Socis 2.0

Ancient Régime and the Enlightenment

  • Baroque art in Spain

    In Spain during the 17th and early 18th centuries, the Baroque period is known as the Golden Age due to its outstanding works in art and literature.
    In architecture the ornate style of Salamanca's Plaza Mayor is a particular highlight.
    Sculpture became an important part of the Holy-Week processions.
    Paintings usually depicted the same subjects as in other Catholic countries.
    Diego Velázquez and Bartolomé Esteban Murillo were important Spanish Baroque painters.
  • 17th-century society in Spain

    American markets had stopped buying Spanish products due to agriculture in these colonies becoming more self-sufficient.
    Spanish craftsmen could not compete with products made in other countries because the monarch did not protect them.
    The number of people entering the clergy increased, since this was a way to survive during the crisis.
    The commercial bourgeoisie was small and insignificant. The petite bourgeoisie and the peasantry became poorer.
    Spain experienced severe demographic problems.
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    Carlos II

    Carlos II (6 November 1661 – 1 November 1700), was the last Habsburg ruler of the Spanish Empire. He is now best remembered for his physical disabilities, and the war for his throne that followed his death.
    He died childless in 1700 with no immediate Habsburg heir. His will named his successor as 16-year-old Philip of Anjou, grandson of Louis XIV and Charles's half-sister Maria Theresa. Disputes over the inheritance led to the War of the Spanish Succession.
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    Peter the Great of Russia's reign

    He wanted to modernize Russia in an absolutist way. For example, he wanted militars to shave their beards. As a consequence, he introduce the long-beards tax
  • Economic changes in the 18th century in Spain

    The reforms introduced by enlightened monarchs led to important changes in all sectors of the economy.
    Harvests improved for a number of reasons and craft production increased because population growth caused an increase in demand for many consumer goods. The guilds also had to compete with new systems of production.
    The domestic system of production became more important. Peasants made products in their own homes and sold them to merchants.
    Royal manufacturers produced luxury goods.
  • 18th-century society in Spain

    The population of Europe increased steadily. This was due to factors that reduced mortality.
    The nobility and the clergy were opposed to any changes that would reduce their dominance. Enlightened despots criticised the economic power of these groups and introduced measures to limit it. They confiscated some church property and reduced the number of convents.
    Peasants' living conditions didn't improve, in spite of agricultural reforms. Some peasants had to work in the domestic system.
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    The great Northern War

    It was a military conflict in which Russia, Dennmark-Norway and Saxony-Poland allied to defeat Sweeden in the Baltic sea. The war ended up in a swedish declin the rise of Russia's power in the region.
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    The Bourbon reforms

    The Bourbons adopted measures to achieve administrative uniformity throughout Spain.
    In central government, ministries were created, the various cortes were unified into a single body and Castilla's laws were imposed on Aragón as punishment for not supporting Felipe V in the war. In regional government, Spain was divided into provinces and the intendant was introduced. And in the local government, a new tax was introduced i Aragón and the corregidor was introduced to the municipalities.
  • Philip of Anjou

    He was King of Spain from 1 November 1700 to 14 January 1724, and from 6 September 1724 to 9 July 1746.
    Carlos II named him as his successor to the Spanish throne. He was from the Bourbon dynasty and he was a grandson of Louis XIV. Before his reign, Philip occupied an exalted place in the royal family of France.
    His accession in Spain provoked the War of the Spanish Succession, which continued until the Treaty of Utrecht. The sum of his 2 reigns, is the longest in modern Spanish history.
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    War of the Spanish Succession

    It was a European conflict triggered by the death of the childless Charles II.
    Charles bequeathed an undivided Monarchy of Spain to Philip, who was proclaimed King of Spain. Disputes over territorial and commercial rights led to war between the Bourbons of France and Spain and the Grand Alliance.
    The war was fought to prevent union of Spain with either Austria or France. Dependence on British subsidies forced their allies to agree the Treaties of Utrecht, Rastatt and Baden.
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    Treaty of Utrecht

    The Treaty of Utrecht was a series of individual peace treaties. It helped end the War of the Spanish Succession. The treaty stated that the Spanish and French Crowns should never be united. This was to make peace in Europe and preventing France in particular from uniting and dominating.
    The treaty made Philip V, King of Spain.
    It stated that Britain should have Gibraltar, Minorca, Hudson Bay, Nova Scotia and Newfoundland and Austria acquired Milan, Naples, and the Spanish Netherlands.
  • Treaty of Rastatt

    It was a peace treaty between France and Austria, to put an end to the war between them from the War of the Spanish Succession. The treaty followed the earlier Treaty of Utrecht, which ended hostilities between France and Spain, on the one hand, and Britain and the Dutch Republic, on the other hand.
    It was negotiated by Marshal of France, Claude Louis Hector de Villars and the Austrian prince, Prince Eugene of Savoy.
    The Rastatt Treaty is associated with changes in European politics.
  • Peace of Nystad

    Peace of Nystad
    Russia kept Livonia, Estonia, Ingria and part of Carelia as well as many of the Baltic islands. Finlnad was restored to Sweden, and the Russians agreed to pay Sweden an indemnity. The Treaty confirmed Russias rise as a major European power, and marked the final decline of Sweden as a great power. It also confirmed Russia's control of the Baltic sea. In the picture are shown the countries led by Sweeden (yellow) to Russia (green) due to this treaty
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    Frederick II of Prussia's reign

    Frederick II was the third king of Prussia. As an Enlightened despot, he approved tolerant laws such as letting non-aristocrats vote. Furthermore, he eded with the press censorship.
  • Silesia's seize

    Silesia's seize
    Frederick invaded Silesia, one of the richest Hapsburg provinces. This was the trigger of the Austrian's succesion war.
  • The encyclopedia

    It summarised knowledge from many areas of study in alphabetic order. The first was published in France between 1751 and 1772. It was edited by Denis Diderot and until 1759, co-edited by D´Alembert.
  • Charles-Louis MONTESQUIEU

    18 January 1689 - 10 February 1755
    He was a French political philosopher. He is famous for his theory of separation of powers, this was that, state´s goverment was divided into three branches: legislature, executive and judiciary, and each one had to be represented by different people, this means, that each had to be separated from the others so that, powers of one branch were not in conflict with powers associated with the other branches.
  • Catherine the Great's coup d'état

    Catherine the Great's coup d'état
    This all started when one of Catherine's co-conspirators was imprisoned by her husband. As a consequence, she asked the russian military forces for help and they all made a coup d'état. She ended up arresting her husband and forcing him to abdicate.
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    Catherine the Great's reign

    She was a Prussian princess from the dynasty of Anhalt-Zerbst. She overthrew her husband due to a coup d'état she organised. Although having Russia's absolute power, she spread the european judicial, political and moral philosophy among the country. Moreover, she communicated with Voltaire, one of the main figures of the Enlightenment
  • François-Marie VOLTAIRE

    21 november 1694 - 30 may 1778
    He was a french enlightenment writer, writer and philosopher.
    He is famous because he created the freedom of speech, this was that everyone could said their opinion and ideas without fear of retalation or legal sanction
  • Jean-Jacques Rousseau

    28 June 1712 - 2 July 1778
    He was a genevan philosopher, writer and composer. His political philosophy influenced the progress of the Enlightenment. His introduced the idea of popular sovereignty, means, power resided with the people rather than the crown, and that politics should be bases on agreement between the citizens and the goverment. Also the Social Contract, was the theory of the authority of the state over the individual, surrender some of their freedoms and submit to authority.
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    Joseph II of Austria's reign

    He was from the House of Lorraine and he ruled the Hapsburg Lands. On the one hand, he was an art's supporter, specially of the composers Mozart and Saleri. On the other hand, he censored the press. He is considered one of the three most important Enlightened despots.
  • FIirst Meeting of Assembly

    FIirst Meeting of Assembly
    This was the first meeting of the representatives of the Estates-General in 175 years. This took place in Versailles and was held by Louis XVI.
  • National Assembly Created

    National Assembly Created
    The Third Estate Delegates got into the meeting because they wanted to change the government structure, They then voted to establish the National Assembly. This happend because the third estate declared themselves the National Assembly in the tennis court and signed the oath.
  • Storming the Battle

    Storming the Battle
    A mob searching for gunpowder and arms stormed the Bastille which is a Paris prison. The angry attackers hacked the prison commander and some guards to their death. Then they paraded around the streets with the deads man heads on pikes. The fall Bastille became a great symbolic act of revolution to the French people.
  • Assembly Refromes France

    Assembly Refromes France
    Noble men made grand speeches, declaring their love of liberty and equality. They were motivated more by fear than by idealism and they joined other members of the National Assembly. Together they sweep away the feudal privileges of the first and second Estates
  • Declaration of Rights of Man & Citizens

    Declaration of Rights of Man & Citizens
    French National Assembly issues "Declaration of Rights of Man & Citizen." This was a document of the FRench Revolution that was influences by the doctrine of 'natural rights.'
  • Parisian Women Rebellion over Bread

    Parisian Women Rebellion over Bread
    Thousands of Parisian women rioted over the rising price of bread. Then they turned their anger on the king and queen. Brandishing Knives, axes, and other weapons, the women marched on Versailles. Breaking into the palace, they killed some of the guards. They demanded on the queen and king to come back to Paris and Louise agreed
  • France is Divided (Year of 1790)

    France is Divided (Year of 1790)
    France was divided into 83 departments, which cut across the former provinces in an attempt to dislodge regional loyalties. They did this based on noble ownership of land. The Assembly took over church lands and declared that church officials and priests were to be elected and paid as state officials
  • Royal Flight to Verennes (Not a specific day)

    The kings family was very scared about the ongoing revolution and realized that there was no way to stop it from abrupting. Feering for himself and his family, he decided to flee Paris to the Austrian border. King Louis XVI then was caught trying to escape the French Revolution with his family. His attempt was a failure as they did get cought
  • King Adresses Assembly (there is no specific day)

    King Adresses Assembly (there is no specific day)
    The National Assembly completed the new constitution, which Louis approved. This was the first written constitution of France which was created before the collapse of the absolute monarchy. The king adressed the assembly and recieved applause from the members
  • Monarchy Abolishment in France

    Monarchy Abolishment in France
    The new governing body, the National Convention, took office. It abolished the monarchy and declared France republic. Adult male citizens were granted the right to vote and hold office. Despite the important part they had already played in the Revoluion, women were not given vote.
  • Principles of Enlightenment

    Learning and teaching were essencial, the education was the best source for the human progress. This is why this period is called Enlightment, because they wanted to ``enlight´´ society.
    The reason was the only source of knowledge, instead of beliefs.
    Science and technological progress helped to economic growth and improved people´s wellbeing.
    Equality and liberty were crucial. Enlightened thinkers believed the society would be better if all the population were free and equal before the law.