Blanca Martín Trebolle_G&H_4ºE

Timeline created by Blanca Martín Trebolle
In History
  • Period: 1500 to

    Modern History

    It is a period of time that began in the 16th century and finished in 1789, when the French Revolution started.
  • John Kay's flying shuttle

    John Kay's flying shuttle
    It increased the speed of production and made it possible to weave wider fabrics.
  • Period: to

    First Industrial Revolution

    The Industrial Revolution was a series of interconnected changes or 'pararel revolutions' driven by innovation, which took place during the second half of the 18th century.
    Its cause was mainly the increase of agricultural production and its consequences were population growth and the triumph of capitalism.
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    Enclosure Acts

    When the Industrial Revolution started, the British Parliament authorised the Enclosure Acts due to the rise in grain prices.
    Its positive consequences were the concentration of land ownership, the improvement in farming techniques and the production aimed at the market.
    It also had negative consequences: poor farmers couldn't enclose land, so they sold their property and became labourers in exchange for a wage and then moved to the cities.
  • James Watt's steam engine

    James Watt's steam engine
    The steam engine was invented. This machine uses the power from steam to generate continuous movement, which is transferred to machinery.
    This invention led to a rise in productivity and made it possible to lower costs and reduce the sale price of the product.
  • Adam Smith publishes 'The Wealth of Nations'

    Adam Smith publishes 'The Wealth of Nations'
  • Invention of the power loom

    Invention of the power loom
    It was invented by Edmund Cartwright and it dramatically increased fabric production and lowered its cost.
  • Period: to

    French Revolution

    This was a revolution that took place in France. Its aim was to end absolutism and the Ancien Régime. Causes: the descontent of the population and two major crisis:
    - Economic crisis. Rise in the price of food.
    - Financial crisis. Monarchy's lack of money. Louis XVI proposed that the privileged begin to pay taxes but they refused.
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    Constitutional Monarchy

    It was driven by the moderate bourgeoisie, who aspired to abolish the Ancien Régime, elect a parliament by selective suffrage and establish a constitution.
  • Period: to

    Contemporary History

    It is a period of time that began with the French Revolution in 1789 and continues nowadays.
  • Estates-General meeting

    Estates-General meeting
    The Estates-General met in Versailles in May 1789. The meeting was chaired by the king and it had representatives of the nobility, the clergy and the Third State.
  • Tennis Court Oath (Proclamation of the National Assembly)

    Tennis Court Oath (Proclamation of the National Assembly)
    Louis XVI closed the door of the meeting and left the Third Estate outside, expelling them of the assembly.
    They went to a pavilion in Versailles and proclaimed themselves the National Assembly of France and promised to draft a constitution.
  • Storming of the Bastille

    Storming of the Bastille
    The people in Paris supported the Assembly's proposals and they stormed the Bastille. The revolution spread to the countryside, where nobles' homes were burnt.
  • Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

    Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
    The moderate bourgeoisie tried to reach an agreement with the king and the privileged classes to make France a constitutional and parliamentary monarchy. To do this, the National Constituent Assembly approved the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which recognised the rights, individual freedoms and equality of all citizens in law and taxation.
  • Women's March on Versailles

    Women's March on Versailles
    From Paris’ markets, thousands of angry women marched to
    Versailles. They forced the king to abandon his palace and go to Tuileries Palace in Paris.
  • First French constitution

    First French constitution
    Apart from approving the Declaration of the Rights of Men and of the Citizen, the National Constituent Assembly also drew up a constitution based on the separation of powers, national sovereignty and legal equality.
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    Social Republic

    Proclaimed by the radical bourgeoisie (encouraged by the working classes). They began a transformation into a democratic and equal society with universal male suffrage and social laws.
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    Girondin Convention

    The National Convention was elected by universal male suffrage. In 1793 Loius XVI and Marie Antoinette were executed. This led to the formation of an absolutist coalition in Europe to fight against revolutionaries, counter-revolutionary revolts in the countryside and royalist plots organised by privileged classes.
  • Storm of the Tuileries Palace

    Storm of the Tuileries Palace
    The betrayal by the king and the military invasion of Prussia and Russia led to the increase of the republican feeling among common people. The 10th of August, Republicans stormed the Tuileries Palace and imprisoned the royal family, declaring a Republic in France.
  • War of the First Coalition

    War of the First Coalition
    Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette were convicted of treason and executed. In response to the king's death, monarchies in Europe formed an absolutist coalition against France.
  • Period: to

    Jacobin Convention

    A new constitution that recognised popular sovereignty and the right to social equity was enacted. The executive power was led by a Committe of Public Safety, which gave the power to Roberspierre.
  • Period: to

    Reign of Terror

    It was imposed to stop conspirators. During this period of time, France was ruled by the Committe of Public Safety. It ended when Robespierre was removed from power and executed.
  • Execution of Louis XVI

    Execution of Louis XVI
    During the Girondin Convention, King Louis XVI was executed. This led to the formation of an absolutist coalition in Europe to
    fight against revolutionaries, counter-revolutionary revolts in the countryside and the royalist plots organised by the privileged classes.
  • Period: to

    Conservative Republic

    The moderate bourgeoisie took power and implemented a new moderate liberalism.
  • Period: to

    The Consulate

    In 1799 Napoleon was named consul. This was a period of autocratic and auhoritarian rule in which Napoleon aspired to put an end to the political instability of the Revolution, consolidate some of the revolutionary principles and promote economic recovery through a government that represented the interests of the bourgeoisie. In the consulate, a Constitution was made and economic and other reforms started.
  • Coup of 18th Brumaire

    Coup of 18th Brumaire
    The executive power was unstable due to the opposition of the Aristocracy and the common people, so in this context of crisis Napoleon Bonaparte organised a coup supported by a large part of the bourgeoisie and started an authoritarian rule. (End of the French Revolution)
  • Constitution of 1800

    Constitution of 1800
    This Constitution was made in the Consulate. It opposed to the separation of powers and the declaration of rights, it had very limited liberties, the public opinion was censured and the states were organised in departments, run by prefects.
  • Napoleon crowned emperor

    Napoleon crowned emperor
    Napoleon was crowned emperor by the Pope.
  • Period: to

    The Napoleonic Empire

    In 1803, Napoleon began his conquest of Europe and in 1804 he was crowned emperor by the Pope. He defeated most European monarchies.
    After the battle of Austerlitz in 1806 (France's victory over Austria and Russia), French troops seemed unstoppable. In 1808 Spain was invaded too, and in 1811 the Napoleonic Empire reached its zenith, and France now controlled most of Europe.
  • Treaty of Fontainebleau

    Treaty of Fontainebleau
    It allowed French troops to pass through Spain to invade Portugal.
  • Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned king

    Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned king
    In 1808, when France invaded Spain, Joseph Bonaparte (Napoleon's brother) was made its king.
  • Abdications of Bayonne

    Abdications of Bayonne
    Abdications by which Napoleon persuaded the
    Bourbons to give the Spanish crown to his brother Joseph
  • Period: to

    War of Independence

    The war of Independence started when a popular revolt began in Madrid oh 2 May 1808, and it rapidly spread across the country.
    The war was between the 'afrancesados' (people who supported Joseph I) and the patriots (who supported Ferdinand VII).
    It ended when the French signed the Treaty of Valençay and they withdrew from Spain and returned the crown to Ferdinand VII.
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    Luddite movement

    The Luddites were the first workers to protest against industrialisation. The Luddite movement started in England in 1811 and it consisted of the violent destruction of machinery in the belief that it was responsible for low wages and unemployement.
  • Spanish Constitution

    Spanish Constitution
    It was called 'La Pepa', it stablished:
    - Separation of powers.
    - Individual freedoms and rights.
    - Universal male suffrage.
  • Treaty of Valençay

    Treaty of Valençay
    Ferdinand VII became king again and the French troops withdrew from Spain.
  • Congress of Vienna and Holy Alliance Treaty

    Congress of Vienna and Holy Alliance Treaty
    The powers that defeated Napoleon met in the Congress of Vienna. Its objectives were to stop the spread of liberal ideas and to restore absolutism in Europe.
    The principles of the Restoration were:
    - Legitimacy of the absolute monarchs
    - Denial of national sovereignty
    - Balance of power
    - Right of intervention
    In 1815, the Holy Alliance Treaty was signed. This stipulated that the absolute monarchs would unite against any threat of liberal revolution.
  • Manifiesto de los Persas

    Manifiesto de los Persas
    It was signed by the absolutist representatives of the Cortes, who requested an absolute monarchy.
  • Period: to

    Reign of Ferdinand VII

    With the support of absolutists, who signed the Manifiesto de
    los Persas, Ferdinand VII re-established an absolutist monarchy in Spain.
    However, the spread of liberal ideas during the War of
    Independence made the restoration of absolutism difficult. As a
    result of this struggle between liberals and absolutists, there
    were different phases during his reign:
    - Six years of absolutism
    - The liberal Triennium
    - The Ominous Decade
  • Battle of Waterloo

    Battle of Waterloo
    The imperial armies were defeated in Waterloo by Great Britain and Prussia. After this, Napoleon abdicated and was sent to the island of Saint Helena
  • Period: to

    The Restoration of absolutism

    The four great powers (Russia, Britain, Prussia and Austria) reshaped the European map to their advantage, but without considering the peoples and their nationalist aspirations.
    France returned to its borders of 1792 and the Napoleonic Empire
    was divided among the victors.
  • Pronunciamiento of Colonel Rafael del Riego

    Pronunciamiento of Colonel Rafael del Riego
    There were liberal pronunciamientos to end absolutism, but the one that succeeded was this one.
    The king was forced to reinstate the Constitution of 1812.
  • Period: to

    Greek War of Independence

    Greece had been part of the Ottoman Empire for centuries. The Greeks felt excluded, so in 1822 they declared independence in Epidaurus, but it wasn't recognised by the Turks, so a war started.
    In 1827, with the help of French and British military intervention, the Greeks defeated the Ottoman Empire. Greece gained its independence in 1830.
  • Holy Alliance Intervention: Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis

    Holy Alliance Intervention: Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis
    Ferdinand VII appealed to the Holy Alliance to send troops to
    defend the absolutism in Spain: the Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis, commanded by Duke of Angoulême, restored absolutism.
  • Abolishment of the Combination Acts

    Abolishment of the Combination Acts
    Repeal of laws prohibiting worker's associations in England.
  • Stephenson's steam locomotive

    Stephenson's steam locomotive
    It ised steam engine to generate continuous motion of the wheels. It could carry more passengers and goods in less time and at a lower cost. This improvement boosted trade and helped create a large domestic market.
  • Revolutions of 1830

    Revolutions of 1830
    The Congress of Vienna did not respect the liberal principles or the nationalist aspirations of some European peoples, and liberalism and nationalism appeared as two opposition forces, making a movement begin.
    It started in France and absolutism was replaced by liberal political systems governed by a constitution in which the bourgeoisie held power.
    Charles X (absolute monarch) was overthrown and substituted by the constitutional monarch Louis Philippe I.
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    The Belgian Revolution

    Belgium was made part of the Kingdom of Holland by the congress of Vienna in 1815, which then became the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
    From 1830 to 1839, and armed conflict followed Belgium's declaration of independence, which was recognised by the Netherlands in 1839, and Belgium became a liberal monarchy ruled by Leopold I.
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    First Carlist War

    It began in the Basque Country lead by the experienced commander Zumalacárregui, who was defetated by the Liberal army of General Espartero. Peace was signed at the Convention of Vergara.
  • Period: to

    Reign of Isabella II

    It had different phases:
    - Regency of Maria Christina (1833-1840)
    - Regency of Espartero (1840-1843)
    - The Moderate Decade (1843- 1854)
    - The Progressive Biennium (1854-1856)
    - The system in decline (1856-1868)
  • Zollverein

    It's a customs union created by Prussia in 1834, that united the majority of Germanic states.
  • Grand National Consolidated Trades Union

    Grand National Consolidated Trades Union
    The trade unions were unions of workers from the same field. The Grand National Consolidated Trades Union brought
    together different types of workers to defend the right of association, improve wages and regulate child labour.
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    German Unification process

    1834: customs union created by Prussia (Zollverein).
    1861: Wilhelm I became king of Prussia and made Otto von Bismarck chancellor.
    Prussia declared war on Denmark (1864), on Austria (1866) and on France (1870).
    1871: Unification of Germany. Second German Empire (Reich)
  • 1837 Constitution

    1837 Constitution
    It was a progressive Constitution that stablished:
    - National sovereignty with census suffrage.
    - Separation of powers.
    - Two chambers: the Congress of Deputies and the Senate.
    - Many rights and individual liberties.
  • 1845 Constitution

    1845 Constitution
    It was a moderate Constitution that stablished:
    - Highly restricted suffrage.
    - Civil liberties: restricted.
    - Sovereignty shared between the Cortes and the Crown.
    - Reorganisation of State and municipal administration. Only
    the Basque Country and Navarre held on their statutory laws.
  • Revolutions of 1848

    Revolutions of 1848
    People lived under the rule of an empire or were fragmented into various states.
    There was a rise of liberalism and a expansion of nationalism, which resulted in the pursuit of independent nations free from the control of absolutist empires.
  • Invention of the Bessemer converter

    Invention of the Bessemer converter
    It made it possible to manufacture steel.
  • Period: to

    Italian Unification process

    In 1859, Piedmont started a unification process. They declared war on Austria and annexed Lombardy, and a popular uprising led by Garibaldi overthrew the absolute monarchies in central and southern Italy.
    In 1861, Victor Manuel II of Savoy was proclaimed king of Italy. In 1866 Austria left Venetia, and in 1870 the Papal States were annexed by Italy.
  • First International

    First International
    The First International of International Workingmen’s
    Association was created at the initiative of Marx in 1864, but the
    ideological differences between Marxists, anarchists and
    trade unions made it unworkable and it split in 1876.
  • Karl Marx published Das Kapital

    Karl Marx published Das Kapital
  • Start of the monarchy of Amadeo of Savoy

    Start of the monarchy of Amadeo of Savoy
    Amadeo of Savoy was chosen to take the throne, supported by progressives, unionists and democrats.
    A few days before its arrival, his main supporter, General Prim, was assassinated.
    - Strong opposition:
    • Moderates
    • Some representatives of the Church loyal to the Bourbons
    • Republicans
  • Proclamation of the First Republic

    Amadeo of Savoy abdicated and the Cortes voted to form a republic. However, most of the deputies were monarchist.
    Lower social classes were happy with the result and the republicans prepared a programme of social and economic reforms.
  • Period: to

    Reign of Alfonso XII

  • Second International

    Second International
    The Second International was founded by Marxist in 1889 to
    coordinate the various socialist parties. There were two established symbols of the labour movement: the anthem “The Internationale” and the International Workers’ Day.