Begoña Otero Feijóo_G&H_4ºC

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In History
  • John Kay's flying shuttle

    John Kay's flying shuttle
    This machine increased the speed of production and made it possible to wave wider fabrics. The mechanisation process began with this invention. It helped a lot the textile industry.
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    First Industrial Revolution (c. 1750 – 1880)

    The Industrial Revolution began in the 18th century in Great Britain, when agricultural societies became more industrialized and urban. The railroad, the cotton gin, the steam power and other inventions permanently changed society. The Industrial Revolution marks a major turning point in history. It also led to an increase in the rate of population growth.
  • James Watt's steam engine

    James Watt's steam engine
    James Watt invented the steam machine, which became the driving force behind industry and transport. The machine uses power from steam to produce a continuous movement.
    The steam power had an important role in textile industry by spinning and weaving and it led to an increase of productivity. Steam engines were also used in agriculture, paper mills and mines.
  • Adam Smith publishes "The Wealth of Nations"

    Adam Smith publishes "The Wealth of Nations"
    The wealth of Nations is a book written by Adam Smith, a Scottish economist, moral philosopher and pioneer of political economy, also well-known as "The Father of Economics" or "The Father of Capitalism". In this book, he introduced his theory of absolute advantage. The main porpuse of it is to offer an alternative to the mercantilist economic system. It is often called the Bible of Capitalism.
  • Invention of the power loom

    Invention of the power loom
    The power loom increased fabric production and lowered its cost. It was created by Edmund Cartwright.
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    Constitutional monarchy

    It was driven by the moderate bourgeoisie and established a liberal monarchy by applying a census sufrage, which meant that only wealthy people(men) had the right to vote. It was based on the separation of powers, nationnal sovereignty and legal equality.
  • Estates-General meeting

    Estates-General meeting
    The Estates-General was a meeting made up of representatives of the nobility, clergy and the Third Estate. The Third Estate refused having to vote per state and they wanted to vote per representative, so they left the meeting becuase the privileged classes didn't agree with them.
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    French Revolution

    It was a social and political conflict with violence that faced the people who liked the Ancien Régie¡me and those who were against it. The bourgeoisie proposed new systems of social organisation and governent and this led to the revolution.
  • Tennis Court Oath (Proclamation of the National Assembly)

    Tennis Court Oath (Proclamation of the National Assembly)
    After the representatives of the Third Estate had left the Estates-General, they met in a tennis court. There, they promised thereselves not to leave the pkace until they established a Constitution. They proclaimed themselves the National Assembly, meaning that they were the representatives of the nation.
  • Storming of the Bastille

    Storming of the Bastille
    People in Paris supported the National Assembly, so they decided to storm the Bastille, which was a political prison which represented the royal authority in Paris. After this, the king Louis XVI accepted the National Assebly, and France became a constitutional monarchy.
  • Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

    Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
    It was a document which recognised the rights, individual freedoms and equality of all citizens in law and taxation.
  • Women's March on Versailles

    Women's March on Versailles
    Women in Paris protested against the shortage of bread and demanded the king sign the decree abolishing manorialism. They were equipped with tools and weapons. Due to this revolution, the king Louis XVI left Versailles and moved to the Tuileries Palace in Paris.
  • First French Constitution

    First French Constitution
    It was the first written constitution in France. It was created after the end of the Ancien Régime by the Natinal Assembly.
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    Girondin Convention

    The Girondin Convention was made by the moderate bourgeosise. The National Assembly was elected by universal male suffrage. The King Louis XVI and Marie Antoniette were executed, and this led to an absolutist coalistion in Europe against revolutionaries, counter revolts in the countryside and royalist plots.
  • War of the First Coalition

    War of the First Coalition
    It is a set of wars in which several European powers fought aganist the constitutional Kingdom of France between 1792 and 1797. Then, the French Republic succeeded it.
  • Storm of Tuileries Palace

    Storm of Tuileries Palace
    The sans-culottes, who were the common people, stormed this palace and imprisoned the royal family. They declared a Republic in France, that is known as the Social Republic.
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    Jacobin Convention

    It was the most radical phase of the Revolution. A new constituion recognised popular sovereignty and right to social equality. The Coitte of Public Safety, which was the executive power, was ruled by Robespierre. A mass levy forced citizens to join the army, the Reign of Terror was imposed and there was no freedom(Law of Suspects). Social laws were imposed to satisfy the sans-culottes such as the Law of Maximum or compulsory education. A coup ended it in 1974.
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    Reign of Terror

    People who were against the government were imprisioned or executed in the guillotine(Law of Suspects). It was imposed to stop conspirators.
  • Execution of Louis XVI

    Execution of Louis XVI
    This event took place during the Girondin Convention. The king Louis XVI was executed by guillotine in the Place de la Revolution in Paris.
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    Consevative Reupublic

    It was the final phase of the revolution. The moderate bourgeoisie cancelled Jacobin laws and drafted the Constitution of 1795 and the executive power was granted to the Directory, a collegial government. In 1799 Napoleon Bonaparte organised a coup that ended the Directory. This marked the end of the French Revolution.
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    The Consulate

    It was a period of autocratic and authoritarian rule where Napoleon was named consul. He put an end to political inestability, consolidated some revolutionary principles and promoted recovery.
  • Coup of 18th Brumaire

    Coup of 18th Brumaire
    Coup organised by Napoleon Bonaparte in the final phase of the Revolution which ended it.
  • Constitution of 1800

    Constitution of 1800
    The Constitution of 1800 was the new political system of the Consulate of Napoleon. It didn't include the separation of powers or a declaration of rights, liberties were limited and public opinion was censured. The state was organised into departments which were run by prefects.
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    Enclosure Acts

    They were a series of laws passed by the British Parliament, which allowed large areas of land and pastures to become private. It benefited big landowners because they produced more and could increase their profits and it had a negative impact on poor farmers due to their lack of resources to enclose land, so they had to sell it. There was a rise in production because of the improvement of farming techniques.
  • Napoleon crowned emperor

    Napoleon crowned emperor
    Napoleon was crowned emperor by the Pope in 1804 in the Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris, during his conquest of Europe.
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    The Napoleonic Empire

    In 1803, Napoleon began the conquest of Europe. In 1804 he was crowned eperor by the Pope and he defeated most of the European monarchies. In 1806 France won over Austria and Russia. In 1808 the French invaded Spain and Joseph Bonaparte was its king. In 1811, France controlled most of Europe.The failure of his invasion of Russia and the revolt in Spain marked his end. In 1815, his armies were defeated in Waterloo by Grat Britain and Prussia, so he abdicated.
  • Treaty of Fontainebleau

    Treaty of Fontainebleau
    It allowed French troops pass trough Spain to invade Portugal, an ally of the British. This happened because Manuel Godoy made an alliance with Napoleon against England, a France's enemy.
  • Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned king

    Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned king
    In 1808, French invaded Spain and Joseph Bonaparte, who was Napoleon's brother, was crowned king of Spain.
  • Abdications of Bayonne

    Napoleon persuaded Charlles IV and Ferdinand VII to give the Spanish crown to his brother, Joseph Bonaparte.
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    War of Independence

    It was a popular revolt which began in 1808 and was caused by the French occcupation in Spain. It happened due to the abdications of Bayonne, where Joseph Bonaparte became king of Spain. Liberals supported him(afrancesados), but most of the population didn't want him to reign(patriots). It had three phases: popular resistance, french offensive and anglo-spanish victories. Finally, in 1813, the French troops withdrew Spain and Ferdinand VII was again king of Spain(Traty of Valencay).
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    Luddite movement (c. 1811-1817)

    The Luddite movement started in England in the early 19th century. The Luddites were the first workers that protested against industrialisation. They believed that the machinery was the main issue and that is was responsible for low wages and unemplyment, so they destroyed it.
  • 1812 Spanish Constitution

    1812 Spanish Constitution
    After the abdicatons of Bayonne, patriots were not happy with a foreign king reigning Spain. In consequence, they created local juntas to represent Spanish people. Then, they created the Central Supreme Junta to coordinate provincial Juntas. This Junta convened the Cortes in Cádiz. They drafted the first spanish Constitution in 1812, which included national sovereignty, separation of powers, universale male suffrage and individual rights. The Ancien Régime was abolished.
  • Treaty of Valencay

    Treaty of Valencay
    After the French were defeated by the spanish troops at the War of Independence, the signed the Treaty of Valencay in 1813. With it, they withdrew of Spain and let Ferdinand VII reign again.
  • Manifiesto de los Persas

    Manifiesto de los Persas
    It established that absolutists supported Ferdinand VII and his reign.
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    The Restoration of absolutism

    The Austrian Chancellor Metternich was its organiser, who wanted to stop liberalism and restore absolutism in Europe in 1814. The Congress of Vienna established some principles: legitimacy of absolute monarchs, denial of national sovereignty, balance of power and the right of intervention. In 1815 was established the Holy Alliance Treaty in which absolute monarchs would be against any threat of liberal revolution.
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    Reign of Ferdinand VII

    After the French troops withdrew Sain, Ferdinand VII returned to Spain. He wanted to re-establish absolutism. Howerver, the fight between absolutism an liberalism will go on, making his aim more difficult. It had three phases: six years of absolutism, the liberal triennium and the ominuous decade.
  • Congress of Vienna and Holy Alliance Treaty

    Congress of Vienna and Holy Alliance Treaty
    The Congress of Vienna was organised to stop the spread of liberal ideas and restore absolutism in Europe between 1814 and 1815. In 1815, the Holy Alliance Treaty was signed, which established that absolute monarchs would unite against any threat of liberal revolution.
  • Battle of Waterloo

    Battle of Waterloo
    In 1815 the imperial armies of Napoleon were defeated in the battle of Waterloo by Great Britain and Prussia.
  • Pronunciamiento of Colonel Rafael del Diego

    Pronunciamiento of Colonel Rafael del Diego
    In the period of six years of absolutism, liberals who wanted a constitutional monarchy organised pronunciaminetos to reinstate the Constitution, but were not succesful. In 1820, the pronunciamiento by Colonel Rafael del Riego was finally succesful and made Ferdinand VII reinstate the Constitution of 1812.
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    Greek War of Independence

    Greece was part of the Ottoman Empire, but they weren't happy because they had to pay taxes, were excluded from st noate administration jobs and felt dominated by people with different cultures. So in 1922, they delcared independence but it wasn't recognised by the Turks and they began a war. In 1827 France and Britain helped them with military intervention and in 1830 Greece finally gained its independence.
  • Holy Alliance intervention: Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis

    Holy Alliance intervention: Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis
    Ferdinand VII asked for help to other European monarchs to get back absolutism in Spain. In 1823, the Holy Alliance, a coalition of European monarchs, sent troops called the Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis that restored absolutism by the Duke of Angouleme.
  • Abolishment of the Combination Acts (1824)

    Abolishment of the Combination Acts (1824)
    The English Combination Acts forbade workers to organize for the purpose of obtaining higher wages or controlling work-place conditions. The acts were repealed in 1824 as the result of a campaign led by the radical London tailor and political agitator Francis Place.
  • Stephenson's Steam locomotive

    Stephenson's Steam locomotive
    The steam locomotive used a steam engine to generate continuous motion of the wheels. It could carry more passengers and goods more quickly and at a lower cost. This machine helped create a large domestic market and boosted trade. It was also used in sailing ships and steamships.
  • Revolutions of 1830

    Revolutions of 1830
    After 1815, liberalism and nationalism became two main opposition forces and that led to the revolutions of 1830. The movement began in France when Charles X was overthrown and Louis Philipe I became the new constitutional monarch. Another revolution also broke out in Poland.
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    The Belgian Revolution

    In 1815, the Congress of Vienna made the kingdom of the Netherlans, which was made up of the Kingdom of Holland and Belgium. An armed conflict folloed after Belgium's declaration of independence. It ended in 1839, when the Netherlands finally recognised the independence of Belgium and it became a liberal monarchy ruled by Leopold I.
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    The Age of the revolutions (1830-1848)

    The revolutions of 1830 and 1848 were caused when liberalism and absolutism became two main opposition forces. These revolutions ended the restoration of absolutims of the Congress of Vienna. They had popular support.
  • Zollverein

    It was a costums union created by Prussia in 1834, that united the majority of Germanic states.
  • Grand National Consolidated Trades Union (1834)

    Grand National Consolidated Trades Union (1834)
    The Grand National Consolidated Trades Union brought together different types of workers. Its objectives were: defend the right of association, reduce the working day, improve wages and regulate child labour.
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    German Unification process

    In 1834, Prussia created a costus union. In 1861, Wilhelm I became king of Prussia and made Otto von Bismarck chancellor. Prussia declared war on Denmark, Austria and France and it won all the wars. In 1871, Germany was unificated and Wilhelm I was emperor of the Second German Empire.
  • Revolutions of 1848

    Revolutions of 1848
    The revolutions of 1848 showed how countries under the control of empires wanted to pursue the idea of nationalism and creation of liberal governments. In the Austrian Empire, the revolt in Vienna had a liberal character. There were also some nationalist uprisings. In France the Secod Republic was proclaimed. These revolutions defended the principle of popular sovereignty by univeral male suffrage.
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    French Second Republic(1848-1852)

    The Second Republic of France was proclaimed by a popular uprising. It adopted democratic measures such as universal male suffrage, press freedom or recognition of rights for workers.
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    Modern History

    It's the main history of the world beginning after the Middle Ages. It includes many important events of history, such as the discovery of America, the Treaty of Utrecht, the Declaration of Independence or the Napoleonic era.
  • Invention of the Bessemer Converter

    Invention of the Bessemer Converter
    With this invention steel could be manufactured. It was a flexible material, perfect for constructing machinery, tools, buildings and public works.
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    Italian Unification process

    In 1859, Piedmont-Sardinia started a unification process. They declared war to Austria and annexed Lombardy. In 1861, Victor Manuel II of Savoy was made king of Italy. In 1871, the Papal States were annexed by Italy and established its capital in Rome.
  • First International (1864)

    First International (1864)
    The First International was created at the iniative of Marx in 1864. It was an international organisation which aimed to unite a variety of different socialist, communist and anarchist groups and trade unions that were based on the working class and class struggle. However, the ideological differences made it complicated and it split in 1876.
  • Karl Marx publishes Das Kapital (1867)

    Karl Marx publishes Das Kapital (1867)
    Das Kapital is a is a theoretical text in materialist philosophy, economics and politics by Karl Marx. Marx aimed to reveal the economic patterns underpinning the capitalist mode of production in contrast to classical political economists such as Adam Smith. It's the most cited book in the social sciences published before 1950.
  • Second International (1889)

    Second International (1889)
    The Second International was founded by Marxist in 1889 to
    coordinate the various socialist parties. It continued the work of the dissolved First International but excluded the powerful anarcho-syndicalist movement and trade unions. In 1922 it began to reorganise into the Labour and Socialist International.
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    Contemporary History

    It's a period of the history which starts in 1945, including the Cold War. Some relevant events that mark this period of time are the revolutions of 1989, the dissolution of the Sovietic Union and the importance of the technological, political and scientific progress. People nowadays are living the contemporary history.
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    Social Republic

    It was ruled by the moderate and the radical bourgeoisie(Girondists and Jacobins). The sans-culottes or comon people stormed the Tuileries Palace in 1792 and imprisoned the royal family. They declared a republic and the second phase of the Revolution began.