, including the sun, revolve around earth. Galileo's work was considered anti-church, and he was sentenced to life imprisonment. The Church admitted the sentencing was a mistake in 1992.
  • 30 Years War

    30 Years War
    Violence breaks out between Catholic nations and Protestant ones. The Catholics were mainly represented by the Holy Roman Empire. The war spread across Europe, except for Britain. The war ended in 1648 with the Treaty of Westphalia, which split the Holy Roman Empire in two. They lost much of their German territory.
  • Louis XIV Takes Rule of France

    Louis XIV Takes Rule of France
    Louis the XIV took over the rule of France at the death of his mentor, Mazarin. He established an image of being a Sun God, meaning all light in France came from him. He constructed the Palace at Versailles. He also attempted to remove nobles from power and worked against Protestants.
  • Peace of Westphalia

    Peace of Westphalia
    The Peace of Westphalia brought an end to the Thirty Years War. It was a pair of treaties, signed in May and October of 1648. It is known as the beginning of the modern era for many. Each state was given the right to choose its own religion. People were also given the right to follow which ever denomination of Christianity they wanted in all participating states. Many German states were given the right to choose independence. This let the decline of the Holy Roman Empire.
  • Charles I Overthrown

    Charles I Overthrown
    The English Parliament worked together to overthrow King Charles I after they grew discontent with his rule. He was defeated in the Second Civil War in England. Those who supported the king were kicked out of Parliament and Charles I was tried. He was found guilty and executed a month later. He was convicted of provoking the Second Civil War.
  • Restoration

    After Oliver Cromwell died, Charles II became king of England. Before the government was a military dictatorship, run by Cromwell. The people decided they wanted to become a monarchy again and named Charles II became king. He restored Parliament, which Cromwell dismissed indefinitely.
  • Thomas Hobbes Publishes "Leviathan"

    Thomas Hobbes Publishes "Leviathan"
    The idea of a social contract was documented in its earliest stage in Thomas Hobbes' "Leviathan." He stated that a person with absolute authority should rule a nation, and he should be responsible for ensuring the protection and prospering of his people. He came up with his ideas out of fear of political turmoil engulfing England at the time.
  • Peter the Grat Becomes Czar of Russia

    Peter the Grat Becomes Czar of Russia
    Peter the Great was made Czar of Russia. His main goal was to implant reforms known as Westernization. He wanted Russia to be as advanced as the cities of Western Europe. Peter wanted to promote education, also. He succeeded quite a bit. He Started St. Petersburg, which was named after him.
  • The Glorious Revolution

    The Glorious Revolution
    James II was king of England, and disliked Parliament. He was also Catholic. Parliament then asked James II's daughter to come and try to overthrow James II. They did come back and succeeded. Parliament made them king and queen, and they made the Crown and Parliament equal in power.
  • English Bill of Rights

    English Bill of Rights
    On December 16, 1689, the English Bill of Rights was passed by the English parliament. King and Queen William and Mary also had to sign it before they got their positions as so. It prevented the Crown from raising taxes without parliament’s permission. It led way to England becoming a constitutional monarchy.
  • Spanish Succession

    Spanish Succession
    Charles II of Spain lest the nation of Spain to a grandson of Louis XIV, meaning France and Spain were now joined as one nation now. The issue is that many of the people didn't like the union. England and Holland went to war to split the two nations up. The Treaty of Utrecht ended the violence, where the grandson ceded his ability to rule France, therefore ending the union.
  • Charles VI Dies

    Charles VI Dies
    Charles VI, Emperor of Austria, died, leaving his empire to his daughter, Maria Theresa. Frederick II of Prussia tried to use this to their advantage and launched an attack on Austria, seizing the province of Silesia. This started the war of Austrian Succession, which lasted until 1748, where Prussia won and got to keep Silesia.
  • Montesque Writes "Spirit of the Laws"

    Montesque Writes "Spirit of the Laws"
    Montesque was a political writer. His primary book, "Spirit of the Laws," focused on separation of powers. He believed that no part of government should have too much power over the rest of the state. He also believed that small states should be ruled by republics, medium size states should be ruled by monarchies, and despots should rule large states.
  • Diderot Writes "Encyclopedia"

    Diderot Writes "Encyclopedia"
    In 27 years, Diderot wrote 28 volumes of his book, "Encyclopedia." It praised the ideas of the enlightenment. It was much like what we think an encyclopedia is. In the end, Diderot had to go into hiding to finish the last few volumes. Like many enlightenment thinkers, he was disliked by the powerful Catholic Church, and was in danger. It was also a large influence in the French Revolution.
  • Voltaire Publishes "Candide"

    Voltaire Publishes "Candide"
    Voltaire publishes is most famous work, "Candide." It has a sarcastic plot centered on a man who begins life optimistic, but suffers many misfortunes which shows his optimism was unwarranted. It was widely banned due to the fact it insulted religious and political institutions.
  • Catherine The Great Czarina of Russia

    Catherine The Great Czarina of Russia
    Catherine the Great was actually born in Germany, but she married the grandson of Peter the Great. Eventually she and several nobles became tired of her husband's rule, and they overthrew him, putting Catherine in charge. Catherine promoted arts and education, and continued Westernization.
  • Joseph II Comes Into Power

    Joseph II Comes Into Power
    Joseph II of Austria became emperor in 1764. He was one of the most progressive emperors of his time. He got rid of executions and torture. He offered the poor food, and forced the nobility to pay them for their work. Joseph II even tolerated the Protestants and Jews in his nation.
  • Adam Smith Publishes "The Wealth of Nations."

    Adam Smith Publishes "The Wealth of Nations."
    Adam Smith was one of the first men to advocate free market capitalism. He outlined this in his book, "The Wealth of Nations." This said that if markets were kept free from government regulation, the people participating in them would be richer, and to a further extent the government. He invented the term Laissez-faire.
  • Estates-General

    The Estates-General was an assembly that King Louis XVI set up to come up with solutions to France's financial crisis. It was made up of three groups, which had representatives: The Clergy, the Nobility, and the Commons. They continued to have conflict until the Third Estate, the Commoners, started the French Revolution
  • Revolutionaries Storm Bastille

    Revolutionaries Storm Bastille
    The Bastille, which represented the French authority at the time, was stormed on this day. This was the first violence from the National Constitutional Assembly, marking the beginning of the French Revolution. The Batsille was a state prison that was infamous for holding the King's prisoners.