Nov 10, 1483
Martin LutherMartin Luther was a German priest who taught theology. He started the Protestant Reformation with the 95 Theses. He was excommunicated from the church and threatened with death as a result. He believed in many heretical ideas, such as people interpreting the Bible their own way, the banning of indulgences, and more. He died in February 1546 from his illnesses.
Jun 28, 1491
Henry VIIIHenry VIII was the king of England who wanted to reform the Catholic Church to allow divorce. He wanted new wives, but the Church did not allow this. He eventually was excommunicated due to his refusal to take back his first wife after he illegally divorced. He made the Anglican Church, a branch of Christianity that allowed divorce.
Jul 10, 1509
John CalvinJohn Calvin was a pastor and theologian who developed Presbyterianism. His faith was based on the idea that God chose those who would go to Heaven and those who did not. He became the leader of Geneva, a strict disciplined city with high moral standards. Eventually, his ideas spread and became a well-known religious belief.
Jun 10, 1517
Beginning of Protestant ReformationAlbert of Brandenburg, archbishop of Mainz, sponsors a sale of indulgences to pay for, among other things, construction of Saint Peter's in Rome. Martin Luther opposed this and posted his 95 Theses on the door of the castle chapel in Wittenburg, Germany. The theses invite debate over the legitimacy of the sale of indulgences. Copies of the theses spread rapidly over Europe with the help of the printing press. The Church threatened Luther with death.
Jun 10, 1521
Excommunation of Martin LutherThe Church decided to threaten Martin Luther with excommunication. If he refused to take back 41 sentences of the 95 Theses, he would be banned from the Church. He refused to take back his words unless proven wrong by the Bible or by "clear reason." He eventually declined to recant his words. As a result, he was excommunicated by the Catholic Church.
Jun 10, 1530
Ausburg ConfessionWhen Charles the Fifth needed to unite his empire against the Turks, he decided to use religious uniformity as a solution. He turned to Martin Luther to write his case. Many German princes and cities sign the Augsburg Confession as an expression of the evangelical faith.
Dec 13, 1545
Council of TrentThe Council of Trent was first held on this date. There were many periods in which the Council was held. The last session was held on December 4, 1563. The final result of the Council was the agreement of the Catholic Church to reform to the following doctrines: a restriction on indulgences, only the Church may interpret the Bible, and others.
Jun 10, 1555
Peace of AusburgThe Peace of Augsburg provides that each German prince can determine the religious affiliation of the territory he rules. This allowed people to choose who to go to in terms of the religious beliefs they wanted. The Reformation swept throughout Northern and Eastern Europe as a result.