Causes and Effects of the Reformation

  • Jan 1, 1309

    Start of the Avignon Papacy (Political) (Cause)

    Between 1309 and 1376, seven Pope's had ruled in the time period, confusing many citizens as to who's order they should follow. Originally, the Pope would reside in Rome, but Clement V refused to move, and instead, stayed in Avignon (in modern-day France). IN the coming years, each pope had different styles and rules to govern the people, so it was difficult for the people to adapt so quickly.
  • Jan 1, 1347

    Start of the Bubonic Plague (Social) (Cause)

    The Bubonic Plague, otherwise known as "Black Death", was the disease that wiped out nearly one-third of Europes population. During this time, people were desperate to look to the church for healing strategies and refuge. However, the Church could not provide protection from this disease, and it continued to sweep across the land. When the Plague had subsided, people realized that even the church could not protect them as much as they thought, which sparked the thought of a reformation.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1350 to

    The Renaissance (Social) (Cause)

    With the Renaissance, humanist and individualistic thought spread like wildfire. People began to think of their own wants and needs, and began to question both government and the Catholic Church.
  • Jan 1, 1440

    Invention of the Printing Press (Technology) (Cause)

    Johannes Gutenburg's invention of the printing press acted as the motor for the Reformation. With the printing press, copies of documents could be created in mass amounts, so people could own their own copies of documents. The first document that was printed was the Bible, which was distributed out to the public. Eventually,the 95 Theses was eventually copied and sent to the people, to grow awareness to his cause.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1517 to

    The Reformation

  • Oct 29, 1517

    The Rising Acknowledgement of the Corruption of the Church (Economic)

    During the time period, The Catholic Church was notorious for having lavish churches and relics. Corruption in the church peaked, when Johann Tetzel was sent to Central Europe, basically fundaising for St. Peter's Basilica. He sold pardons for loved ones in purgatory, a place between heaven and hell. Once people bought the pardon, a loved one who had passed would be sent free of their time in purgatory.
  • Oct 30, 1517

    Martin Luther's 95 Theses (Religious) (Cause)

    On this date, Martin Luther jump started the Reformation, by nailing his 95 Theses (or a list of 95 complaints he had about the Catholic Church) to the door of the Wittenburg Church in Germany. The 95 Theses was a direct stab at the Catholic Church itself, proclaiming it to be corrupt. With this action taking place, the Reformation was born, as it sparked not only Lutheranis to spread, but other people to speak out for the cause, such as Ulrich Zwingli and John Calvin.
  • Jun 28, 1519

    Beginning of Charles V's reign in the Holy Roman Empire (Political) (Cause)

    With Charles V coming to power, religious thoughts grew stronger. Charles V had inherited a vast amount of land, and with the new lands of the Holy Roman Empire at his disposal, many people believe that he would try to combine the lands of Princely States and his together. However, the German princes continued to be a thorn in his side, and instead of staying with the Catholic faith, many went to Lutheranism, in favor of the Reformation.
  • Feb 27, 1531

    First Assembly of the League of Schmalkaldic (Political) (Consequence)

    The League of Schmalkaldic was the groups of allied German princes who were in favor of Lutheranism. With the new formed league, German princes were banned together in defense of Charles V. It also was inteded to replace the Holy Roman Empire as the government power for their states.
  • Jan 1, 1545

    Council of Trent (Political) (Effect)

    With the assembly of the most important councils at the time, The Council of Trent was mainly pieced together in order to repel Protestant thought and actions. However, it also abolished the flaws in the Catholic Church, such as ridding the corrupt indulgence schemes, and the re-education of clergy
  • Period: Jan 1, 1545 to

    The Catholic Counter-Reformation (Religious)

    The Catholic Counter-Reformation was the response to the Protestant Reformation. It reformed the Catholic religion to attempt to regain some of its old followers after the Protestant Reformation took place.
  • Sep 25, 1555

    Peace of Augsburg (Political) (Consequence)

    The Peace of Augsburg was a large stepping stone for Martin Luther and the newly created religion of Lutheranism. This treaty gave freedom to the German Princes to declare a state religion (either Lutheranism or Caholicism) for their respective state. This gave Lutherans almost equal treatment as thr Catholics themselves.
  • Beginning of the Bohemian Phase (Religious) (Consequence)

    With the beginning of the 30 Year's War, the Bohemian phase proved to be a massive start to a spread-out war. Despite his unpopularity with the people, Ferdinand II took the throne. He was not fond of Protestants, which many people in Bohemia were, and refused to tolerate them. This would spark an uprising against Ferdinand II to put a new king on the throne who would be tolerant to Protestantism, which turned out to be Fredrick II.
  • Period: to

    30 Year's War (Political)

  • Edict of Restitution (Social/Religious) (Consequence)

    The Edict of Restitution was a negative point for Protestants, as Ferdinand initiated it. It was a decree that all lands that were Catholic (up to the year of 1552) were to be taken back by Catholics. It also deprived religions other than Lutheranism and Catholicism of their rights, ensuring a mass response by the Protestants among the lands.
  • Peace of Westphalia (Political) (Consequence)

    The Peace of Westphalia was the biggest step in Central and Northern Europe, as it marked the end of not only the Thirty Year's War, but the end of Protestant-Catholic clashes. With the treaties, Calvanists were given equal rights as Lutherans and Catholics, the rule of countries within the Holy Roman Empire were returned to their respective Imprerial States, and territorial borders were now official (Sweden and France gaining lands). Also, this gave the Netherlands independance.