King Henry VIII was the king of England who introduced Protestantism in a larger scale in England changing the country forever.
He had 6 wives until his death and had 3 children :
Mary I, Elizabeth I and Edward VI
Which was not allowed at the time because England was Catholic.
Oct 31, 1517
The Ninety Five theses by Martin Luther
A german theologist named Martin Luther contested the use of Indulgences in Church by nailing his "95 theses" on university doors.
Initiating for the first time Protestantism with John Calvin.
The printing press helped for it's spreading throughout Europe (fast media)
The Tyndale Bible
The Bible was translated in vernacular English for the first time by Wiliam Tyndale from Latin.
Common people could read the bible without the interpretation of a Priest.
Leading to a gain of power for Protestantism.
Henri VIII and Ann Boleyn's Marriage
After the king gave himself the legal power to annul marriages, he married Ann Boleyn after divorcing with his ex wife, Catherine of Aragon.
(Act in restraint of Appeals)
Nov 3, 1534
Act of Supremacy
The Act of Supremacy was passed by the Parliament in order to define the right of Henry VIII to be the supreme head of the Church of England separating from the Catholic Church of Rome
It is a religious Schism
(He mainly wanted to divorce his wife and the Catholic Church of Rome wouldn't allow him)
Period: 1536 to 1541
Dissolution of Monasteries
Monasteries were considered by Henri VIII as "Bastion of Popery"
He decided to disband and destroy smaller monasteries having an impact on nuns, monks and on clergy's finances.
Period: 1536 to 1537
The Pilgrimage of Grace
The Pilgrimage of Grace was a Catholic movement caused by the english reformation and dissolution of monasteries.
Mainly in the North of england showing their discontent towards the new Church.
Dec 17, 1538
Excommunication of Henri VIII
The Pope VII excommunicated Henri VIII from the Catholic Church of Rome when he knew Henri VIII divorced Catherine of Aragon which he doesn't accept.
Period: 1547 to 1553
Reign of Edward VI
King Edward VI was the son of the former King Henri VIII and Jeanne Seymour (the king's third wife)
Henri VIII wanted a son to continue the reign of England.
He was fiercely protestant because he was born after the Act of Supremacy of his father.
He died at a very young age from tuberculosis which brings her older half- sister, to take the throne.
The Book of Common Prayer
King Edward VI, son of Henri VIII and Ann Boleyn : Fiercely Protestant, Eradicated Roman Catholic practices and allowed Protestant Prayers in "The book of Common Prayer"
Period: 1553 to 1558
Reign of Mary I
The Queen Mary I was the daughter of former king Henri VIII and Catherine of Aragon (The King's first wife) and first Queen of england
She was a Catholic because she was born before the Act of Supremacy. And took the throne at 37 years old
She restored catholicism in 18 months and repealed protestants.
The nickname "Bloody Mary" comes from the fact that she burned more than 200 protestants.
Period: 1558 to
Reign of Elisabeth I
Queen Elizabeth I, Daughter of Henri VIII and Ann Boleyn (King's second wife) nicknamed "The Virgin Queen" because she never married. She took the throne at 25 years old and was a protestant. She appeased the religious tensions by making a compromise between the different religions with the Elizabethan Settlements.
She stayed in power for 45 years until her death calling her era as "the golden era"
The Second Act of Supremacy
The Second Act of Supremacy was passed by the first Elizabethan Parliament.
Declaring Elizabeth I as the Supreme Governor of the Church of England.
It abolished the Pope's authority.
Act of Uniformity
Evey parish had to use the Book of Common Prayers and people who did not attend Anglican service were fined.
Period: 1559 to 1561
Love affair (?) with Robert Dudley, 1rst Earl of Leicester
During that time, Robert Dudley was married but her wife had breast cancer and would soon die. And had a love affair with the Queen Elizabeth
William Cecil (Chief minister of the Queen) did not approve and spread naster rumours which caused a huge scandal.
The Queen decided to never marry anyone after this.
Period: 1563 to 1571
The 39 articles of Faith
It is an Anglican doctrine that is still in use today
• stated the doctrine (religious belief) of the Church
• 3 important changes : a new ecclesiology (conception of the Church) / a new doctrine of
Salvation (doctrine du salut) / a new definition of sacraments and of the mass
The Northern Rebellion
The Northern Rebellion is an unsuccessful movement by Catholic nobles from Northern England to replace Queen Elizabeth I by Mary Queen of Scots.
For Catholics, Elizabeth I was not the legitimate Queen of England unlike Mary Queen of Scots.
Excommunication of Elizabeth I
Until 1570, Pope Pius V thought Elizabeth would revert to catholicism until he realised she was not going to.
The Pope made a Papal Bull announcing the excommunication of Elizabeth I from the Catholic Church of Rome.
Catholics were increasingly persecuted in England.
The Treason Acts
In response to the excommunication of the Queen by The Pope.
The Queen passed a new law:
Treason for anyone to say that Elizabeth was not the Queen
the 1581 Act
(“Act to retain the Queen’s Majesty’s Subjects in their due Obedience”):
• It provided for the death penalty for any person converting, or already converted to Catholicism.
• It was now forbidden to participate or celebrate the Catholic Mass • Anglican services were compulsory: £20 per month fine.
New rules given to the Queen's portrait
Painters needed to have undergone a 7 years
• Depicting the grandeur and power of the Queen
• Medieval taste for cryptic symbolism
• Royal Icon as a substitute to religious paintings (Reformation: churches emptied, religious paintings gone)
Execution of Mary, Queen of Scots
Mary, Queen of Scots, Cousin of Elizabeth I was executed after spending 19 years as a prisoner because she was a catholic threat to the Queen Elizabeth I
The Babington plot was the last piece of information that made Elizabeth I do the execution
She wore a red dress during her excecution to represent Catholic Martyrs.
The Defeat of the Spanish Armada
The King Philip II supported lots of plots against the Queen of England and wanted Catholicism in their country.
He decided to invade the United Kingdom with his Spanish Armada (nicknamed Invincible Armada) and failed completely due to several reasons such as material disadvantage, new strategy of England, Human disadvantage and lots of storm
It had an important ideological effect and proved the qualities of the Queen in England.
Speech to the troops at Tilbury
In order to rally the troops who were preparing to repel the invasion of the Spanish Armada.
One of her famous sentence was:
“I know I have the body of a weak woman but I have the heart and stomach of a king, and a King of England too”.
Death of Queen Elizabeth
Elizabeth I died in 1603
Securing the position of England in the world
And proved her legitimacy
Reign of James I
Ironically, the successor of the ex Queen Elizabeth was a Stuart, putting an end to the Tudor family:
Son of Queen Mary of scots, James VI King of Scots.
He became the King of England, changing his name to James I
The Gunpowder Plot
The failed plot of a group of Catholics who tried to blow up the Parliament and King James I with gunpowder barrels under the Parliament.
One of the members Guy Fawkes (the mask) became part of Pop Culture.
First Permanent English Settlement in North America
Area named after the Virgin Queen.
Virginia became the 1st permanent English settlement in North America
The Great Contract
A financial reform in order to resolve the debt inherited to James I :
-The King would receive a fixed sum
-But some MPs feared The king would be financially independent
Which led to the dismissal of the Parliament
Reign of Charles I
Son of James I, he is a Stuart.
Fiercely believed in the divine right of Kings
He had a strong personality.
he believed in Arminism (a minority part of Anglicans)
And married the French princess Henrietta
Leading him to become very unpopular among the people of england
Petition of Rights
After some conflicts and complaints of the Parliament.
The MP decided to do a petition to remind King Charles I his limits as a King:
-They requested the King to recognise the illegality of extra-parliamentary taxation, billeting, martial law, imprisonment without trial.
He signed the petition reluctantly and dissolved the parliament after he heard about the impeachment of Lord Buckingham again.
The Three resolutions
Declared that whoever tried to bring in “Popery or Arminianism” or to alter the protestant forms of the Church of England was an enemy of the Kingdom
as well as anyone advising the King to collect custom duties without Parliament’s consent
The King then dissolved ultimately the parliament and wanted to govern alone
The Personal Rule
King Charles ruled the kingdom without a parliament for 11 years:
this era is nicknamed as "11 years of tyranny" by whig historians
Scotland was Calvinist (different from England)
And England introduced them a New prayer book which angered the scots
Leading to the bishops' war
A rebellion of scots against England when they introduced a New prayer book to them
They flung everything they hand in their hands to the bishops
The Grand Remontrance of 1641
Documents signed by the Parliament against Charles I and his wrong doings:
- the right of the House of commons to choose the King’s ministers
- the right for Parliament to control any army sent to Ireland
- the right for Parliament to reform the Church
The parliament was divided in two: the royalists and the parlementarians
The Irish Rebellion
James I had implemented a plantation policy meaning taking lands of irish catholics. Leading to a rebellion
Massacre of 3 000/4 000 protestants, rumours said 200 000 protestants woman and children included
Making england raise an army with the Milita Act
The First Civil War
Charles I declared war on Parliament on 22 august 1642
English civil war between Parlementarians and Royalists:
Each had their pros and cons but ultimately leading to the victory of Parlementarians. King Charles Loses.
Death of 190 000 Englishmen
The Battle of Naseby
An important battle between Royalists and Parlementarians which led to a weakening of the Royalists
The Second Civil War
Nov 1647: the King escaped from army custody and allied himself with the Scots (by making promises benefiting the Scots)
Parliament horrified by this information leads to a Second Civil war
-The Second Civil War was made of a series of revolts in the South of England, Wales and Scotland
-The Royalists were easily defeated by Cromwell
-Very short : January-Autumn 1648
Period where England became for the first and last time a Republic and a Commonwealth with no Royal Figure
Execution of King Charles I
King Charles I was excecuted for treason against the people. It is a regicide
Royalists tried to spread a propaganda of Charles I being a Martyr
Period where no English Royal figure ruled the country.
The Blasphemy Act
Act which banned every blasphemous acts against the Church of England and the Commonwealth
The Instrument of Government
The First and only written constitution of England
The Cromwellian Protectorate
The Commonwealth did not work.
Leading to a military dictatorship by Oliver Cromwell
it was similar to a monarchy but without a king
He controlled almost everything
Cromwell Dissolves the Rump Parliament
The Rump Parliament had slow progress and irritated the Army.
And Cromwell decided to dissolve the parliament.
Marking the beginning of the Protectorate
Death of Cromwell
After his death, his son tried to become the new lord but resigned in 6 months. Leading to a period of anarchy in England.
The Restoration of The Kingdom with Charles II
The son of Charles I made a promise of pardon through the Declaration of Breda of he became the King of england.
Ending the Chaos.
Reign of Charles II
Even though he made promise to give pardon to reconcile with the parliament.
He still excecuted 100 people who voted for his father's death.
The parliament became permanent.
He became less popular because of his lack of seriousness as a King (nicknamed the Merry monarch)
The Act of Uniformity
all ministers had to swear to conform to the Book of Common Prayer
The Black Plague
The infamous Black plague affected England during Charles II's reign.
Over 100 000 deaths
The Great Fire of London
Starting from a bakery in central London.
and probably helped against the black plague burning infected rats
The Popish Plot
Rumour of a plot organised by the French to murder Charles II and replace him by his Catholic brother James II
It was threatening for the parliament because James II could've restore absolute monarchy
The Exclusion crisis
Parliament attempted to debar James II from the succession to the English throne.
Charles II reacted dissolved the parliament
Reign of James II
Unfortunately for the parliament, James II did succeed after Charles II's death until the Glorious Revolution
The Glorious Revolution
Because of the fear of James II's Catholicism and the birth of his son (catholic heir). It put a lot of tension between the Parliament and the King.
Parliament invited the King’s son in law (William of Orange) to invade England and seize the crown.
He landed with an army of 15 000 men and met no resistance. William became King William III.
It was called glorious because it shed no blood and created a stable system
Reign of William III / Mary
William III was originally part of the House of Orange in the Netherlands. But also married to Mary.
Which made him the son-in-law of James II
They reigned together the Kingdom
William was compliant with the Parliament.
And helped stabilizing the Kingdom
The Bill of Rights
Limited the Monarch's power for the first time.
- Lists King James’ misdeeds
- Fixed limitations on the sovereign’s powers
- Set out the rights of Parliament
- Set out basic civil rights
- A key political text
The Act of Settlement
Ensured a Protestant succession, ignoring dozens of Catholic heirs.
Put an end to the 16th and 17th quarrel between King and Parliament. A new balance of powers in favour of Parliament
Reign of Queen Anne
She was the last Stuart monarch
Act of Union
England (and Wales) and Scotland unites making the United Kingdom of Great Britain under Queen Anne.
Meaning it is now a single kingdom reigned by one royal figure
Scotland lost its parliament but gained 45 seats in the House of Commons + 16 seats in the House of Lords
Scotland kept its Presbyterian church and own laws