AP Euro: French Revolution

  • Accession of Louis XVI

    Accession of Louis XVI
    Louis Auguste became Louis XVI at the young age of 20 after the death of his grandfather Louis XV. He would be fairly weak and contribute to France's decline and the French Revolution through his decisions.
  • American Declaration of Independence

    American Declaration of Independence
    Declaring America's Independence from Britain would mark the beginning of a series of revolutions and wars that would weaken Britain and establish the colonies as a power in the Western World. British influence would decrease and European hold on the New World would steadily decline after. Signaled to the French the Revolution is an option, contributing to the rise in demands for change seen in the French.
  • Meeting of Estates General

    Meeting of Estates General
    Louis XVI called a meeting of the Estates General due to financial problems. Ended when the Third Estate formed into the National Assembly along with people of the other estates. Signaled the beginning of the French Revolution.
  • National Assembly

    National Assembly
    The revolutionary assembly formed by representatives of the Third Estate. It demanded that the king make economic reforms to ensure people could eat.
  • Tennis Court Oath

    Tennis Court Oath
    The National Assembly was locked out form their meeting area. As a result, they would meet in a tennis court and take an oath to not break up until they had a constitution.
  • Storming of the Bastille

    Storming of the Bastille
    A group of peasants attacked the Bastille to secure fire arms and ammunition. Signaled that the French Revolution was beginning. Became a symbol that any citizen could rise against the monarchy and form a resistance.
  • Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen Adopted

    Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen Adopted
    Written by the National Assembly. It granted freedom of religion and press, tax equality, and equality before law. Would influence modern French Government and would bring France into its modern age.
  • Women's March on Versailles

    Women's March on Versailles
    Parisian women rioted over the rising price of bread. The women demanded that the national assembly take action. They would turn to the king, breaking into Versailles and demanding Louis XVI return to Paris. This would mark the change of power in France and signal the social and political reforms about to overtake France.
  • Declaration of Pillnitz

    Declaration of Pillnitz
    Emperor Leopold II of Austria, afraid other countries would follow France and begin revolutions, issued this inviting other monarchs to intervene on behalf of Louis XVI. Helped to balance the powers.
  • A Vindication of the Rights of Women

    A Vindication of the Rights of Women
    Outlined the Declaration of Rights of Man and the Citizen, adding woman's rights too. Emphasized the importance of the equality of education for women. Improved relations between women and man and sparked feminism and the rise of equality.
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    Paris Commune

    Established by a group of French Radical patriots who refused to give up in the Franco-Prussian War, and wanted to independently rule Paris. Established multiple radical ideas of the French Revolution.
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    Sans-culottes

    A radical group made up of Parisian wage-earners and small shopkeepers who wanted a greater voice in government, lower prices, and an end of food shortages. Provided the principal support behind more radical and anti-bourgeoisie factions of the Paris Commune.
  • September Massacres

    September Massacres
    Massacres that followed Louis XVI's imprisonment. Wild stories and rumors spread with the cities, resulting in crowds invading prisons of Paris, slaughtering many of the women and men found.
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    Creation of the Republic

    Founded by a newly established National convention. Saw many manifestations of power including the National Convention, The Committee of Public Safety, and was the period in which the Reign of Terror and Thermidorean Reaction. Ended with the Rise and crowning of Napoleon Bonaparte.
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    Committee of Public Safety

    Political body in France that provided defense for the nation against its foreign and domestic enemies and to oversee the other parts of France's executive government. Ensured the revolution was safe and would not be stopped by any means, stopping any person who seemed suspicious of treason from entering France.
  • Execution of Louis XVI

    Execution of Louis XVI
    Took place at the Place de la Revolution in Paris. Louis XVI would be executed by the guillotine. His execution would allow the French Republic to flourish and eventually give way for the rise of Napoleon Bonaparte, changing France and the rest of Europe.
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    Reign of Terror/Robespierre

    Began with a declaration by Robespierre that Terror would be "the order of the day." It would not end until Robespierre was removed and executed. It allowed France to be ruled by the Committee of Public Safety, directly supporting them and the Revolution.
  • Marie Antoinette executed

    Marie Antoinette executed
    Marie was executed months after her husband, being accused treason, theft, and sexual abuse against her son. She would be executed by the guillotine. This would mark the end of monarchs of France for the time as both king and queen were executed. Ensured no monarch would rule over the republic.
  • Jacobins vs Girondins

    Jacobins vs Girondins
    Fought between many political and social issues, believing in separate ideas. Both groups were very radical, ultimately ending in the Jacobins rise to power and Louis XVI being executed for treason. This would emphasis the importance of the individual and the people.
  • Thermidorian Reaction

    Thermidorian Reaction
    A liberal-conservative counter-revolution that followed after the overthrowing of Robespierre. It purged the government of Jacobin influence and attempted to restore some values of 1789.
  • Robespierre executed

    Robespierre executed
    Robespierre would be executed by the revolutionary leaders as he had ruled harshly and they had enough of the Terror. They turned on him, arresting him and his supporters, executing all of them by guillotine, marking the end of the Terror.
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    War of the 2nd Coalition

    Brought about when Napoleon tried to break the alliance between the European powers. Treaty of Amiens ended the war, bring peace and re-balancing the powers in Europe. Results in Austria's loss of its Italian possessions, weakening Austrian influence and confirmed French territorial gain.
  • Coup d'etat (of Brumaire)

    Coup d'etat (of Brumaire)
    A sudden, violent, and illegal seizure of power from the government, overthrowing an existing government by non-democratic means. This Coup brought Napoleon Bonaparte to power, changing France and Europe and re balancing powers under Napoleon.
  • Concordat of 1801

    Concordat of 1801
    An agreement between Pope Pius VII and Napoleon. It healed the religious divisions in France by giving the French Catholics free practice of their religion and Napoleon political Power. Solidified the Roman Catholic Church and revived antiquity.
  • Napoleonic Code

    Napoleonic Code
    Civil Code made by Napoleon. Centralized the disorganized body of French laws, safeguarded property rights, and upheld conservative attitudes towards women and labor organizations.
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    Confederation of the Rhine

    Napoleon formed this from a league of around 20 princes. Each was sovereign and included the Kingdoms of Saxony, Bavaria, Wurtemburg, and Westphalia. Created as a buffer against future aggression's from Austria, Russia, or Prussia against France, ensuring France and Napoleon's safety from foreign enemies.
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    Continental System

    Napoleon's policy of preventing trade between Great Britain and Continental Europe, intending to destroy Great Britain's economy. It instead hurt Continental Europe as Britain could still trade with the Americas. British would blockade European ports and cause inflation on the continent.
  • Treaty of Tlisit

    Treaty of Tlisit
    Napoleon and Tsar Alexander I signed this treaty, confirming France's gains. The Prussian state was reduced to half its previous size. Prussia and Russia would become allies of Napoleon against Britain. Rendered the rest of continental Europe almost powerless.
  • Russian Campaign

    Russian Campaign
    Napoleon's grand army crossed the Neman River in an attempt to engage and defeat the Russian Army. Napoleon hoped to have Tsar Alexander I of Russia to cease trade with Britain to pressure the UK. He also wished to liberate Poland from the threat of Russia. Led to the fall of Napoleon and the French empire in the 1800s.
  • Waterloo

    Waterloo
    Napoleon's last battle. His defeat put a final end to his rule, being a decisive victory for the coalition. Marked the end of the reign of Napoleon and would change the rest of Europe after his fall.